PLOT Thebans are hoping that Oedipus would help them and Creon brihgs back the oracle Chorus Oedipus asks Tiresias Chorus ACTION Oracle says that the murderer who killed Laius STRUCTURE start PLOT Exposition Searching for the killer middle Rising Action Oedipus and Creon Oedipus and Jocasta Chorus and Oedipus Oedipus and Jocasta Chorus Jocasta, messenger from Corinth and Oedipus Chorus and Oedipus Oedipus and herdsman Chorus Blind Oedipus, Creon, Antigone and Ismene Chorus Identify that Oedipus is the killer ending Climax Falling action Resolution/ Suffering 報告者 • P947 to 948 余秋盈 Analysis of the drama • P945 to P949 Oedipus and Jocasta • 1.Jocasta enters and begs Oedipus to believe Creon and to be merciful. • 2. Jocasta comforts Oedipus. • 3. Oedipus begins to suspect the Teiresias’s words were true. • 4. P949 Oedipus summons this eyewitness and while they wait for him, he tell Jocasta more about his youth. • 5. Jocasta comforts Oedipus that the son that should have killed Laius is dead so he doesn’t need to worry too much. 報告者 • P949 to 950翁怡晨 P949to P950 • The law and the purity are born from Olympus… it means that the gods set up all the regulations and we have to obey them. • Chorus sings to us that pride will bring the doom and the punishment • Prophecy is a tool to lead people to behave right, P950 to P951 • 1. Jocasta enters from the house, on her way to visit the holy temples and pray. • 2.A messenger from Corinth enters, with the news that Oedipus’s father Polybus is dead. The corinthians would like to make Oedipus king of both Corinth and Thebes. 3. Jocasta send for Oedipus to hear the news. 報告者 • P951 to 952陳佩妤 P951 to 953 • 4. After knowing the news, Oedipus still struggle of not going back to Corinth, and the messenger speaks out his birth to let Oedipus not worry about marrying his mother, Merope. • 5. After the messenger’s address, Jocasta knows the truth and ask Oedipus not to pursue the matter anymore. • 6. But Oedipus still wants to know the truth. 報告者 • P953 to 954 洪詩雅 P953 to P954 • 8. Oedipus sends for the man who gave the baby to the messenger. • 9. This scene ends at Jocasta warns him for his own good to drop this line of questioning and runs into the house. 報告者 • P955 to 958李宜樺 P954 to P957 • 1. P954 (1087) In the beginning, the chorus reflects that something bad seems about to happen. • 2. Oedipus insists wanting to know the whole truth and thinks that Jocasta ran away just because of his low birth. • 3. P955 (1100) Chorus prays to Apollo to bless Oedipus and expresses that the shepherd who gave the baby to the messenger approaches. • 4. ( 1124 to 1146)Oedipus question him and he is reluctant P957 to P958 • 5.(1147 to 1161) The messenger tells the herdsman the past, but the herdsman wants the messenger to hold his tongue. • 6. ( 1167 to 1195)Oedipus threatens the herdsman with physical violence, and finally the man confesses that the baby was a child of Laius’s house. • 7. the herdsman tells Oedipus all the truth and the phrophesy. • 8. (1201 to 1204)Finally, Oedipus sees the truth and runs screaming into the house. 報告者 • P958 to 960童恩佩 • P961 to 962何逸安 • P963 to 964 黃繼養 P958 to P961 • 1. The chorus declares the horrifying news that Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus took her gold brooches to gouge his eyes out. • 2. Oedipus shouts for someone to open the castle doors and show all of Thebes the man who killed Laius and asks for the exile. P962 to p964 • 3.Oedipus cries out his unspeakable sin and pain. • 4. The chorus asks him why he injured his eyes. He answers that he don’t want his eyes because all he can see is ugliness. • 5.Chorus suggests that death is better than the blindness. • 6 Oedipus replies that how he could meet his parents underworld with seeing eyes. 報告者 • P965 to 966何高宇 P965 to p967 • 7. Creon enters and Oedipus asks him to cast him away from Thebes. • 8. Creon replies that he must wait for instruction from Apollo. • 9.Oedipus argues with Creon that Apollo’s instruction is clear and wants him to bury Jocasta proplely. • 10. Also he wants Creon to take care of his two daughters, Antigone and Ismene. 報告者 • P967 to 968 林維珍 P968 • 11.The final scene is that the Chorus are all alone on the stage and ask the audience to remember the story of Oedipus. The Chorus warns the audience that mortal men must always look to their endings, and not suppose that they are happy until they die happy. 報告者 • Conclusion and discussion:張啟珊 Plot Structure • 1. Exposition: presents characters, setting and the basic situation. • 2. Rising action: complication develop, conflicts emerge, suspense builds and crises occurs. • 3. Climax: point the plot’s tension peaks. • 4. Falling action: the intensity subsides, wind down to eh resolution • 5. Resolution: all looses ends are tied up How Sophocle creates suspense • • • • • • • • 1. plague 2. Creon brought back the oracle 3. Oedipus investigate in the murder 4. Oedipus and Teiresias 5. Oedipus and Creon 6. Oedipus and Jocasta 7. Oedipus and messenger 8. Oedipus, messenger and herdsman End of the play, Oedipus learned • 1. From himself: Pride and stubborn bring sin and punishment. • 2. From the god: He is just the puppy of the fate. He can’t affect the future that the oracle has predicted for him. • 3. about the quest of the truth: He shows the free will of man. Conflict and analysis • 1. Pride: • 1)makes him ask for the oracle to prove the drunken man’s words, • 2) leave Corinth to look for the truth, • 3) too proud to consider the words of Teiresias, • 4)Pride in continuing his search 2. mercy/pity VS anger/punishment • 1.Oedipus and unknown murderer • 2. Oedipus and Creon • 3. Oedipus and Lainus 3. Blind and see • 1.When Oedipus can see, his mind is blind. • 2. Teiresias can’t see, but his mind is clear as mirror. • 3. When Oedipus is blind, his mind becomes like Teiresias’. 4. Free will and god’s will (oracle) • 1. fate and destiny • 2.Scientific research and be faith in the oracle. • 3. Oedipus’s research and blind his eyes. 5.Sphinx riddle • 1.What is that goes on four feet in the morning, two feet at midday, and three feet in the evening. • 2. Oedipus is the riddle itself. 6.Foolish and blind • Oedipus and Teiresias (P934-P936) Aristotle poetics • 1. What is a good tragedy? • An imitation of life in the form of a serious story that is complete itself. • Realistic and narrow in focus • The tragedy describes not patricular of life but the universal of life…it describes not the suffering of individual but the suffering of human beings. Con. tragedy • Evoke pity and fear in its viewers • Tragedy can purify the emotion of the audiences through the pity and fear in human minds • Suffering is the most seductive part of the tragedy and the most important part. • It discusses about the logic of the truth …it is the causal relation. • Full of Irony Catharsis • Purgation or purification (Greek) • Running through the gamut of these strong emotions will leave viewers to experience a feeling elated, in the same way we often claim that “a good cry” will make one feel better Tragedy Heros • 1. better than we are • 2. must evoke both pity and fear • 3. suffers because of his error in judgment (hamartia) Dramatic Irony and Cosmic Irony • 1. emerges from a situation in which the audience knows more about the dramatic situation than a character does. • 2. occurs when God, fate, or some larger, uncontrollable force seems to be intentionally deceiving characters into believing they can escape their fate. Tragedy and Pathos • 1 For tragedy, the protagonist recognizes the reason for his or her downfall. • 2. Their suffering is meaningful. • 3. For pathos, without the protagonist’s recognizing the reason for his or her downfall. • 4. It exists simply to satisfy the sentimental or morbid sensibilities of the audience Unit of action, place and time • Unit of action: when the play contains only those actions that lead to its tragic outcome • Unit of place: the requirement that the play have a single setting • Unit of time: the requirement that the events depicted by the play take no longer than the actual duration of the play • Sophocles uses the three units in the play If Oedipus deserve his fate?