"Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and a Conservative Era"
Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and a Conservative Era History 203 May 23, 2007 No Office Hours Thursday, May 24. I’ll hold extra office hours Tuesday, May 29 from 10-12. Remember: Monday, May 28 is Memorial Day holiday. No class. Announcements • I’ve made some revisions to the syllabus following the class session we missed two weeks ago. The syllabus is at www.uoregon.edu/~dapope/203syllabus--sp07.htm • The Oil Crisis paper is now due on May 30 at class time. • Instructions for the paper on The Oil Crisis of 1973-1974 are now online at www.uoregon.edu/~dapope/203oilcrisis.htm. • A word of advice: You have a substantial reading assignment on immigration and the Mexican-US border in the last weeks of the term. If you can complete your oil crisis paper early, you’ll avoid an end-of-term workload crunch. • For the assignment on Hard Line, the book about the US- Mexican border, see notes here. The book is required reading, except for chapters 2, 7 and pp.179-196 of chapter 9, which are optional but recommended. You will be tested on the book on the final exam. Some Sites on Nixon and Reagan Eras • Nixon Library and Birthplace website • A photographic record of Nixon and Watergate • Watergate tapes on the web • Nixon’s China Game —PBS Website • Document collection on US-China Relations, 1960-1998 • Maps and Data on US Presidential Elections • Watch Ronald Reagan’s entrance into conservative politics, ―The Speech‖ of 1964 • View Reagan’s 1984 campaign ad, ―It’s Morning Again in America‖ • CNN Cold War History website Richard Nixon and the American Dream • Southern California childhood and youth • Young lawyer and Navy veteran • Aspiring Politician – Anti-Communist campaigns – ―Tricky Dick‖ • 1952: Eisenhower chooses Nixon as GOP Vice Presidential Candidate – Slush Fund, Pat Nixon’s ―Republican Cloth Coat‖ and ―Checkers‖ the dog. (Watch Nixon’s ―Checkers‖ speech.) "...the kids, like all kids, love the dog, and...regardless of what they say about it, we're gonna keep it.―—Nixon TV address, September 1952 The End of the Old Nixon… • Nixon as Vice President, 1953-1961: – When Nixon was running for President in 1960, a reporter asked President Eisenhower what specific Nixon proposals his administration had adopted. Ike replied: ―If you give me a week I might think of one. I don’t remember.‖ • 1960 Presidential Defeat • 1962: Nixon loses California governor’s race and tells a press conference, ―You won’t have Nixon to kick around any more.‖ (Hear it here.) …And the Birth of the ―New Nixon‖ • Rebuilding Party Strength • Fashioning a New Image • 1968: ―The Selling of the President‖ The Rise of a New Conservatism • ―Social Issues‖ Conservatism – George Wallace: Racism and anti-elitism – ―Crime in the Streets‖ – Generational conflict and family values – Feminism and anti-feminism • ―Big Government‖ under attack – End of the Postwar Boom: From growth to ―stagflation‖ – The return of ―free market‖ economics – Revolt against regulation George Wallace • As Governor of Alabama, Wallace blocked entrance of African-American students to the University of Alabama • When he ran for President as a 3d-party candidate in 1968, he appealed to racial fears and hatreds and won votes in the North 1968 Presidential Election Nixon and the ―Southern Strategy‖ • The Rise of ―Sunbelt‖ politics • Race and racial backlash • Shifting the Supreme Court • Unleashing Spiro Agnew 1972 Presidential Election Nixon Plays the China Card • 1949-1972: China—An Absent Presence in American international relations • Mao and the Chinese Cultural Revolution • Ping-Pong Diplomacy 1971 • Nixon In China, February 1972 – End of Cultural Revolution – Death of Mao Zedong, Rise of Deng Xiaoping – Deng: ―It’s glorious to be rich.‖ China’s capitalist takeoff. Setting the Stage for Nixon’s China Visit What Was Watergate? • A ―third rate burglary‖ at the Watergate Hotel, June 17, 1972 • Nixon’s ―Campaign for the RE-Election the President (CREEP) – Re-election triumph • Uncovering Watergate: Judge Sirica, Senator Ervin, Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox, Woodward and Bernstein and ―Deep Throat‖ The Plot Thickens… • ―Dirty Tricks‖ • Presidential Tapes • Agnew Resignation • A ―Smoking Gun‖ emerges Nixon Resigns, August 9, 1974 • Watch his resignation speech. Watergate: Did It Matter? • Impeachment and Constitutional Crisis • An ―Imperial Presidency‖? • Cynicism about Government • The Media: Triumph and Failure • Sept. 8, 1974: President Gerald Ford grants Nixon ―A full, free and absolute pardon‖ for ―all offenses against the United States.‖ – A Footnote to History or Part of the Problem? Richard Nixon: Did He Matter? • Nixon as domestic reformer? – Some examples: Affirmative Action, Environmental Protection Administration, Clean Air Act • Nixon and the end of the post-war boom – Oil crisis and the beginning of ―stagflation‖ • Nixon and the end of the ―New Deal Coalition‖? • Nixon and the redefining of the Cold War Reagan: The Path to Power • From Dixon, Illinois to Hollywood, California – Reagan in ―Bedtime for Bonzo‖ and ―King’s Row‖ Reagan: The Path to Power • From Union leader to ―The Speech‖—1964 – Link to ―The Speech‖ • Governor of California, 1966-74 • Ronald Reagan and Sunbelt Politics • 1980 Campaign Reagan Speech: Philadelphia, Miss. 1980 • Early in the 1980 campaign, Reagan went to a county fair in Mississippi, near where three civil rights workers had been murdered in 1964 during Mississippi Summer. • ―I believe in state's rights and I believe in people doing as much as they can for themselves at the community level and at the private level. I believe we have distorted the balance of our government today by giving powers that were never intended to be given in the Constitution to that federal establishment.‖ Reaganomics: Rejecting an Age of Limits • Reaganomics – Supply Side Economics – Deficits and Spending Cuts • Military Buildup: Defense budget 1981: $180 billion • 1989: $334 billion • Recession, then Growth • Growing inequality A ―Laffer curve‖: On the right side of the dia- gram, reducing tax rates will actually increase the government’s tax revenue. ―It’s Morning Again in America‖ • A 1984 Reagan TV commercial sums up his approach: • ―It's morning again in America. Today more men and women will go to Work than ever before in our country's history. With interest rates at about half the record highs of 1980, nearly 2,000 families today will buy new homes, more than at any time in the past four years. This afternoon 6,500 young men and women will be married, and with inflation at less than half of what it was just four years ago, they can look forward with confidence to the future. It's morning again in America, and under the leadership of President Reagan, our country is prouder and stronger and better. Why would we ever want to return to where we were less than four short years ago?‖ – View the ad: ―It’s Morning Again in America‖ For an analysis and images from this ad, follow this link Reagan and the New Cold War • Afghanistan • Lebanon • Central America and the Iran-Contra Scandals • Reagan and the ―Evil Empire‖ – From Brezhnev to Gorbachev – ―Star Wars‖ – Spending the Soviets to Death? – Reagan’s Berlin speech, 1987—‖Mr. Top: Leonid Brezhnev Gorbachev, tear down Below: Mikhail Gorbachev Fall of the Berlin Wall: 1989