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					New College English Integrated Course 3
Unit II: Civil-Rights Heroes

Text A: The Freedom Givers
By F. M. Bordewich

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I.Background Information
When we learn a foreign language, we must also learn the culture of the speakers of that language. Text A in this unit is a good case in point. Readers need some basic knowledge of Christianity. Some terms in this text are markedly Christian, like “Methodist Minister”, “Bible”, “Quaker”. Others refer to characters or places from Biblical stories, such as Moses who led the Jewish people out of slavery in Egypt, or Bethlehem, a holy city for Christians.
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I. Background Information
1. Freedom and rights Freedom of the individual is considered one of the essential features of western civilization, which is itself sometimes called the Free World. This freedom is often expressed in terms of rights to do certain things or to be treated in a particular way. When a person does something that others think strange, British and American people will often say, “It’s a free country,” meaning that although they disagree with the choice they recognize the other person’s right to make it.3

I. Background Information
Americans sometimes call the US the “land of the free”, a phrase taken from its national anthem. British people have always strongly defended their freedom. Fear that they will lose the freedom to decide their own future is behind many people’s lack of enthusiasm for European unity.

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I. Background Information
In Britain and the US the most basic rights include freedom of expression (=freedom to say or write anything), freedom of choice (=freedom to make decisions about your own life) and freedom of worship (=freedom to practice any religion).
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I. Background Information
2. The civil rights movement In the US, the national campaign by AfroAmericans for equal rights, especially in the 1950s and 1960s. the campaign included boycotts (refusals to buy particular products), the actions of freedom riders, and in 1963 a march to Washington led by Martin Luther King. It succeeded in causing the introduction of bussing and affirmative action. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 were also introduced as a result of the civil rights movement, which has helped to change the attitudes of many white Americans toward 6 blacks.

I. Background Information
3. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 It refers to the US law that forced the southern states to allow African-Americans to enter restaurants, hotels, etc. which had been reserved for white people for white people only and to end the practice of having separate areas for black and white people in theatres, train stations, buses, etc. (segregation). The act was mostly the result of the civil rights movement and was strongly supported by President Lyndon Johnson. It was followed the next year by the Voting Rights Act. 7

I. Background Information
4. Uncle Tom’s Cabin It is a novel (1852) by the US writer Harriet Beecher Stowe which increased support for the movement to free slaves. It is about a kind slave called Tom who is badly treated and finally killed by Simon Legree. Tom’s daughter Little Eva also dies, and another wellknown character in the novel is the slave child Topsy. The name Uncle Tom is sometimes used as an insult to describe an African-American who has too much respect for white people. 8

I. Background Information
5. The Underground Railroad This is a secret system used in the US before the Civil War, for helping thousands of slaves to escape to the free northern states or Canada. The slaves were called “passengers’, the people who helped them were “conductors”, and the slaves hid in “stations” (safe houses) along the way.
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I. Background Information
6. Slavery Slavery played a particularly important role in the history of the US. The first slaves were brought into North America from Africa by the Dutch in 1619. By the time of the American Revolution (1775) there were 500,000 slaves, mostly in the south. After the Revolution the northern states made slavery illegal but the southern states needed cheap labor for the cotton plantations. Gradually the South’s economy became dependent on slaves
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I. Background Information
and by 1860, the year before the Civil War, there were about 4 million slaves. The conflict between the North and the South increased, and it became clear that supporters and opponents of slavery could not continue to be part of the same country. In 1861 the slave states left the US Federal government ( during the war called Union), and formed their own government (called Confederate). This was the beginning of the Civil War.
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I. Background Information
After the North won the Civil War and brought the southern states back into the Union, slavery was ended. But little changed for former slaves. Some moved to the North but there were not enough job vacancies available there and many suffered prejudice from whites. Those that stayed in the South often worked on the plantations where they had been slaves. They were paid for their work, but had to buy food and clothes. Many had to stay there trying to pay off debts which became larger each year.
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I. Background Information
7. Bill Clinton He is the 42nd US president, elected in 1992 and 1996. He is a Democrat and was previously the governor of Arkansas. The US economy improved under Clinton, and the North American Free Trade Agreement has been signed. His successes in helping to achieve world peace include the Camp David Agreement for the Near East and the Dayton Agreement to end the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. His wife Hillary (1947-- ) tried without success to improve the US health system.
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I. Background Information
In 1998, President Clinton admitted he had had a sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky, a junior member of the White House staff, though denying it earlier. He was impeached for lying under oath and obstructing justice, but the Senate judged him not guilty. The witness takes the oath to “tell the truth, the whole truth, nothing but the truth”.
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I. Background Information
8. Quaker It refers to any member of the Society of Friends, a religious group established in England in the 1950s by George Fox. They were originally called Quakers because members were thought to “quake” or shake with religious excitement. Quakers worship Christ without any formal ceremony or fixed beliefs, and their meetings often involve silent thought or prayer. They are strongly opposed to violence and war, and are active in education and charity work. 15

I. Background Information
9. Grand Central Terminal This is the best-known railway station in the US. It is on East 42nd Street in New York and was completed in 1913 in the American Beaux Arts Style. The Main area is very large, and the trains enter and leave the station on 123 tracks, arranged on two levels. The station is often very crowded: You can’t move in there—it’s like Grand Central Station!
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I. Background Information
10. Methodist (卫理公会教徒) This term refers to a member of the Methodist Church, the largest of the Protestant Free Churches in Britain and the US. It was established in 1739 by John Wesley as part of the Church of England but it became separate from it in 1795. It was introduced into the US in the 18th century and today has over 50 million members around the world. It emphasized the importance of moral issues, both personal and social.
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I. Background Information
11. The Deep South This refers to the southernmost states of the south-eastern US: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and eastern Texas. They are among the states that once had slaves and left the Union during the Civil War. They still have racial problems and the people there are mostly conservative in their politics and religion.
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II. Text Analysis: Organization:
The text can be divided into two parts. Part I (paras. 1-5): Background to the article It is high time to honour the heroes who helped liberate slaves by for forging the Underground Railroad in the early civilrights struggles in America. Part II (paras.6-23): Memories of the heroes By citing examples the author praises the exploits (功绩,英勇行为)of civil-rights heroes who helped slaves travel the Underground Railroad to freedom.
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II. Text Analysis: Organization:
Para 1 --Ontario was home to Josiah Henson, a hero fighting for freedom in American history. --The guide Barbara Carter, brought the writer back to a time when Americans fought for their rights. Para 2 --Josiah Henson, a man of principle instead of a racial sellout, has lived on through the character of Uncle Tom in H.B. Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 20

II. Text Analysis: Organization:
Para 3 Josiah Henson was, in many ways, an African-American Moses who, after winning his own freedom from slavery, helped the Afro-Americans escape and win liberty. Note: Moses: the Leader who brought the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and led them to the Promised Land.
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II. Text Analysis: Organization:
Para 4 Josiah Henson was but one name of a long list of courageous men and women who forged the Underground Railroad, a secret web of escape routes and safe houses that they used to liberate slaves from the American South.

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II. Text Analysis: Organization:
Para 5 The writer composes this article at the the time that the National Underground Railroad Freedom Centre opens in 2004 to honour the freedom givers in this great civil-rights struggle in the U.S.

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II. Text Analysis: Organization:
Paras 6-10: The author tells us the life of the black John Parker, who used to be a slave himself, and his deeds or exploits of conducting escaped slaves to safety and freedom in the north. Paras 11-13 Driven by their religious convictions and unscared of the death threats, warnings and severe punishment, white Americans like Levi Coffin and Calvin Fairbank, also helped the slaves to win freedom.
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II. Text Analysis: Organization:
Para 14: The hardships that runaway slaves may meet on their journey to freedom in the North. Para. 15: The different ways the escaped slaves tried in travelling to freedom in the North.

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II. Text Analysis: Organization:
Paras 16-23: A flashback to the life story of Josiah Henson: why and how he and his family managed to fly to the North.

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II. Text Analysis: Features of writing
We learn about the name of Josiah Henson at the beginning of the text, yet his full story is not told until the last part. In this way the author achieves coherence of text. Direct speech is more convincing than indirect speech, especially when it comes to expressing personal beliefs. For example, the text quotes Levi Coffin saying “The Bible, in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, said nothing about color”.
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II. Text Analysis: Features of writing
On other occasions, direct speech makes a story more vivid. For example, in the John Parker story characters spoke short sentences to stress the urgency of the situation. For another example, Josiah Henson threw himself to the ground and shouted to astonished onlookers: “Oh, no! Don’t you know? I’m free!” His joy affects us all.

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III. Language Study
1. slender: slim; not very wide but comparatively long and high. --Although her face was quite plain, she had long, slender expressive hands, like a concert pianist. 2. settlement: a place where people have come to settle --Manhattan was the site of the original Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam. --These tools were found in an early Iron Age settlement. 29

III. Language Study
3. confident: feeling or showing trust in oneself or one’s ability (usu. followed by about/of/that clause) --Michael was confident that he would be enrolled by Harvard University. --The more familiar you are with this machine, the more confident you will be about using it.
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III. Language Study
4. ironically: it seems ironic (that) --Ironically the widespread use of antibiotics seems to be causing a lot of unexpected health problems. --Ironically it is often the poorer people who give the most. 5 . racial: relating to a person’s race, or to different races of people --Slavery is closely associated with racial prejudice, the belief that one race is superior to another.
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III. Language Study
6. stand up (for sb./sth.): speak, work, etc. in favour of sb./sth.; support sb./sth. --You have to be prepared to stand up for the things you believe in. --Don't be afraid to stand up for yourself.

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III. Language Study
7. historic: famous or important in history --In his book, Churchill recalls that historic first meeting with Roosevelt. / More money is needed for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments. C.f. historical --Historical people, situations, or things existed in the past and are considered to be a part of history. --Many historical documents were destroyed when the library was bombed.
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III. Language Study
8. mission: particular task or duty undertaken by an individual or a group --Some delegates were immediately sent to Israel. Their mission was to negotiate a ceasefire. --The five young people have been on a mission to help the Cambodians.

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III. Language Study
9. forge: (fig) create by means of much hard work --The two countries agreed to forge closer economic ties. --He forged a new career for herself as a singer.

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III. Language Study
10. web: network of fine threads spun by a spider or some other spinning creature; complex series or network --The little boy was frightened by the spider’s web in the window. --Many commercial and public organizations now have their own Web site and publish a “home page”, giving information about the organization. --Every day thousands of web surfers flock to this popular site, posting messages. 36

III. Language Study
11. liberate: set free --The new Afghan government is trying to liberate its people from poverty with international help. --The troops’ aim is to liberate the country by the end of the year.

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III. Language Study
12. authorize: give approval or permission for (sth.); give authority to --The central government authorized $200 billion to construct new dams to generate cheap hydro-electric power. --The President requested that Congress authorize the presence of US troops in the eastern region. --He was obliged by the arguments of the Minister of Labour to authorize a 23 per cent general wage increase.
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III. Language Study
13.exploit: brave or adventurous deed or action --The general’s wartime exploits were later made into a film and a television series. --My grandfather entertained us with stories of wartime exploits. 14. be intent on doing sth.: be eager and determined to do sth. --Working day and night, Janet seems intent on breaking the record in the Guinness Book of Records.
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III. Language Study
15. peer: 1ook closely or carefully, esp. as if unable to see well (followed by at/through/into, etc.) --Stephen had been peering at a computer printout that made no sense at all. --Hawking was a typical bookworm, underweight and awkward and peering through eye-glasses.

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III. Language Study
16. on the side: as an additional job or source of income; secretly --Some teachers have to find ways of making some money on the side. --In order to earn enough money to send his children to school, he makes a little money on the side by cleaning windows in his spare time.

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III. Language Study
17. capture: (V.) to take prisoner; (n.)capturing or being captured --Rebel forces captured the city after a weeklong battle. --Some of the terrorists who were involved in the 9.l l event were captured by the FBI. --At one time Peter took part in the capture of three thieves. --The International Whaling Commission permits the capture of only 400 whales annually for scientific purposes. 42

III. Language Study
18. close in (on/around):(vi.) come near to, esp. in order to attack from several directions; surround --Hitler committed suicide as Soviet forces were closing in on Berlin. --Right after the suicide explosion, Israeli troops began to close in on the Palestinian city.

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III. Language Study
19. religious: of religion --Daoism (Taoism) is one of the three main Chinese religious and philosophical traditions, the others being Confucianism and Buddhism. --The local government wants to increase the amount of religious education in schools.

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III. Language Study
20. conviction: firm opinion or belief --The old woman had a firm conviction that there would be a better life after death. --A non-believer, Tom doesn't have any religious convictions. --It is her personal conviction that all corruption should be exposed and dealt with according to relevant laws.

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III. Language Study
21. terminal: (building at the) end of a railway line, bus route, etc.; a piece of equipment, usu. consisting of a keyboard and a screen, that connects the user with a computer system --Most large airports have shops, restaurants, and banks in the terminal building, plus special lounges for departing passengers. --A1l staff have terminals attached to the company’s main computer.

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III. Language Study
22. as for: with regard to --As for your request for a free sample, we will send it to you in about ten days. --Some people have complained, but as for me I’m perfectly satisfied with the working conditions here.

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III. Language Study
23. transport: take sth./sb. from one place to another in a vehicle --Reducing the costs of transporting natural resources to production sites is one of the key factors in economic competition. --Pipelines are used mainly to transport liquids or gases over long distances.

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III. Language Study
24. abolish: end the existence of (a law, custom, system, etc.) --Slavery was not finally abolished in the British Empire until l833. --Their mission is to abolish the global fur industry permanently by utilizing appropriate legal and non-violent methods.

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III. Language Study
25. impose: l) place a (penalty, tax, etc.) officially
on sb./sth. 2) try to make sb. accept (an opinion or a belief

--The government has made a decision to impose a further tax on wines and spirits. --The local government tried to impose fines on the factories which poured untreated waste into the river. --A government should not impose my religious convictions on it citizens. --It may not be wise for parents to impose their 50 own tastes on their children.

III. Language Study
26. make the best of: accept an unsatisfactory situation cheerfully and try to manage as well as you can

--I know it’s cold and raining but we’re
here now, so let’s just make the best of it. --The living conditions in the village were very poor but we had to make the best of it.

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III. Language Study
27. compel: make (sb.) do sth.; force --In the past children were frequently compelled to work from an early age. --A large debt burden compelled many developing countries to undertake stabilization and adjustment policies.

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III. Language Study
28. at risk: threatened by the possibility of loss, failure, etc.; in danger --It is reported that some areas in the west are at high risk of desertification. --The buildings in the slum tend to be overcrowded, inadequately served by water and at risk from fire.

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III. Language Study
29. starve: (cause a person or an animal to) suffer severely or die from hunger --Some people starved to death during the long drought. --Children in the developed countries are living a happy life, while many African children are starving.

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III. Language Study
30. in the eyes of: in the opinion of --In the eyes of his students, Richard is a sensible and reliable teacher. --In the eyes of my parent, I am still a young person although I am already in my thirties. 31. pass for: appear like; be accepted or looked upon as (same as pass as) --He speaks American English well enough to pass for an American. --My younger sister really wants to go and see the film, but I don’t think she’d pass for 18.
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