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					English Literature
张兰珍

What is literature?
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Love Happiness The plain truth is that literature may never make you richer in the pocket, but it will certainly make you richer in the mind. For it multiplies the necessarily limited experience of the individual life, and it deepens understanding of others and of self. It is a source of interest and pleasure when other sources fail. And it creates a store of wisdom which can become a reservoir of strength.

What is literature?
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writing Good writing Something has a truth to tell about people and their world, and tells that truth in a way which compels the sensitive reader to relive the writer’s experience with his own mind and emotions.

What is literature?
1.Content: meaning derived from a writer’s experience and observation and the thoughts and feeling he has about them. 2.Form: the shape of the thought, the feeling, or the action---of the principal content. (selection)

What is literature?
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3. Style: the writer’s way of saying things, and is hardly separable from either form or content. Style is restraint or ebullience. So style is man speaking. 4. Tone: the reflection of mood or attitude to subject.

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Appreciaiting Poetry
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novel drama

novelist dramatist/playwright

chapter act/scene

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prose/essay

essayist

paragraph

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poem/poetry/verse
poet stanza

Among the four forms which one will have to be learnt first? Why?
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Poetry first. Reasons:
(1). Poetry is almost as old as language itself, in another word, poetry is the oldest form of literature.

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Among the four forms which one will have to be learnt first? Why?
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(2)Poetry has sometimes been the form in which the history was preserved the earliest written record of history - 750 BC word-to-word or oral history in about 1250BC, the Trojan War Homer “The Iliad” “The Odyssey”

Among the four forms which one will have to be learnt first? Why?
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(3). The time the four forms appeared in English history
A) Poetry B) Drama (the 14th century) (Miracle play;Morality play;Interlude;Classical drama) C) Prose (the 16th century) D) Novel (the 18th century)

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Why is poetry felt and believed to be hard to understand?
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It has its own uniqueness (1). Its ability to say a great deal in a short space. (2). Its ability to make words mean more than they do in ordinary communication.

The technique of a poem
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(1). rhyme: the repetition of sounds of importantly positioned words in a poem (2). rhythm: a pattern of stresses and pauses linking the words into a unit

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The technique of a poem
(3). meter: the regular pattern of stressed and
unstressed sounds in a poem “/” for a strong /stressed syllable “-” for a weak/unstressed syllable The word “meter” comes from the Latin term for “measure”, and the unit of measurement in a poetic line is the foot, consisting of two or three syllables, one or two of which are stressed.

eight kinds of foot:
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monometer dimeter trimeter tetrameter pentameter hexameter heptameter octameter

the six most usual metres
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Iambus (-/ ) Trochee (/- ) Anapaest (--/) Dactyl (/--) Amphibrach (-/-) Spondee (// )

The sixteenth century
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English Renaissance (1) religious reformation (2) the Enclosure Movement (3) the Commercial Expansion (4) the War with Spain

English Renaissance
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Feature(1): a thirsty curiosity for the classical literature Feature(2): the keen interest in the activities of humanity

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Humanism: It reflected the new outlook of the rising bourgeois class. According to them, both man and world are hindered only by external checks from infinite improvement. Man could mould the world according to his desires, and attain happiness by removing all external checks by the exercise of reason.

English Renaissance
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Poetry: E. Spenser (the “poet’s poet”): “The Faerie Queen” Essay: F. Bacon (the 1st English essayist): “Essays” (1597) Drama: C. Marlowe (University Wits): “Doctor Faustus”

William Shakespeare
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154 sonnets; 37 plays (1) 1590-1594 Romeo and Juliet (2) 1595-1600 The Merchant of Venice (3) 1601-1607 Hamlet; Othello; King Lear; Macbeth (4) 1608-1612 The Winter’s Tale; The Tempest

William Shakespeare
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(1) Shakespeare is one of the founders of realism in world literature. Engels: Realism implies, besides truth in detail, the truthful reproduction of typical characters under typical circumstance.

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(2) Shakespeare’s dramatic creation often used the method of adaptation. He borrowed his plots widely from Greek legends and Roman history, from Italian stories and English chronicles, and from romances by his English contemporaries.

William Shakespeare
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(3) Shakespeare’s long experience with the stage and his intimate knowledge of dramatic art thus acquired make him a master-hand for play-writing. (4) Shakespeare was skilled in many poetic forms: the Song; the sonnet; the couplet; the dramatic bland verse.

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William Shakespeare
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(5) Shakespeare was a great master of the language. He commanded a vocabulary larger than any other English writer. He used about 16,000 words. Many of his new coinages and turns of expression have become everyday usage in English life. Shakespeare and the Authorized Version of the English Bible are the two great treasuries of the English language. Shakespeare has been universally acknowledged to be the summit of the English renaissance, and one of the greatest writers the world over.

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Sonnet
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(1). division Italian or Petrarchan Sonnet (after Petrarch, the Italian Renaissance poet) English or Shakespearean Sonnet
(2). Structure an octave (8) and a sestet (6) three quatrains and a rhymed couplet

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Sonnet
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(3). rhyme scheme abba,abba, cde,cde abab,cdcd, efef,gg

Francis Bacon: Of Studies
Bacon’s works (now 58 essays) may be divided into three classes:
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the philosophical works: Advancement of Learning (1605) the literary works: Essays( 1597)

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the professional works: Marxism of the Law

Various subjects
some quite general like those “Of Truth” ,“Of Death”;
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some on questions of individual behavior: “Of Revenge”; many on problems of statesmanship: “Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms and Estates”

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Essay
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The word “essay” is French in origin. It was borrowed from Montaigne, a French writer, who referred to his book of short prose pieces as attempts, essais, to express himself.

Of Studies
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(1) the use and abuse of studies

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(2) the proper and improper ways to pursue one’s studies
(3) the effect of the different kinds of studies upon human character

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two chief distinguishing features
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(1) conciseness of expression (2) simplicity of diction

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The 17th century:
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Revolution and Restoration
John Milton (Paradise Lost) John Bunyan (The Pilgrim’s Progress) John Dryden

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Paradise Lost
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God Satan Adam and Eve

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The Garden of Eden

The 18th century
The enlightenment (the beginning)  An expression of struggle of the bourgeoisie against feudalism  (1) to fight against class inequality, …  (2) to spread scientific ideas  Representatives: Joseph Addison and Steele (the essayists); Alexander Pope (the poet)

The 18th century
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Sentimentalism (the middle) It appeared as a result of a bitter discontent among the enlightened people with society reality.
(1)continue to fight against feudalism (2)sense the contradictions

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The 18th century
Pre-Romanticism (the latter half )  Characteristics: (1)a strong protest against classicism
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(2)the claim of passion and emotion

(3)a renewed interest in medieval literature

Representatives (poetry):
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William Blake (a fore-runner) “Songs of Innocence” “Songs of Experience” Robert Burns Songs of love (A Red, Red Rose) Songs of friendship (Auld Lang Syne)

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Samuel Johnson (lexicographer, critic and poet) (essay)
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Dictionary (1).It marked an epoch in the study of the English language. (2). It also marked the end of English writers’ reliance on the patronage of noblemen for financial support. (3). The letter was the writers’ declaration of independence, signifying the opening of a new era in the development of literature.

The 18th century (novel)
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H.Fielding (father of English novels): “Tom Johns” D.Defoe (one of the forerunners): “Robinson Crusoe” J. Swift: “Gulluver’s Travels” S. Richardson: “Pamela”, “Clarissa” The 18th century was the golden age of the English novel.

Robinson Crusoe
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The best part is the realistic account of the successful struggle of R. alone against the pitiless forces of nature on the island. Defoe glorifies human labour which saves R. from despair and is a source of pride and happiness. There is colonization in germ.

Robinson Crusoe
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“I consulted several things in my situation,… to banish all my expectation yet.” What do you think of the four things Crusoe mentioned here? They are all very important. He is now faced with the problems of how to survive and how to be rescued. (1) Fresh and health water is indispensable to a man. (2) A shelter not only keeps off the sun, the wind and the rain but also gives him security and a sense of home. It also enables him to live like a civilized man. (3)In order to be rescued, he needs a view to the sea so that he can spot the ships passing the island by chance.

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Robinson Crusoe
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“After I had been there about ten or twelve days…and yearly reckoning of time.” What do you think of Clare’s way of reckoning time? What is the importance of doing it? clever and creative: It can be seen as part of his efforts to organize a civilize life on the island. Sense of time is important in recalling past events and making plans for the future. Without a means to reckon time, he wouldn’t even tell workdays from Sunday. And wouldn’t be able to know when to pray.

Pamela
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The story is told in a series of letters from the heroin Pamela. It was a new thing in three ways: It pictured the life and love of ordinary people. It afforded enterment and moral instruction. It described the secret thoughts and feelings. So it was the first English psycho-analytical novel.

Pamela
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R. “had enlarged the knowledge of human nature”. His main achievement as a novelist lies in his technique to show characters as personalities, thinking and feeling for themselves with the author himself absent from the stage, refusing to intervene in the action. His influence could be traces in the works of such novelists as Henry James, James Joyce and Virginia Woolf.

The 19th century (Romanticism)
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Poems: Generally speaking, the romanticists expressed the ideology and sentiment of those classes and social strata who were discontent with, and opposed to, the development of capitalism. For different political attitudes they split into two schools.

The 19th century (Romanticism)
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The elder group (the Lake Poets) Wordsworth; Coleridge; Southry (The publication of the “Lyrical Ballads” jointly created by W. and C. marked the break with the conventional poetical tradition of the 18th century or classicism, and the beginning of the Romantic revival in England.)

The 19th century (Romanticism)
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The younger group Byron (Don Juan) Shelley (Prometheus Unbound; Ode to the West Wind)

Keats (Ode to a Nightingale)

The 19th century (essay)
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Lamb: “Essays of Elia” (The most striking feature of L’s essays is his humour. ) Hazlitt: “On reading Old Books” (H. is one of the representatives of Romantic criticism.) Leigh Hunt: “Table Talk” (another representative writer of the r. school)

The 19th century (novel)
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Walter Scott: “Rob Roy” He has been unversilly regarded as the founder and great master of the historical novel. Scott’s literary career marks the transition from romanticism to realism in English literature of the 19th century.

The 19th century
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1.From the 30s of the 19th century, the struggle between the workers and capitalists became the fundamental contradiction in English social life. 2. The British bourgeoisie strengthened its policy of colonial expansion in the world. Chartism (1836) (Lenin)

The 19th century (novel)
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Critical realism C. Dickens W.M.Thackeray

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The style: humour ( the positive chatacters) and satire ( the negative characters)

The 19th century (novel)
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The weakness of critical realism The critical realists did not find a way to eradicate social evils. They did not realize the necessity of changing the bourgeois society. They were unable to find a good solution to the social contradictions. They often start with a powerful exposure of the ugliness of the bourgeios world, merely to close in a much too coindicental happy ending or an impotent compromise.

C. Dickens
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The first period: “Sketches by Boz”; “The Pickwick Papers”; “Oliver Twist” The second period: “American Notes”; “Dombey and Son”; “David Copperfield” The third period: “Hard Times”; “A Tale of Two Cities”; “Great Expectations”

Great Expectations
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Explain the title The great expectations designed for Pip were that he was to be sent to London and be educated into a gentleman with financial aid from a mysterious benefactor. But Pip misinterpreted them, thinking that Havisham was his benefactor and that her adopted was intended for him. Ironically it turned out that the convict was his real benefactor.

Great Expectations
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“The man, after looking at me,…, ate the bread ravenously.” What was the convict’s purpose in turning Pip upside down? (1).to search his pockets to see if he could get something to eat; (2).to frighten the boy to order him to do as what he would be asked

what was the symbolic meaning of this action?
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When Pip was turned upside down, he found the church was also upside down. Since the church is a holy place and represents moral values, the convict’s action here has got a symbolic meaning. In his search for the truth of his benefactor, Pip’s moral values and his relations with other people were continuously to be turned upside down.

Discuss the implied meaning of the beacon and the gibbet
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As imageries they both create a bloomy and dreadful atmosphere. They are also used as symbols, foreshadowing the development of later events in the novel. Out of use, the beacon can’t give guidance. In his search of the truth about his benefactor, Pip’s moral values and his relations with other people are continuously to be turned upside down. Until his real benefactor comes to him in person he has been sailing on a ship without the guidance of a beacon. The gibbet is suggestive of the convict’s tragic death.

How did Pip’s great expectations turn out to be an irony?
Pip’s moral values and his relation with other people were turned upside down after he was informed of his great expectations. And he misunderstood his great expectations, thinking Miss Havisham was his benefactor. He was only a snob when he was supposed to be in great expectations. But he acted as a gentleman when he owned nothing.

Pride and Prejudice
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Explain the meaning of the title in relation to the main plot of the novel. The title is well chosen with pride representing Darcy and prejudice Elizabeth. It is also closely related to the main plot of the novel: the love affair between the two chief misunderstandings and disagreement. But when improvement was made in their manner, they were finally united in marriage.

What kind of marriage was Mr. and Mrs. Bennets? Was Mrs. Bennet laughable for her concern with her daughters?
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Not based on real affection and mutual respect, their marriage was a complete failure. The two of them were opposed to each other in their characteristics. It was a tragedy that 23 years of married life was not long enough for them to understand each other. Mrs. Bennet was not to blame for this. Influenced by the social conventions, she had to think of her daughters’ interests and try to marry them off to some wealthy gentlemen.

Jane Eyre
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What was Mr. Rochester’s state of mind after his offer of marriage was accepted by Jane Eyre? (1).Happy:
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He would soon have her as his wife. Jane was the type of woman he loved and admires because Jane was his likeness and his equal. She was dignified and noble-minded, a true lady at heart though plain, poor and obscure. She was witty. They could understand each other without words. Her love for him was true and deep. Jane would make him happy and change his life completely because he had not really had a wife; his first marriage was a disaster; he lived a sinful life, seeking pleasure elsewhere after he was separated from his wife, and he wanted to settle.

Jane Eyre
(2).Worried:
His wife was a barrier standing between him and Jane. His wife’s relatives might interfere when his plan was made known. He was afraid the God might punish him for his immorality and he would commit bigamy(重婚) if married again.
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(3).He tried to defend himself. It was not just for him own sake but for the sake of Jane that he decided to marry Jane. Jane was poor and small, friendless and comfortless. He would make her happy and protect her. His love was true, sincere, consistent and resolved.

The importance of the image of the chestnut tree
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(1). It, just like any other tree, is a symbol of life. (2). It is suggestive/representative of the relations between Jane and Rochester. (3). It was struck by lightening the very night Jane accepted Rochester’s proposal. It served as a timely warning to Rochester by God.

The importance of the image of the chestnut tree
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(4). The burnt tree was an ill omen, foreshadowing the failure of the wedding ceremony and separation and injury of Rochester. (5). It was not dead. There was still life in it. That implies there was still the possibility of the reunion (also the restoring of Rochester’s eyesight and Jane’s giving birth to a child). (6). The fire symbol, both punishment and purification.

The various stages of Jane’s development
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(1). Gateshed Hall: (childhood) chapter 1-4 10 years (2). Lowood School (girlhood) chapter 5-10 8 (3). Thornfield Hall (adolescence) 11-27 (4). Marsh End (maturity) 28-35 (5). Ferndean (fulfillment in marriage) 36-38

The arrangements of the seasons:
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(1). Jane left for Lowood on a cold rainy winter day in Jan. 19. (2). Jane went to Thornfield in Oct. Jane first met Rochester in June on the road. (3). Rochester made proposal to Jane in June. Jane left Thornfield in summer (4). Jane left Marsh End in June (St.John proposed to Jane in May.).

The arrangements of the seasons:
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Spring : Summer: Autumn: Winter:

comedy; romance; tragedy; irony.

Tess of d’Urbervelles
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What do you think is the meaning suggested by the cow and horse tracks with reflections of stars in the sky? The cow and horse tracks filled with rain water are referred to as “objects so mean”. And accidentally the shining stars are reflected in them. The minute descriptions here imply the conventional view of Tess on the one hand and reveal the author’s idea of fatalism on the other.

Analyze Tess’s state of mind when she was confessing to her husband about her affair with Alec
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Tess’s state of mind was very mixed. Out of her true love for and deep trust in her husband, she gave a detailed account of her affair with Alec. She did not say a word to shake off her own responsibility. And she hoped her husband would forgive her. Throughout her confession she was trying hard to control her feeling, as she did not want to spoil their wedding night and the New Year’s Eve.

Sons and Lovers
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A brief comment on Sons and Lovers
(1) Like most of Lawrence's novels, it is also set in Nottinghamshire, the middle countries of England. Nor of a coal miner himself, L had a rare gift of seeing the working people from within, and revealing them on their own plane. He knew the miners, their wives, the crumpled houses, the huddled life, the cruelties and debasements and the smell of the slag heaps. He was, so to speak, an interpreter of the people to whom he belonged.

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Sons and Lovers
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(2) It is the most autobiographical of all his novels. The first draft was called “Paul Morel”. The chief characters and the central situation are all taken from L’s own early life. The Morel family is the counterpart of his own and Paul, the central character, is his own shadow, Miriam is Jessie Chamgers in real life while Clara is based on three models: Louie Burrows is one.

Sons and Lovers
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(3) two themes: a. the harmful effects of a mother’s love on the emotional development of her son; the split between kinds of love---the spiritual love represented by Miriam and physical love represented by Clara b. the result of the first (the two themes work together) There is a sort of passion in their relation to each other: The mother wants to possess the father, The mother and Miriam want to possess Paul

Sons and Lovers
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(4) Autobiography is autobiography after all. It’s not a true life story. There’s certain distortion of facts such as the relationship between Paul and Miriam. (5) It provides us a picture of the then English society: England was in its early phase of industrialization---the nationalization of land, the running of trains and horse trams, etc.

About two lovers of Paul:
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They are two extremes, two different types of women as far as their attitude towards love is concerned. (1) Miriam: a symbol of spiritual love Brought under her mother’s influence, she’s quite religious. But she thinks love is God’s gift and that her love affair with Paul is an affair between herself and God. Thus, she prays,” Lord, if it is thy will that I shall love him, make me love him---as Christ would, who died for the souls of men, make me love him splendidly, because he is thy son” (P212). It’s only too right when Paul speaks of her as a nun, wanting the soul out of his body. So, she can’t even bear the strain when Paul kisses her. Naturally, the love, or rather, the platonic friendship between Paul and herself breaks off after eight years.

About two lovers of Paul:
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(2) Clara: representative of passion She’s about seven years older that Paul and is a married woman. Her love for P. is not true love, but passion. Unsatisfied with P, she returns to her husband. The novel gives us a picture of the ruined economy of the peasantry in the countryside. It reveals the poor working condition of the coalmines and the wretched life of the miners and workers in the city. At one point the miners’ strike is mentioned.

Something about Paul:
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The year when Paul was thirteen, the Morels were living hard. The father only worked part time on the coalfield as there wasn’t much to do. To make matters worse, he had an accident down in the pit and was in hospital for several weeks. William, the eldest son, had just gone to work in London in a lawyer’s office connected with a large shipping firm. He seldom sent money home although he earned 120 pounds a year. Therefore, in order to help support the family, Paul had to look for a job. He went to the Co-op reading-room to look at ads in newspaper. After trying four letters, he got an answer from a surgical appliances company.

Something about Paul:
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When Paul looked at the picture of a wooden leg adorned with elastic stockings and other appliances, he felt a bit surprised. He had not known before that there were elastic stockings and that people could make money out of such things. He didn’t like the business world with its regulated system of values and its impersonality. It’s only natural for a child of 13 to have such feelings about the business world. Earlier when he looked for ads in newspaper at the Co-op reading-room, he had already the feeling that he was a prisoner of industrialism. As Paul went to town with his mother to be interviewed, he felt something was screwed up tight inside him.

What do you think are the themes of D.H.Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers?
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The harmful influence of a mother’s abnormal love on her son’s development; Split between spiritual love and physical love as represented by Paul’s two lovers.

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