Marketing Research by shimeiyan

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									Marketing Research
Overview Dr. Mary Wolfinbarger

Marketing Research Overview
Definition, AMA “The systematic ____________, recording, and ________ of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.”

Another Definition
“Marketing Research is the function which links the ____________ and the ___________ to the organization through information -information is used to identify and define marketing problems; generate, refine and evaluate marketing ____________, and improve our understanding of marketing as a process.” -- Gilbert Churchill

The Role of Marketing Research
Environment Organization

Cultural Trends

Marketing research is environmental surveillance; ___________ of the firm is often closely tied to effective marketing research.

The Role of Marketing Research
Price  Product  Promotion  Place  Personnel  Customers  Macro trends


Macroenvironmental trends
D______________  Cultural trends  C__________ ________  et cetera


The Marketing Research Process

Some ideas about Marketing Research:
Operating executives often _______ or ________ research findings  Value of research depends on skill with which project is designed and implemented  Organizations, particularly ________ ones, are heavy users of research  Research is often a _________ tool


Steps
Problem Definition  Research Design  Sampling  Data Collection and Analysis  Report Preparation


Step 1: Problem Definition


Define specific problem/problems What _________can/will be based on the research





____________ ____________

Step 1: Problem Definition
“Probably the most important thing a research supplier can do is to ______ _______ with a client to determine what research is needed and how it will be used; if this step is skipped the results may not address the problem.” --Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong

Step 1: Problem Definition
“In my experience it usually turns out that the _________ ________ has not carefully thought through his decision process and the meetings with the researcher often result in a ________ ________ of the decision situation, which results in major changes in the definition of the research problem and the information needs.”
--Imran Currim

Step 1: Problem Definition
Potential Traps:  Collecting “__________” information  “Piggybacking” to satisfy everyone  Problem not __________ to research  Client agendas

Step 1: Problem Definition
Example: Retailer “Primal Elements”

Step 1: Problem Definition
Example: Retailer “Primal Elements”  Interview client/decision makers -- to what questions do they want answers  Who are customers ______________?  How do people __________ us?  How can we advertise more effectively?  Why do we have fewer young customers than anticipated?  What new products should we carry?

Step 1: Problem Definition
Example: Retailer “Primal Elements”  Researchers and clients ________ _________ /possible answers to questions to guide research design  Example: PE may be perceived as too ________ to younger customers OR the interior is not __________ to younger customers…..

Step 2: Research Design


A detailed _________ specifying how the research will be carried out

Step 2: Research Design
“There is never a ______ _______ correct method of carrying out a piece of research. Do not wait until you find out THE proper approach, because there are many ways to tackle a problem -- some good, some bad, but probably _________ good ways...

Step 2: Research Design
“...A research _______ for a given problem is not like the solution to a problem in algebra. It is more like a recipe for beef stroganoff, there is no one best recipe.” -Julian Simon, Basic Research Methods in Social Science: The Act of Empirical Investigation

Step 2: Research Design
Three general types of designs:  Exploratory  Descriptive  Causal If you collect the data yourself, it is _______. If you use someone else’s, it’s _________.

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory
Especially necessary when don’t ________ the issue well, and  Use to __________ as many possible questions/answers/ideas as possible  Examples: faculty response to merit pay, employee responses to advertising


Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory
_______ _______--most common exploratory technique A loosely structured __________ conducted by a trained moderator among a small number of informants simultaneously.


Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Focus Group
6-12 ___________ in a group  1- 1 1/2 hour session  1-way mirror/client may sit behind  __________, “living room” environment  can be adapted to the Internet  Informants are _______


Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Focus Group
Advantages of Focus Groups  _______ and _________
 May

uncover ______________ ideas

 Gives

“flesh” and connectedness to real consumers

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Focus Group
Disadvantages of Focus Groups  Results __________ on skill of moderator  Groupthink  Small __________

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/In-depth Interview
 An

_____________ personal interview which uses extensive probing to get a respondent to talk freely and to express detailed __________  Purpose: to try to probe informants’ __________, feelings, beliefs Examples: Skydiving, earthquake risk

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Projective Techniques
 An

________ form of ________ in which an environment is created to encourage informants to freely project beliefs/feelings into the situation  Example: Roach Killer

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Projective Techniques
 Example:

_____ _________  What comes to mind when you think of BIC?

Step 2: Research Design/ Exploratory/Projective Techniques
 Are

these _________ consistent with the notion of BIC perfume? BIC pantyhose?

Step 2: Research Design/ Descriptive Research
 Research

that simply __________, but does not directly link outcomes to particular causes  Example: _______ _____

Step 2: Research Design/ Descriptive Research
Types of methods that tend to be descriptive:
 Observation

 Surveys

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Observation
What are the __________ of observation?  Doesn’t reveal consumer motivations  Marketers see what they do, but usually not why they do it

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Observation
 Example

1: Fisher Price Toy Design
2: Pantry Meter

 Example

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Surveys
Types:
 _______  ___________

 Personal
 Internet

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Surveys
 Like

a ruler or weight scales, a survey is a _____________ instrument  If instrument is flawed, so are ________

Step 2: Research Design/
Descriptive Research/Surveys
Common problems:  Demanding _________  __________questions  Choice preferred by respondent is not included  Degree of agreement questions constructed as yes/no (or vice-versa)  Questionnaires are _______ ______

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
 Seeks

to _______ specific outcomes to variables that caused them

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
Three ___________ are necessary  Condition 1: One variable must precede the other in time

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
 Example

1: Job ___________ of service employees = Service Quality is it the other way around?

 Or,

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
 Condition

2: Alternative __________ for findings should be ruled out

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
 Example

: Consume oatmeal = ______________ rates does it?

lower

 Or

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
 Condition

3: Nomic _________ -- Look for the “__________ link” criterion can be simplified: Does the relationship make sense? Letter name begins with and credit worthiness

 This

 Example:

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
“Golly gee-whiz” relationships -- many are simply statistical ___________

Step 2: Research Design/ Causal Research
_____________ does not prove causality!

Step 2: Research Design/
Causal Research: Methodologies
 Surveys

(especially longitudinal ones)  Experimentation (the _____ standard) “the systematic _____________ of selected stimuli into a controlled environment” Example: varying price levels and seeing impact on sales

Step 2: Research Design/
Causal Research: Methodologies
___________ Design must be careful to make strong causal inferences  Need ________ or ___________ groups  Extraneous factors must either be controlled or measured  Example: Colon Cancer PSAs  Example: Taking Latin Higher Verbal SATs

Step 2: Research Design/
Causal Research: Methodologies
 Example:

_____ vs. slow music /money spent in grocery store  Restaurant, too

= time

Research Design: Secondary Vs. Primary

 Primary

Data: data collected by researcher for his/her ________ purpose data: already ________, collected by someone else

 Secondary

Step 2: Research Design/ Secondary Data
 Saves

______ and money  May not _______ your specific problem General types:  Data collected elsewhere in the company, e.g. sales and cost data  __________ Data  Non-commercial data

Step 2: Research Design/ Secondary Data
Evaluating Secondary Data  _______ collected it?  _____ was it collected?  How was the data collected?  What data were collected?  When was the data collected?  Do ________ sources indicate the same conclusions?

Step 3: Sampling
Who is our __________ of interest?  How will we identify them?  What sampling _________ will be used? Basic Types: probability vs. non-probabililty  How many will be sampled?


Step 3: Sampling
Sampling is important as it affects generalizability of results. Generalizability: do findings apply to your population of interest?

Step 4:Data Analysis
Extracting meaningful information from the data  Exploratory methods: review and “code” transcripts for recurring themes

Step 4:Data Analysis
Descriptive and _______ methods  Statistical analyses

Step 5: Report Preparation
__________ _________  Body -- findings of study  ___________ of the Research  Conclusions and Recommendations  Appendix



								
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