Unit 1 Learning a Foreign Language Related Information Identification of Three Similar Definitions Certificate: a document certifying that one has fulfilled the requirements and may practice in a field. Diploma: a document bearing the record of graduation from a school or of a degree conferred by an educational institution. Degree: a title conferred on students by a college, university, or professional school on completion of a degree program of study. Languages in the World There are approximately 6,700 languages around the world, and several die every year. Some are found in remote regions and are spoken only by a single village of people; some by only a few people, and when those people die or forget their native tongue, the language becomes extinct. As mass globalization increases, the problem is becoming more prevalent. People are losing part of their cultural identity. Learning English is No Picnic With the development of globalization, intercultural communication has been on the increase. And this increase of cross-cultural communication sets a new task for many people: learning a foreign language. Most Chinese young people choose English as their first foreign language to learn, because they believe English is and will be widely used worldwide. Although many of them start the task with confidence and are determined to learn English well, the lack of communicative situations to use English soon cools their ardor, for they find that it is by no means a piece of cake to learn a foreign language without much chance to use it in real communication. First of all, they are puzzled with the use of prepositions. Indeed, English prepositions are hard to use. Nouns and their plural forms are even more so. Since school teachers repeatedly ask their students to pay more attention to nouns and their plural forms, most students are in a habit of adding “s” to all the nouns they are using. Apart from prepositions and nouns and their plural forms, verbal collocations or verbal structure are also a headache. The worst thing for most Chinese students is the misconception of the cultural connotations of English words and collocations in context. Some students may ask an English native speaker such a personal question as “How much do you earn every month?” and make such a silly comment as “You are becoming fatter and fatter these days.” Indeed, for most Chinese students, English is a fascinating language and a useful tool for their future work. But having a good command of English is not easy at all. It requires painstaking efforts and persistence. To get the hang of a language, one must not only memorize a large number of words and phrases, but also get to know much of the culture in English-speaking countries, the ways of thinking of the people, their ways of life and their social customs. Of course, so long as one keeps learning and using it, his dream of becoming a proficient speaker of English will come true some day. 3. 2. 1. Tape Script: Wong: Miss Marley, would you please give me some advice on how to learn English well? Miss Marley: OK, in my opinion, the following tips can help you master the English language. Firstly, speak without fear. Don‟t let a little fear stop you from speaking in public. The fastest way to learn English is to practise again and again. Wong: I used to be afraid to open my mouth to speak. Miss Marley: Wong: Next time I‟ll try. Miss Marley: , use all of your resources. Using as many different sources, methods and tools as possible will allow you to learn faster. There are many different ways for you to improve your English, for example, the Internet is a perfect resource, do you often use it? Wong: Yes, but never for English study. Miss Marley: Then you should have a try. Thirdly, surround yourself with English. Wong: Surround myself with English? Miss Marley: That‟s it, you may take notes in English, put English books around your room, listen to English language radio broadcasts, and watch English news, movies and television programs. If possible, listen to native speakers as much as possible, and speak English with your friends whenever you can. Wong: Oh I see. Miss Marley: If you can do like this, you will begin “thinking in English”. Wong: Will these work? Miss Marley: Wong: OK. Today I‟ve learnt a lot from you, Miss Marley. Thank you so much for your advice. Miss Marley: ! 4. Discussion & Role-play (Open) Text A Language Study 1. secure ① vt. to get esp. as the result of effort ▲ It is extremely difficult to secure freight space. ▲ We appreciate the efforts you have made to secure repeat orders from your customers. synonym: get, obtain, procure Note: get 是通俗用语,使用最广泛,令人有亲切感｡ obtain 是一般用语｡ procure 含有“经 过努力而获得”的意思｡ secure 含有“难获得”的意思｡ ② a. safe ▲ 2. employment n. ① the condition of having a paid job 3. 4. ▲ She was offered employment in the sales office. antonym: unemployment ② one‟s regular work or occupation ▲ A large proportion of population in this country is engaged in industrial employment. employment agency 职业介绍所 employ vt. to use a person as a paid worker ▲ They employ about 500 people in their company. employer n. a person who employs others ▲ The textile industry was one of the biggest employers in China at that time. employee n. a person who is employed ▲ Have you authorized your employee to make the purchase? If you realize that you do not have a good command of English, try not to apply for jobs that require fluent verbal or written English. command ① vt. to deserve or get ▲ Those goods have commanded a good market. ② n. the ability to control or use sth have a good command of be able to control or use well ▲ He has a good command of business negotiation skills. apply vi. (～ to/for) request something, esp. officially and in writing 请求,申请 ▲ I will apply for the job in your company. ▲ We have already applied to the bank for an L/C to be opened in your favor. If you are fortunate, your native language maybe used widely, in which case it is useful to a potential employer. ... in which case it is useful to a potential employer.此句中,which 指代前面的整个主句 your native language maybe used widely,并与名词 case, point 或 time 等连用,对所提之事进行补 充说明,这一形式只用于介词后。 ▲ He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him. ▲ Orders for our new product are pouring in from various districts, in which case we needn‟t worry about the sale. fortunate a. lucky ▲ As our market is now dull and prices are low, you are very fortunate in making purchase at this time. antonym: unfortunate potential a. existing in possibility; possibly able to become 5. 6. ▲ The representative will have opportunity to meet and talk to potential new customers. ▲ There do exist potential sales for canned fruits in Europe. If so, you should capitalize on it. so 指代前一句话,即:If you are fortunate, your native language maybe used widely, in which case it is useful to a potential employer. Try to promote the fact that you are bilingual or even trilingual to your potential employer during the job interview. fact n. something true 后面常接用以 that 引导的同位语从句(这类名词还有 thought, idea 等)｡ ▲ The fact that the goods were damaged in transit is clear to all of us. ▲ It‟s a fact that we have not received that letter of yours. interview ① n. a meeting where a person is asked questions by others whether he can enter a university or take up a job ▲ Thank you very much for arranging this job interview. ② vt. to ask questions of somebody in an interview ▲ He was interviewed by the general manager yesterday. interviewer n. a person who gives an interview interviewee n. a person who is given an interview ▲ In the job interview the interviewee should communicate with the interviewer confidently. 7. Speaking with confidence helps you to communicate more effectively with an interviewer. confidence n. ① belief in one‟s own or another‟s ability ▲ If your price is attractive, we have confidence in securing the order from you. with confidence confidently 满怀信心地 ▲ Our goal is to prepare students to go into the business world with confidence. ② faith; full trust ▲ We appreciate the confidence you have placed in us. in confidence privately 秘密地 ▲ We should be very grateful to know in confidence if you have found this firm reliable and prompt in settling their accounts. confident a. showing confidence 多用作表语,后接用 of 或 that 从句 ▲ We are confident of being able to give you complete satisfaction. 8. maintain vt. to continue to have or do ▲ Because of our old relationship, we are maintaining our offer for another fortnight. ▲ We always maintain adequate quantities of replacement parts in stock. maintainance n. maintaining or being maintained 9. advisable a. that is advised or thought best to do; wise ① 常用作表语或补语｡ ▲ This course of action is advisable. ▲ We consider it advisable to postpone the discussion. ② 注意下列 that 从句中,要用 should 或虚拟语气现在时｡ ▲ It is advisable that you (should) ship the goods by s.s. “Red Star”. 10. virtue n. any good quality of character or behavior ▲ To be modest is not a virtue in business negotiations with America. by/in virtue of as a result of; by means of 依靠,由于 ▲ She succeeded by virtue of her tenacity rather than her talent. 11. due to because of; owing to 由于;因为 ▲ A thorough examination showed that the broken bags were due to improper packing. ▲ This is due to the fact that with so many orders coming in from abroad, we are running short of stocks at present. 12. prepared a. ready to do something or deal with a situation ▲ This course aims to prepare students for middle and senior managerial positions. be prepared to do something ▲ You have to be prepared to take risks in this kind of work. be prepared for ▲ I wasn‟t prepared for all their questions. Text B Language Study 1. seem linking v. to appear to exist or be true, or to have a particular quality seem + n./a./prep. ▲ The present market seems promising. seem to do ▲ It seems (to be) the best solution. ▲ The recession seems not to last long but several. seem like ▲ It seemed like a disaster at the time. It seems + that clause ▲ It seems that the manager is right. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ..., and our School of International Studies works very hard to fulfill the expectations of all of those who want to learn and study a foreign language. ... to fulfill the expectations of all of those who want to learn and study a foreign language.是 动词不定式短语作目的状语,其中包含一个 who 引出的定语从句,修饰 those｡ All students of Chinese universities, regardless of what their majors are, are required to learn a foreign language in addition to their other courses. regardless of what their majors are 为插入语,进一步说明主语“all students of Chinese universities”｡ regardless of paying no attention to (sb/sth), needless of ▲ The director continued speaking, regardless of the staff‟s feeling on the matter. in addition to sb/sth as an extra person, thing or circumstance, besides ▲ In addition to the names on the list there are six other applicants. This specialty of the Chinese educational system will be of great help to the further development of the Chinese economy and the Chinese society as a whole. specialty n. ① a special feature or characteristic ▲ The specialty of the system is the use of digital technology. ② a subject or job that you know a lot about or have a lot of experience of ▲ His specialty is marketing. ③ a product that is extremely good in a particular place ▲ This specialty shop mainly sells food with tea flavor. ▲ I can recommend the vegetable pie — it‟s the specialty of the restaurant. be of + n. = be + a. be of great help = be helpful be of benefit = be beneficial be of value = be valuable be of importance = be important as a whole as one thing or piece and not as separate part ▲ This project will be of great benefit to the region as a whole. edge n. ① something that gives you an advantage over others ▲ Companies are employing more research teams to get an edge. ② the outer or furthest point of something ▲ Put the meat in the centre of the dish, with the vegetables around the edge. While in the middle level of management and production English is the means of communication in international companies and joint ventures... means n. action by which a result is brought about; method ▲ He used illegal means to get much profits. ▲ This money wasn‟t earned by honest means. by means of sth by using sth, with the help of sth ▲ She tried to explain by means of sign language. 7. ... to rise to a higher position in the company means not only to be qualified as an engineer or a manager, but also to be able to speak the language of the top managers. ... to rise to a higher position in the company means... 不定式作主语； only..., but also 引 not 出两个不定式短语作并列的宾语｡ 8. result in have a specified effect or consequence ▲ Such a growing demand can only result in increased price. ▲ We appreciate your efforts in pushing the sales of our products which have resulted in some transactions with us. Note: result in 只用于主动式,无被动式｡ 9. ..., in order to help bridge the gaps between China and the world, to become a part of the globalization process and strengthen China‟s position in the world. bridge the gaps 缩小差距 ▲ We believe that good marketing techniques can bridge the gaps between the seller and the customer. strengthen vt. (cause sth/sb) become stronger ▲ To strengthen economy and trade cooperation between our two companies can broaden the scales of marketing in international market. ▲ We produce a special shampoo to strengthen your hair. ▲ The high salary has further strengthened our determination to stay in the company. Note: strengthen 由名词 strength 加后缀-en 构成,有“使,使……变成”的含义,如:frighten 恐 吓;hasten 加快;heighten 提高;lengthen 延长等｡ -en 后缀加在一些词后面变成改变词性的新词,如: ① adj. + -en → v. 做,使变成,使成为 shorten 使缩短;darken 变黑; deepen 加深; broaden 加宽; sharpen 削光; soften 软化 ② n. + -en → adj. 由……制成,含……质的,似……的 wooden 木 Notice 制的; wheaten 小 April 10 麦 做 的 ; woolen In order to improve the managers‟ comprehensive managing abilities, a 羊 毛 制 的 ; golden 金质的 silken 丝的 ③ n. + -en → n. 含小的名 词 maiden 少女；chicken 小鸡； kitten 小猫 Practical Writing Sample Writing lecture on “How to improve the management efficiency” will be given by Mr. Johnson Pittman, the CEO of our company, in the Auditorium on Friday,April 12, 14:00-16:30. Those who are in the middle level of management are required to attend. All the employees are warmly welcomed.For further information please contact Andy at 66919866. Human Resources Department Unit 2 Making Introductions Related Information 1. Greeting Etiquette When people meet acquaintances or friends, they usually greet each other. The purpose of greeting is to establish or maintain social contact. In English, the simplest saying is “Good morning/afternoon/evening.” This greeting is given to one whom you know only slightly, or to anyone you are passing quickly. “How are you?” is usually used when you are not in such a hurry. No answer is expected other than “Fine, thank you.” “Hello” is the commonest form of greeting between good friends. 2. Handshake It is customary to shake hands when you first meet someone. Usually friends shake hands when they meet after not having seen each other for some time. However, it is not necessary to shake hands. Englishmen do shake hands with each other, but as little as possible. They never hug or kiss other men. Many Americans hug each other as a form of greeting. Girls tend to hug longer and guys just have a “half hug”. 3. Introduction Manners In introducing two people, the general rule is to introduce other people to the person you wish to honor. The old are honored in the West as in China. Women have been honored in the West since the days of knighthood. A man always rises for an introduction, except that it is sometimes all right for an elderly man to remain seated when a young man is introduced to him. The hostess always rises for an introduction. You should be cautious about asking a woman private questions. However, relaxing talks about her job or family life will never put you into danger. She is usually glad to offer you some advice on how to cook or get accustomed to local life. Tape Script: Sam: Hello, I don‟t think we‟ve met. Sam Erik. Victor: Sam: Victor: Sam: Victor: Sam: Victor Tang. Pleased to meet you. And what company are you from, Mr. Tang? Ocean Wide. I‟m the sales representative for this region. Ah yes. I know your company. Your business is expanding very rapidly at the moment. Yes, we‟re doing quite well. And yourself? Who do you work for? Actually I work for myself. I‟m the CEO of a small export and packaging company. We specialize in seafood. It‟s a growing market. Yes, but a very competitive one, Mr. Tang. Please call me Victor. And call me Sam. Victor, let me introduce you to someone. Lin, this is Victor Tang. He‟s the regional representative for Ocean Wide. This is Lin Chan, my sales manager. Victor: Sam: Victor: Sam: Lin: Victor: Lin: Victor: Lin: How do you do, Mr. Tang﹖ I‟m very well, thank you. Nice to meet you, Ms Chan. And you? Can I get you another drink? Thank you. Discussion & Role-play Useful Sentences: 1. How do you do, Mr. Tang? Hello, I don‟t think we‟ve meet, Tony. Please call me Victor. Nice to meet you. 2. Let me introduce you to someone. This is Victor Tang — he‟s the regional rep. for Ocean Wide. This is Lin Chan, my sales manager. 3. — What company are you from? — I‟m from... — Which company do you represent? — I‟m the... — What‟s your line of business? — I am in charge of... — Who do you work for? — I‟m work in... as a... — And what‟s your position there? — I‟m the sales manager. — And what do you do there? — I‟m the regional rep. for... Text A Language Study 1. honor ① n. a polite word; high standards of character or reputation ▲ It‟s a great honor to be able to cooperate with your firm. ② vt. to keep an agreement, often by making a payment, as in giving money for a cheque or bill ▲ Please honor our arrangement by exchanging the damaged goods. 2. present ① vt. to introduce someone esp. to someone of higher rank ▲ May I present Mr. Johnson to your sales manager? ② vt. to give something to someone, for example at a formal or official occasion present somebody with something ▲ She was presented with an award. ③ a. being in the place talked of ▲ How many leaders were present at APEC summit in Shanghai? 3. position ① n. a job ▲ He‟s got a good position with an oil company. ② n. the situation that someone is in, especially when this affects what they can and cannot do ▲ We regret that a position of our consignment of sugar is not to your satisfaction. ③ vt. to put in the proper position ▲ Please position the chairs for the board meeting. 4. tailor-made 最适合,最完美的 “tailor”是“裁缝师”;裁缝师以手工制作的西装,总是最合身的｡ 因此这个词是形容某人或 某物的条件好,对于某种情况来说,是最完美､ 最合适的｡ ▲ company. 5. graduate ① vi. to complete a course in education graduate from ▲ He graduated from the University of Texas, School of Business. ② a. [only before noun] [esp. Am.E.] relating to or involved in studies done at a university after completing a first degree [= postgraduate Br.E.] ▲ a graduate student ③ n. ▲ He is a Harvard graduate. 6. grant vt. ① to give ▲ We shall be happy to grant you an extension of two weeks on your account with us. ② to admit that something is true first degree ▲ We grant the truth of what the sellers have mentioned in their letter. take sth for granted 视为当然 ▲ We take it for granted that the manager should take responsibility. 7. award ① vt. to give, esp. as the result of an official decision ▲ The judge awarded him $1000 as damages. ② n. something such as a prize or money given to someone to reward them for something they have done ▲ Extra awards are as a rule granted to workers for diligent performance. 8. major ① n. [Am.E.] a chief or special subject taken by a student at a university ▲ My major in business in college is very helpful to my present job in this joint venture. ② vi. to study as the chief subject(s) when completing one‟s degree ▲ He majored in marketing in his graduate study. 9. assistant n. a person who helps another in a job, especially by doing the less important jobs ▲ The sales manager wants to employ an assistant to help him to deal with the day-to-day affairs in the department. ▲ The trade group is headed by our assistant director. 10. expand v. ① to (cause to) grow larger ▲ We feel that a 5% allowance will help the distributors expand the trade with the African countries. ② to develop ▲ Our foreign trade is expanding fast. synonym: extend 11. market share 市场占有率 特指某种产品,因有固定的消费者购买,故而控制了市场的一部分; “market share”即指在 同类产品的市场中所占有的销售比例｡ “share”在此当名词用,有“份儿;分担”的意思｡ ▲ After all of our TV sets were found to be defective, our market share dropped by 75%. 12. During this period, I also have learnt how to communicate with others, how to deal with urgent troubles, how to think independently and how to keep the values of team work. how to communicate with 由 how 引导的不定式短语作宾语｡ ▲ I don‟t know how to find the needed information on the Internet. deal with ① do with; handle; treat ▲ We will deal with this business matter in a few days. ▲ It is not easy to deal with the Japanese customers. ② to be concerned with ▲ We shall deal with this subject in our next market report. 13. forward-looking a. planning for and thinking about the future in a positive way, especially by being willing to use modern methods or ideas ▲ Only the most forward-looking companies will adapt and profit in the 1990‟s. Note: 这个词源自于词组 look forward, 意思是“往前看､ 眼光向前”｡ 所 以 forward-looking 这个形容词引申为“高瞻远瞩的､ 考虑未来”的意思. 14. take-charge a. ▲ possessing or exhibiting strong qualities of initiative, leadership, and management We‟re looking for a take-charge company to distribute our new product in a competitive market. Note: 这是由动词词组 “take charge of” 演变来的形容词,指 “能控制事情,负起责任 的(人或组织)”｡ 15. appreciate vt. ① to understand and enjoy the good qualities ▲ ② ▲ ▲ The CEO of this famous company appreciated him for his talented ability of business negotiation. to thank someone in a polite way or be grateful for something they have done Thanks ever so much for your help. I really appreciate it. appreciate sb for doing sth 因为……感谢某人 We highly appreciate you for your early reply. appreciative a. thankful, grateful be appreciative of ▲ We are appreciative of your email responses dated June 3 and June 12 to our request for an 8% reduction in price Note: 经贸用语中表示感谢的用语相当多,还有 Thank sb for...; (Many) Thanks for...; ... be grateful to sb for...; be obliged to sb for...; be indebted to sb for... 等 16. do one‟s best 尽力 ▲ We will do our best to promote friendship as well as business. ▲ We shall do our best to cooperate with you in business negotiation. 17. Even though I am a responsible and decisive individual, I am still willing to work together with my co-workers. even though even if 即使,引导让步状语从句 ▲ Even though you don‟t like negotiating, you have to go there. ▲ Your price is still on the high side even though we take the quality of your product into consideration. be willing to be eager to 愿意 ▲ If you would be willing to make an all-around reduction in price, we would accept a reduction of 2 percent in the agreed rate of commission. ▲ Are you willing to help us in this aspect? 18. qualify v. ▲ ▲ to (cause to) gain a qualification She qualified as the president‟s secretary of this firm. I‟m sorry to say, this promotion does not qualify you to sign company cheques. ▲ Employees on low incomes may qualify for special heating allowance. qualified a. ▲ ▲ 19. having the practical knowledge or skills to do sth be qualified for I am quite qualified for the job. be qualified to do The guides are qualified to lead groups into the mountains. look forward to to be thinking with pleasure about sth that is going to happen (后接动名词､ 名词､ 代词 等) ▲ ▲ We look forward to your acceptance of the closed quotation. We look forward to visiting the exhibition halls at the fairs. a bachelor‟s degree 学士学位 Bachelor of Science 理学士; Bachelor of Arts 文学士 2. MBA 工商管理硕士; 企业管理硕士 这是 Master of Business Administration 的缩写｡ Master 指硕士(学位);Administration Notes 1. 意思是“行政管理､ 经营”｡ Part 2 (Open) 英语的基本句型 Part 1 1. 主语+系动词+表语 I am 30 years old. Action Appliance is a forward-looking company. 2. 主语+谓语(不及物动词) (+状语) I graduated from Hong Kong University in 2000, majoring in Economic Management, 3. with a bachelor‟s degree. 主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语(+状语) I continued my graduate study, with Marketing as my major. Part 2 1. I graduated from Northeast University. 2. I appreciate your prompt reply. 3. This is our human resources manager. 4. The company gave Frank a beautiful gold watch on his retirement. 5. I had the job done within one hour. 6. There are many similar products you can choose from. 8. Role-play (Open) Text B Language Study 1. The first rule is to remember the names of everyone you‟re being introduced to. ... to remember the names of everyone you‟re being introduced to.是一个动词不定式短语作 it 的表语;everyone 后接省略 who/whom 引导的定语从句｡ 2. When you introduce two people to each other, the person whose name you mention first is the more important one; lower status people are always introduced to higher status people. when 引出一个时间状语从句,主句为两个并列句｡ status n. the official legal position or condition of a person, group, country, etc ▲ He is very aware of his status. ▲ What‟s her official status in her company? 3. A title does not automatically confer status. confer ① vt. to give sth on sb; to give or grant(a degree or title) to sb ▲ He behaves as if high rank automatically confers to order someone. ② vi. to have discussion (esp. in order to exchange opinion or get advice) ▲ She conferred with her advisers before announcing the decision. 4. If you are still confused, use this tip as a way to remember whose name goes first:... if 引出一个条件状语从句,to remember... 动词不定式短语作目的状语,whose 引出的从句 作 remember 的宾语｡ confuse vt. to make (sb) unable to think clearly ▲ The manager‟s unexpected arrival confused all our plans. ▲ The interviews confused me by asking many questions. confusion n. the fact of making a mistake about who sb is or what sth is 5. 6. 7. 8. ▲ We never quote different prices for the same product in the same market so as not to cause any confusion. synonym: disorder There are many rules about who is supposed to be introduced to whom. 以 who 引导宾语从句,who 在从句中作主语,代词 whom 作介词 to 的宾语｡ suppose vt. to guess, surmise, presume, assume be supposed to do 按(规定､ 习惯､ 安排等)应当､ 应该做…… ▲ You‟re supposed to pay the bill by Friday. ▲ According to our contract with you, the L/C is supposed to be opened by the end of April. supposing conj. used to ask sb to pretend that sth is true or to imagine that sth will happen ▲ Supposing the facts to be reported, the position would be serious. ▲ Supposing that we make a large order with you, would you allow us a discount of 5%﹖ A skilled host/hostess will always give each person a clue as to why two persons are being introduced so that you‟ll know how to make a small talk after the introduction. as to 介词短语作 a clue 的定语; why 引出的从句作介词短语 as to 的宾语; so that 引出一 个从句作主句的目的状语; how to make 为一动词不定式短语作 know 的宾语｡ as to 关于 用于句首 ▲ As to item 3 in the contract, we have instructed our bank to open the covering L/C. 用于句中:与 as for 相当, 可接名词、间接疑问句、名词从句等 ▲ On receipt of this information we expect to be able to let you have a prompt decision as to what can be done. ▲ We would appreciate your advice as to how we should normally debit or credit you for the funds in final settlement. synonym：as for, as regards, regarding as for 多用于人,仅用于句首; as to 多用于事物,可放在句首和句中 ▲ As for regular orders in future, could you agree to payment by L/C at 60 days sight? ▲ As for references, we can give you the names of some concerns in your country. ▲ There is not any doubt as to their credit standing. Harry will follow that lead and begin a conversation. lead n. piece of information or evidence that might provide the solution to a problem ▲ They are investigating the current market for an important lead. ▲ We may follow this lead to expend our market. synonym: clue However, the person whose name came second in the introduction is responsible for starting the conversation. whose 引导的定语从句修饰先行词 the person, whose 在从句中作定语｡ responsible a. legally or morally obliged, e.g. to take care of sb/sth or carry out a duty and be liable to be blamed of one‟s fail ▲ Under such circumstances, the sellers shall not be held responsible. be responsible for ▲ You must make yourself personally responsible for paying these bills. ▲ The insurance company is responsible for the claims. Practical writing Suggested Answer Huaxin Import & Export Co., Ltd Huang Hui Sales Manager Add: 16th Floor Kingstar Mansion Tele: 021-65332668 616 Jinlin Road(w), Shanghai, China Fax: 021-65332669 Post Code: 200658 Mobile: 13958040376 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Unit 3 Jobs and Responsibilities Related Information Text A 1. Employee Job Descriptions A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. Jobs have titles. A task is typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some results, e.g. vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions. Job descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Typically, they also include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills needed by the job. Note that a role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. A job usually includes several roles. Typically, job descriptions are used especially for advertising to fill an open position, determining compensation and as a basis for performance reviews. Not everyone believes that job descriptions are highly useful. 2. Customer Services Representatives Customer services representatives are employed by many different types of companies to serve as a direct point of contact for customers. They are responsible for ensuring that their company‟s customers receive an adequate level of service or help with their questions and concerns. These customers may be individual consumers or other companies, and their service needs can vary considerably. All customer services representatives interact with customers to provide information in response to inquiries about products or services and to handle and resolve complaints. They communicate with customers through a variety of means — by telephone; by e-mail, fax, regular mail; or in person. Some customer services representatives handle general questions and complaints, whereas others specialize in a particular area. Many customer inquiries involve routine questions and requests. For example, customer services representatives may be asked to provide a customer with his/her credit card balance, or to check on the status of an order. However, other questions are more involved, and may require additional research or further explanation on the part of the customer services representatives. In handling customers‟ complaints, they must attempt to resolve the problems according to the guidelines established by the company. These procedures may involve asking questions to determine the validity of a complaint; offering possible solutions; or providing customers with refunds, exchange, or other offers, like discounts or coupons. In some cases, customer services representatives are required to follow up with an individual customer until a question is answered or an issue is resolved. Some customer services representatives help people decide what types of products or services would best suit their needs. They may even aid customers in completing purchases or transactions. Although the primary function of customer services representatives is not sales, some may spend time encouraging customers to purchase additional products or services. (For information on workers whose primary function is sales, see the statements on sales and related occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Customer services representatives also may make changes or updates to a customer‟s profile or account information. They may keep records of transactions and update and maintain databases of information. Text B Louis Caldera Louis Caldera (born 1956) served as United States Secretary of the Army from July 2, 1998 — January 20, 2001, the 17th man to hold that office. The son of Mexican immigrants (Soledad and Benjamin Caldera), Caldera was born in Paso, Texas. His family left Texas for California when he was four, living briefly in public housing in the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles before moving to the suburb of Whittier. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1978 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, then served on active duty from 1978 to 1983, mostly at Fort Dix, New Jersey. He went on to enroll in Harvard University and in 1987 earned both an MBA and a JD degree. Caldera practised law from 1987 to 1990 at the firm of O‟Melveny & Myers, then worked as a Deputy Counsel for Los Angeles County. Caldera then served as a California State Assemblyman from 1992 to 1997, representing the nearly 400,000 residents of the 46th District, which is located in and around downtown Los Angeles. As an assemblyman, he served as chairman of the Banking and Finance Committee, the Revenue and Taxation Committee, and the Budget Committee. Before finishing his third term in the Assembly, Caldera left to begin serving as managing director and chief operating officer for President Bill Clinton‟s Corporation for National and Community Service, a domestic volunteer program. Less than a year later he became Army Secretary. He went on to serve as Vice Chancellor for University Advancement in the California State University System, the largest four-year university system in the country. Caldera became the 18th president of the University of New Mexico in August 2003 and stepped down from that post in January 2006. Mr. Caldera now serves as a tenured member of the University of New Mexico Law School faculty. Text A Language Study 1. staff ① vt. to provide workers or assistants for an organization ▲ The centre is staffed mainly by volunteers. ② n. [C also + plural verb] the people who work for an organization ▲ The entire staff has done an outstanding job this year. ▲ The staff are not very happy about the latest pay increase. staff of 10/50 etc ▲ Our department has a staff of seven. member of staff ▲ I‟d like to welcome a new member of staff. 2. inventory n. ① all the goods in a shop [= stock] ▲ We plan to reduce the inventory by having a sale. ▲ Retailers‟ inventory may exist in a warehouse or in a store accessible to customers. ② a list of all the things in a place inventory of ▲ We made an inventory of everything in the apartment. 3. range ① n. a number of people or things that are all different, but are all of the same general type range of ▲ The drug is effective against a range of bacteria. ② n. a set of similar products made by a particular company or available in a particular shop ▲ A company from Darlington has just launched its latest range of fashion jewellery. ▲ The cookers in this range are priced at ￡24.50. ▲ Our company has a very large product range. ③ vi. if prices, levels, temperatures, etc range from one amount to another, they include both those amounts and anything in between ▲ The prices of the MP4 players range between $50 and $250. ▲ Dress sizes range from petite to extra large. range in age/size/price, etc ▲ The shoes range in price from $25 to $100. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. corporate a. belonging to or relating to a corporation ▲ The company is moving its corporate headquarters from Washington D.C. to New York. corporate identity the way a company presents itself to the public ▲ We are launching an advertising campaign in order to reinforce our corporate identity. complaint n. a statement in which someone complains about something ▲ The jump in food prices gave rise to a lot of complaint. ▲ Complaints are dealt with by the customer services department. complaint about/of/against ▲ Kevin was fired after complaints about the quality of his work. ▲ All complaints against police officers are carefully investigated. make a complaint ▲ If you wish to make a complaint, you should see the manager. issue ① n. a subject or problem which people are thinking and talking about ▲ Economic issues should get more attention. ▲ Global warming has become a very hot issue. ② n. a magazine or newspaper printed for a particular day, week, or month ▲ Have you seen the latest issue of the magazine? ③ vt. to produce or provide something official issue something to somebody ▲ The policy document will be issued to all employees. issue somebody with something ▲ All the workers were issued with protective clothing. refund ① n. an amount of money that is given back to you if you are not satisfied with the goods or services that you have paid for ▲ You can return your purchase within 14 days for a full refund. ② vt. to give someone a refund ▲ The holiday was cancelled so the travel agency had to refund everybody the price of the tickets. compensation n. ① money paid to someone for something that has been lost or damaged or for some inconvenience ▲ There is something wrong with the pressure cooker he has just bought, so he‟s going to the shop for compensation. ② [Am.E.] the money someone is paid for doing their job ▲ The job is hard but the compensation is good. recruitment n. act of seeking prospective new employees or members for an organization ▲ Recruitment is a vital function for an organization to maintain its personnel. recruit v. to find new people to work in a company, join an organization, or to get people to join the army, navy, etc ▲ Many government officials were recruited from private industry. ▲ One of the responsibilities of an HR manager is to recruit for the company. 10. appraisal n. a statement or opinion judging the worth, value, or condition of something performance appraisal ▲ Performance appraisal is the personnel evaluation method seeking the measurement of employee work effectiveness using objective criteria. 11. deliver v. ① to do or provide the things you are expected to, because you are responsible for them or they are part of your job ▲ The costs of delivering adequate nursing care are high. ② to take goods, letters, packages, etc to a particular place or person ▲ The shop will deliver our new bed on Thursday. deliver a speech/lecture, etc to make a speech, etc to a lot of people ▲ He delivered an important report at the meeting. 12. standard ① n. a level of quality ▲ Students have to reach a certain standard or they won‟t pass. ▲ The country should set standards of minimum salary per month. ▲ We have very high safety standards in this plant. ② a. accepted as normal or usual ▲ We pay our employees the standard salaries. standard practice/procedure the usual way of doing things ▲ Searching luggage at airports is now standard practice. standard room ▲ The standard room in this hotel costs only 80 yuan per night, which is not very expensive. Terms 1. Role Model The term role model was introduced by Robert K. Merton, a distinguished American sociologist. Merton says that individuals compare themselves with “reference groups” of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. The term has passed into general use to mean any “person who serves as an example, whose behavior is emulated by others”. Inventory Control 库存控制 2. Inventory control is the process of managing the timing and the quantities of goods to be ordered and stocked, so that demands can be met satisfactorily and economically. Inventories are accumulated commodities waiting to be used to meet anticipated demands. There are three basic reasons for keeping an inventory: ★ Time — The time lags present in the supply chain, from supplier to user at every stage, requires that you maintain certain amount of inventory to use in this “lead time”. ★ Uncertainty — Inventories are maintained as buffers to meet uncertainties in demand, supply and movements of goods. ★ Economies of scale — Ideal condition of “one unit at a time at a place where a user needs it, when he needs it” principle tends to incur lots of costs in terms of logistics. So bulk buying, movement and storing bring in economies of scale, thus inventory. The benefits of carrying inventories have to be compared with the costs of holding them. Holding costs include the following elements: costs of capital for money tied up in the inventories; costs of owning or renting the warehouse or other storage spaces; materials handling equipment and labor costs; costs of potential obsolescence, pilferage, and deterioration; property taxes levied on inventories; and costs of installing and operating an inventory control policy. Loss Prevention 损失预防 3. Programs instituted by individuals or companies to prevent losses. Businesses implement safety programs to prevent workplace injuries. Individuals install fire detectors, burglar alarms, and other protective devices to prevent losses caused by fire and theft. Car owners install special locks to prevent auto theft. Insurance companies usually offer discounts to businesses or individuals taking loss prevention measures. Customer Care 客户关怀 4. Customer care involves putting systems in place to maximize your customers‟ satisfaction with your business. It should be a prime consideration for every business — your sales and profitability depend on keeping your customers happy. Customer care is more directly important in some roles than others. For receptionists, sales staff and other employees in customer-facing roles, customer care should be a core element of their job description and training, and a core criterion when you‟re recruiting. Corporate Services 公司服务 5. Activities that combine or consolidate certain enterprise-wide needed support services, provided based on specialized knowledge, best practices, and technology to serve internal (and sometimes external) customers and business partners. Text B Language Study 1. injure vt. to hurt yourself or someone else, for example in an accident or an attack ▲ He was badly injured in the car crash. injure somebody‟s pride/feelings, etc ▲ We shouldn‟t injure children‟s self-esteem. Note: 比较 damage, hurt, injure, wound damage 指对东西或身体部位造成伤害,不用于指伤害某人｡ ▲ Fires can damage crops and animals. hurt 和 injure 都可以表示事故､灾害等对人身体造成伤害｡wound 表示被刀､枪等武器所 伤｡ ▲ He was hurt in the earthquake. ▲ Five people were killed and many others were seriously wounded in the attack. fancy a. ① decorative or complicated ▲ We sell fancy soaps in seashell shapes. ▲ I just want a basic sports coat — nothing fancy. ② fancy hotels/restaurants/cars, etc Hotels, restaurants, cars, etc that are expensive and fashionable discount n. a reduction in the usual price of something ▲ In view of our long-standing relationship, we agree to allow you a 10 % discount. ▲ We give a discount of 8% for payment in cash. at a discount ▲ The employees of the bookstore can buy books at a discount. discount on ▲ The department store is giving a 20% discount on some brand-name shoes. discount store/shop, etc a place where you can buy goods cheaply trash, garbage, litter trash n. things that you throw away, such as empty bottles, used papers, etc garbage n. waste material, such as paper, empty containers, and food thrown away litter n. waste paper, cans, etc that people have thrown away and left on the ground in a public place Note: trash 和 garbage 都是美式英语用法,二者基本没有区别,相当于英式英语中的 rubbish｡litter 表示公共场所地面上散落的垃圾｡表示垃圾桶时用法有所不同,美式英语用 法是 trash can 或 garbage can; 英式英语用法是 litter bin 或 litter basket｡ 2. 3. 4. 5. I acquired discipline and a strong work ethic, and learned at an early age the importance of balancing life‟s competing interests... 句中 acquired 和 learned 是并列谓语; learned 的宾语是 the importance of...,状语 at an early age 插在了谓语和宾语之间;现在分词 competing 作定语｡ discipline n. the ability to control your own behavior, so that you do what you are expected to do ▲ Working from home requires a good deal of discipline. ethic n. a general idea or belief that influences people‟s behavior and attitudes ▲ The old ethic of hard work has given way to a new ethic of instant gratification. ethics [pl] moral rules or principles of behavior for deciding what is right or wrong ▲ He began to question the ethics of his position. professional/business/medical ethics Note: ethnic 有形容词词性,意思是“民族的,种族的”｡例如, ethnic group 民族,民族群体｡ balance ① vt. to give several things equal amounts of importance, time or money, so that a situation is successful ▲ I struggle to balance work and family commitments. ▲ Wage increase was balanced by rising cost of living. ② n. a state where things are of equal weight or force ▲ We need to strike a balance between the needs of the group and the rights of the individual. This really helped during my senior year of high school, when I worked 40 hours a week selling burgers at a fast-food restaurant while taking a full load of college-prep courses. when 引导时间状语从句;连词 while 连接两个并列的现在分词短语作状语 selling... 和 taking...｡ senior a. having a higher position, level, or rank ▲ She‟s senior to me, so I have to do what she tells me. antonym: junior load a. a large quantity of something that is carried by a vehicle, person, etc a load/loads of a lot of something ▲ We got a load of complaints about the loud music. pay off ① if something you do pays off, it is successful or has a good result ▲ It has been rather costly to install the machinery, but it should pay off in the long run. 6. 7. ② to pay back money that you owe ▲ It took them three years to pay off the debt. Terms Work Ethic Work ethic is a set of values based on the moral virtues of hard work and diligence. It is also a belief in moral benefit of work and its ability to enhance character. A work ethic may include being reliable, having initiative or maintaining social skills. Workers exhibiting a good work ethic in theory (and ideally in practice) should be selected for better positions, more responsibilities and ultimately promotion. Workers who fail to exhibit a good work ethic may be regarded as failing to provide fair value for the wage the employer is paying them and should not be promoted or placed in positions of greater responsibility. One central concept that forms part of the basis of the free market economic theory of western capitalism is that workers who work hard and play by the rules will be rewarded (eventually) and will move ahead, and that those who do not should be allowed to enjoy the fruits of their own poor performance. Practical Writing Sample Writing Job Description Responsibilities · Serving customers in a polite, friendly and helpful manner. · Writing down customer orders if necessary. · Operating an electronic cash register. · Changing till roll when needed. · Implementing shop policies and procedures. · Clearing any rubbish as and when needed; including leaflets. · Restocking shelves implementing a „stock rotation‟ system. · Keeping „serving counter‟ area clean and tidy at all times. · Emptying rubbish on a regular basis. · Attending shop staff meetings. · Vacuuming shop floor. · Helping keep store room tidy. · Checking stock delivery details, ensuring correct stock has been delivered, priced up and putting stock on shelves in stock room. Person Specification · Excellent communication skills · Numerate and literate · Able to work on own initiative · Responsible individual with commitment to their work · Team worker · Friendly, reliable, trustworthy and honest Unit 4 Time Management Related Information Time Management Benjamin Franklin said, “Do you love life? Then do not squander time, for that‟s the stuff that life is made of.” Time management is a set of principles, practices, skills, tools, and systems working together to help you get more value out of your time with the aim of improving the quality of your life. An important aspect of time management is planning ahead. Sometimes, successful time management involves putting in more time at the outset in order to reorganize one‟s life. The next step in time management is to look at all the activities one participates in during a week. Every last detail should be written down. Often, when individuals write down every last activity, they find that there is very little time left for sleeping. The end result is that many activities must be pared down, eliminated, consolidated, or delegated. Prioritizing activities on a scale of one to three — one being the most important and three being the least — can help with this task. Lastly, good time management involves keeping a schedule of the tasks and activities that have been deemed important. Keeping a calendar or daily planner is helpful to stay on task, but self-discipline is also required. The most efficient to-do list in the world will not help someone who does not look at or follow his own daily planner. Of course, the other side of the argument is to remember to live. Get on top of your time management, get organized, and stay on task, but live your life. Schedule some time off every day and at least one day off each week. Be organized, but do not be a slave to time management. Time Management Matrix A Time Management Matrix can help you discover how much time you might be wasting. The Matrix has four quadrants. Enter three or more of your regular activities into each quadrant. Once you‟ve done this, you are ready to assess how well you are managing your time. Urgent Important Not Important Quadrant 1 Quadrant 3 Not urgent Quadrant 2 Quadrant 4 2. 1. Quadrant 1: Important and Urgent Only crisis activities should be in here. If you have included exams and papers here, you are probably not allowing yourself enough time to fully prepare. If you continue at this pace you could burn yourself out! Quadrant 2: Important and Not Urgent This is where you define your priorities. What‟s important in your life? What will keep you balanced? For example, you may know that good nutrition, sleep, recreation, and maintaining healthy social relationships are important but do you consciously make time for them in your daily or weekly routine? Managing your life and the lifestyle will help you manage your time. Quadrant 3: Not Important and Urgent While you may feel that activities, such as instant messaging, need your attention right away, too much time spent on Quadrant 3 activities can seriously reduce valuable study time. This may leave you feeling pulled in too many directions at once. Quadrant 4: Not Important and Not Urgent If you‟re spending many hours on Quadrant 4 activities, you‟re either having a great deal of fun or spending a lot of time procrastinating! Remember, the objective is balance. Next, you may want to examine how much time you should be devoting to studying. Try the Time Management Tracking Sheet to help you sort out whether you are studying enough to get the grades you want. The following table is an example: Urgent Important Quadrant 1 ☆ Crises ☆ Pressing problems ☆ Deadline-driven projects Not urgent Quadrant 2 ☆ Prevention ☆ Relationship building ☆ Recognizing new opportunities ☆ Planning, recreation Quadrant 4 ☆ Trivia, busy work ☆ Some mail ☆ Some phone calls ☆ Time wasters ☆ Pleasant activities Not Important Quadrant 3 ☆ Interruptions, some calls ☆ Some mail, some reports ☆ Some meetings ☆ Proximate, pressing matters ☆ Popular activities Text A Language Study 1. manage ① vt. to control a business or department and the people, equipment, and money involved in it ▲ Has she had any experience of managing large projects? ▲ The company had been very badly managed. ② v. (～ to do sth) to succeed in doing sth difficult, especially after trying very hard 2. ▲ I can‟t manage all this work on my own. ▲ I only just managed to finish the task on time. We need to adjust how we look at the time we have and how we choose to use it. how... and how... 是并列的宾语从句,其中 we have 是定语从句,修饰 time｡ adjust ① vt. to change something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable ▲ If your employment status changes, your tax code will be adjusted accordingly. ② v. to gradually become familiar with a new situation [= adapt] ▲ It took time to adjust myself to the lifestyle of America. schedule ① n. a plan of what someone is going to do and when they are going to do it ▲ I‟m going to be working to a very tight schedule [=including a lot of things that must be done in a short time]. on schedule at the planned time ▲ The majority of holiday flights depart and arrive on schedule. ahead of/behind schedule before or after the planned time ▲ Construction of the power plant is behind schedule because of bad winter weather. ▲ Meg‟s new book is still well ahead of schedule. ② vt. to arrange that an event or activity will happen at a particular time ▲ I haven‟t scheduled the coming week yet. ▲ Her first album is scheduled for release in September. priority n. something that is very important and must be dealt with before other things ▲ The management should consider office safety to be a priority. ▲ Banks normally give priority to large businesses when deciding on loans [= They deal with them first because they consider them most important]. top/high/low priority important/unimportant thing ▲ The arrangement of this business agreement is a top priority. have/take/get priority to be considered most important and dealt with before anything else ▲ The problems requiring immediate solution will be given priority at the meeting. priority over ▲ This project has priority over all others. Think about how you really want to spend your time and identify the things that you enjoy and are important to you. Think about... and identify...是并列的祈使句; how 引导宾语从句; that you enjoy and... 是 3. 4. 5. 定语从句,修饰 things,从句中 you 是主语,enjoy 和 are 是并列的谓语｡ identify vt. ① to recognize something or discover exactly what it is, what its nature or origin is, etc ▲ The research will be used to identify training needs. ② to recognize and correctly name someone or something ▲ I cannot identify this signature. The basic part for effective daily planning is taking some time to plan for each and every day. taking some time... 是现在分词短语,作表语｡ effective a. ① successful or achieving the results that you want ▲ The ads were simple, but remarkably effective. ② if a law, agreement, or system becomes effective, it officially starts ▲ This agreement will become effective from January 17. antonym: ineffective You can do it at night before you go to bed, or the first thing in the morning. first thing as soon as you get up in the morning or as soon as you start work ▲ I‟ll phone him first thing Monday. Morning is a good time to do this as your mind is fresh after a good night‟s sleep. as your mind is fresh... 是原因状语从句｡ as conj. because ▲ As it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel. fresh a. ① [not usually before noun] full of energy because you are not tired ▲ She always seems fresh and lively, even at the end of the day. ② new, different or another ▲ I‟ll just make some fresh coffee. ▲ The report provides fresh evidence about the way the business was running. ③ recently made, done, arrived, etc. ▲ fresh fruit/vegetables/fish/bread, etc Those five to ten minutes will make you clear about your actions for the day so you are more likely to be highly productive, and feel less stress and pressure. so you are more likely... 是结果状语从句｡ so conj. therefore ▲ There was no food in the house so we rang out for a pizza. likely a. something that will probably happen or is expected 6. 7. 8. 9. likely outcome/effects/consequences, etc ▲ What‟s the likely outcome of this whole business? likely to do/be something ▲ We are not likely to veto our own proposals, are we? antonym: unlikely productive a. producing or achieving a lot ▲ Most of us are more productive in the morning. ▲ We had a very productive meeting — I felt we sorted out a lot of problems. antonym: unproductive stress n. continuous feelings of worry about your work or personal life, that prevent you from relaxing ▲ People under a lot of stress may experience headaches, minor pains and sleeping difficulties. pressure n. a way of working or living that causes you a lot of anxiety, especially because you feel you have too many things to do ▲ I‟m under constant pressure at work. Note: stress 和 pressure 都指压迫人的力量｡stress 指使人感到内心痛苦的各种原 因,pressure 则指强制或促使某种行动的外部压力｡因此 stress 通常为不好的东西,而适当 增加 pressure 有时却是件好事｡ 10. Another essential part of time management is the ability to be effective with your time. to be effective with your time 是动词不定式,作后置定语｡ essential a. extremely important and necessary ▲ Government support will be essential if the project is to succeed. essential for/to ▲ It is essential to book in advance. it is essential (that) ▲ It is essential (that) our prices remain competitive. 11. Only spend time on the things that matter to you, and make sure you use that time effectively. and 连接两个并列的祈使句｡ matter vi. [not in progressive] to be important, or to have an effect on what happens ▲ In the marketplace, the design of product package really matters. it doesn‟t etc matter ▲ If I have to stay late at work tonight, it won‟t matter because we can go out another night. ▲ It doesn‟t matter who wins. Just try your best. make sure to take action so that you are certain that something happens, is true, etc ▲ I‟d like to make sure my plane reservation is in order. ▲ I‟ll make sure that the letter leaves tonight. make sure of/about ▲ There is just one or two details I want to make sure about. Text B Language Study 1. organization n. ① planning and arranging something so that it is successful or effective ▲ The organization of such a large-scale party takes a lot of time and energy. ② a group such as a club or business that has formed for a particular purpose ▲ The organization was founded in 1980. 2. They suggest you start by asking what your real goals are for yourself, your family, and your career. you start... 是宾语从句,省略了关联词 that; suggest 后接宾语从句时,从句用 should+动词 原形,should 可以省略｡ career n. a job or profession that you have been trained for, and which you do for a long period of your life ▲ He‟s hoping for a career in the police force. career development/advancement/progression, etc ▲ Career prospects within the company are excellent. Note: 比较 job, work, post, position, occupation, profession, career Your job is the work that you do regularly in order to earn money, especially when you work for a company or public organization ▲ My last job was with a computer firm. Work is used in a more general way to talk about activities that you do to earn money, either working for a company or for yourself ▲ I started work when I was 18. !! Do not say “What is your job?” or “What is your work?” Say “What do you do?” or “What do you do for a living?” Post and position are more formal words for a job in a company or organization. They are used especially in job advertisements and when you are talking about someone moving to a different job ▲ This post would suit a recent graduate. ▲ He left last summer for a teaching position in Singapore. Use occupation to talk about the kind of work that someone usually does, for example if they 3. 4. are a teacher, lawyer, driving instructor, etc. Occupation is used mainly on official forms ▲ State your name, age, and occupation in the box below. !! Do not use occupation to talk about your own job ▲ I am an accountant. (NOT My occupation is an accountant.) A profession is a kind of work for which you need special training and a good education, for example teaching, law, or medicine ▲ He left the teaching profession in 1965 to set up his own business. Your career is the type of work that you do or hope to do for most of your life ▲ I‟m interested in a career in television. -month calendar for long-term scheduling. -term suffix long/medium/short-term lasting a long/medium/short time ▲ The project will have long-term benefits. 6-month calendar a calendar with 6 months printed on one piece of paper. relate ① vi. if two things relate, they are connected in some way ▲ I don‟t understand how the two ideas relate. relate to ▲ Chapter nine relates to the effects of inflation on consumers. synonym: connect ② vt. if you relate two different things, you show how they are connected relate something to something ▲ The report seeks to relate the rise in crime to an increase in unemployment. Note: relating to 是介词短语,意思是“about or concerning”｡ ▲ Anything relating to maths is a complete mystery to me. delegate ① v. to give part of your power or work to someone in a lower position than you ▲ A good manager knows when to delegate. ▲ It takes experience to judge correctly how much power should be delegated. delegate something to somebody ▲ Minor tasks should be delegated to your assistant. ② vt. to choose someone to do a particular job, or to be a representative of a group, organization, etc delegate somebody to do something ▲ I was delegated to find a suitable conference venue. contribute ① vi. to help to make something happen ▲ Stress is a contributing factor in many illnesses. contribute to ▲ What are the factors contribute to the safety of a car? 5. 6. 7. ② v. to give money, help, ideas, etc to something that a lot of other people are also involved in ▲ The volunteers contribute their own time to the project. Then when you have to wait, you can make good use of or enjoy the time. make good use of 和 enjoy 是并列的谓语动词,接共同的宾语 the time｡ make use of to use something that is available ▲ We will make use of her vast experience. come down to If a situation or decision comes down to something, that is the thing that influences it most. ▲ Eventually our choice of hotel will come down to how much we can afford. Good choices lead to better results, while poor choices lead to wasting time and energy. 连词 while 连接并列句,表示对比,相当于 whereas,可译为“而”､“然而”｡ 8. 9. lead to If an action or event leads to something, it causes that thing to happen or exist. ▲ Reducing speed limits should lead to fewer deaths on the roads. Practical Writing 8 - 10 a.m. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday no work work work work work work no work 10 - 12 a.m. no work house chores house chores facial & pedicure house chores work no work 1 - 3 p.m. no work work work work work no work no work 4 - 5 p.m. no work cook cook break cook cook no work 5 p.m. no work family time family time family time & dinner out family time & laundry family time no work Unit 5 Starting a Business Related Information Baby Einstein Baby Einstein is a line of multimedia products and toys that specializes in interactive activities for children aged 3 months to 3 years old. Subjects such as classical music, art, and poetry are prominently explored. These products are currently made by a division of the Walt Disney Company, marketed under the slogan, “Where Discovery Begins”. While being popular with many parents who desire to provide an early boost to their children‟s cognitive development, products of this sort find little support among experts in the 1. field of early childhood education, who emphasize the crucial role of “hands-on”, experiential learning through exploration and manipulation of the child‟s physical environment. In August 2007, researchers at the University of Washington published a study which found that the use of Baby Einstein DVDs/videos correlates to smaller vocabularies in children 6 to 18 months old. The Baby Einstein Company and its parent, the Walt Disney Company, have taken issue with the findings of the study. 2. The Right Start The Right Start is the largest national specialty retailer of juvenile products for infants and young children. Parents have trusted them to offer the most innovative, high-quality, safety tested products for their children since 1985. The Right Start carries a carefully selected assortment of the finest quality strollers, car seats, developmental toys, books, videos, music, nursery accessories, and home safety items, plus a complete assortment of care products. When you visit one of The Right Start‟s 33 stores nationwide, you will find friendly, knowledgeable sales associates eager to help you with parenting solutions. Shop with confidence where you‟ll find the best products from brands you know and trust — always at great prices. 3. The American International Toy Fair The American International Toy Fair (the trademarked name uses all capitals for TOY FAIR) is one of a few major toy industry trade shows held around the world. It is held annually in late winter (mid February) in New York City. It is staged by the Toy Industry Association. The show is claimed by the promoters to be the largest toy trade show in the Western Hemisphere. In 2006, more than 1,500 manufacturers, distributors, importers and sales agents from 30 countries exhibited their toy and entertainment products in over 300,000 square feet of exhibit space. Text A Language Study 1. There was never a master plan, insists Julie Aigner-Clark, 39, whose popular Baby Einstein line of videos and books for infants and toddlers is known to millions of parents around the world. 本句主语是 Julie Aigner-Clark,谓语是 insists,宾语 There was... 前置;whose... 非限定性定 语从句,修饰先行词 Julie Aigner-Clark｡ 2. She attributes her success to common sense and tenacity. attribute something to somebody/something to believe or say that a situation or event is caused by something ▲ Don‟t attribute all your mistakes to objective causes. 3. At the same time, I realized I missed what I had focused on so much — literature and art — and I thought, it would be so great if my child loved this as much as I do. I missed... 是宾语从句;what 引导的宾语从句作 missed 的宾语,what 在从句中作介词 on 的宾语;破折号表示解释说明;and 连接并列句;it would... 是宾语从句｡ 4. I knew that if my baby liked this, other babies would as well. as well in addition; also; too 5. 6. 7. ▲ She insisted on directing the play and on producing it as well. ▲ Often life is much slower outside the big cities, as is true in other countries as well. Note: 比较 also, too, as well Also, too and as well can be used in many of the same contexts. ▲ She‟s a valued colleague, and a great friend too. ▲ She‟s a valued colleague, and a great friend as well. ▲ She‟s a valued colleague, also a great friend. Also is the most formal and the most likely to be used in formal writing such as reports. As well is the most informal and the most likely to be used in speech. Too is never used at the beginning of a clause. Also is not usually used at the end of a clause. The Clarks financed the project with $15,000 from their savings. finance ① vt. to provide money, especially a lot of money, to pay for something ▲ The repairs to the school will be financed by the educational department. synonym: fund ② n. (the management of) a supply of money ▲ We need to raise finance for further research. ▲ The finance committee controls the organization‟s budget. financial a. relating to money or how money is managed ▲ This company was in serious financial difficulties. savings n. all the money that you have saved, especially in a bank ▲ Buying a house had taken all their savings. savings account a bank account in which you keep money that you want to save for a period of time, and which pays you interest on the money you have in it Realizing she needed a distributor, Clark set her sights on The Right Start, a company that sold products for babies. Realizing... 现在分词短语作状语,动词 realize 和主语 Clark 逻辑上是主动关系,因此用现 在分词形式;a company... 是 The Right Start 的同位语;that sold... 是定语从句,修饰 company,关系代词 that 在从句中作主语｡ distributor n. a company or person that supplies shops and companies with goods set one‟s sights/heart/mind/on (doing) something to want very much to have or achieve something, or to be determined to do something ▲ He set his sights on crossing the Pacific by balloon. ▲ Ellen has completely set her heart on that house. ... educated moms who wanted to invest in their children‟s future. educated 过去分词作定语;who 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 moms,who 在从句中作主语｡ invest v. to put money, effort, time, etc into something to make a profit or get an advantage invest (something) in something 8. ▲ Oliver made a fortune by investing in the bond market. ▲ Williams invested a large sum of money in Swiss stocks. investment n. the use of money to get a profit or to make a business activity successful, or the money that is used ▲ Stocks are regarded as good long-term investments. She couldn‟t afford a display booth and The Right Start hadn‟t rented one. and 连接并列句｡ (can/could) afford vt. [usually negative] to be able to buy or do something because you have enough money or time ▲ She couldn‟t afford the time off work to see him. afford to do something ▲ How can she afford to eat out every night? Note: Afford can be followed by an infinitive with “to”, but not an -ing form. ▲ I can‟t afford to buy (NOT can‟t afford buying/can‟t afford buy) a car. booth n. a small partly enclosed structure where you can buy things, play games, or get information, usually at a market or a fair rent ① vt. to regularly pay money to live in a house or room that belongs to someone else, or to use something that belongs to someone else ▲ I rented a car from a garage so that I could get about. ② n. the money that someone pays regularly to use a room, house, etc that belongs to someone else ▲ I pay the rent at the beginning of every month. Text B Language Study 1. headquarters [group noun] the main offices of an organization such as the army, police or a business company ▲ The top storey of this building is our company‟s headquarters. Note: “Headquarter” is not a noun. The only noun is the plural noun “head-quarters”. The noun headquarters is used with either a singular or a plural verb. The plural is more common. ▲ The corporation‟s headquarters are in Boston. But when reference is to authority rather than to physical location, many people prefer the singular ▲ Division headquarters has approved the new benefits package. headquarter v. to provide with headquarters; to establish headquarters 2. executive ① n. a manager in an organization or company who helps make important decisions ▲ She is now a senior executive having worked her way up through the company. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ② a. [only before noun] relating to making decisions and managing businesses, or suitable for people with important jobs in business ▲ His executive skills will be very useful to the company. The initial order had sold out. initial a. [only before noun] of or at the beginning ▲ My initial surprise was soon replaced by delight. order n. goods that you have ordered from a company ▲ Your order has arrived — you can collect it from the store any time. sell out ① if products, tickets, etc sell out, they are all sold and there are none left ▲ The first issue of the magazine sold out within two days. ② if a shop sells out of something, it has no more of that particular thing left to sell ▲ We‟ve completely sold out of those shirts in your size, sir. That tenacity, and being passionate about her product, launched the company and Clark‟s new career. That tenacity 和 being passionate 并列作主语,the company 和 Clark‟s new career 并列作宾 语｡ passionate a. having very strong feelings or emotions ▲ The Italians are said to be the most passionate people in Europe. The company grossed $100,000 in sales its first year, then skyrocketed to $1 million the second, $5 million the third and over $20 million its fifth year. the second 和 the third 后省略了 year｡ gross ① vt. to gain an amount as a total profit, or earn it as a total amount, before tax has been taken away ▲ The firm grossed $3 million last year. ② a. total ▲ A person‟s gross income is the money they earn before tax is deducted from it. ▲ The state-owned economy holds a large proportion of the gross national production. antonym: net Clark was the CEO; her husband, the chief financial officer. 分号连接两个并列的句子,后一句中主语 her husband 后省略了谓语 was｡ I started it because I believed in what I was doing and believed I could make a difference. because 引导原因状语从句;从句中 believed in... 和 believed 并列作谓语｡ make a difference to have an important effect or influence on something or someone ▲ One more person wouldn‟t make any difference to the arrangements. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) The Chief Executive Officer is the highest ranking executive in a company whose main Terms 1. , making major corporate decisions, managing the overall operations and resources of a company, and acting as the main point of communication between the board of directors and the corporate operations. The CEO reports to the Chairman of the Board and often has a position on the board, and in some cases is even the chairman. 2. Chief Financial Officer (CFO) The Chief Financial Officer of a company or public agency is the corporate officer primarily responsible for managing the financial risks of the business or agency. This officer is also responsible for financial planning and record-keeping, as well as financial reporting to higher management. (In recent years, however, the role has expanded to encompass communicating financial performance and forecasts to the analyst community.) The title is equivalent to finance director, commonly seen in the United Kingdom. The CFO typically reports to the Chief Sample Writing Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to complain about a wrong delivery. I ordered a medium-sized short-sleeved apple-green shirt. But you sent me two extra-large long-sleeved shirts in horrible black and cherry red. As if this were not enough, I waited three weeks instead of your promised four days time of delivery. You can imagine how disappointed I am to have received this package. I feel that your company is directly to blame. I am, therefore, writing to return this package. You wrote that the color I ordered is not available. Please send me an alternative for the shirt in other colors or I will have to request an immediate refund of the money I spent on the shirt. I look forward to receiving your prompt reply. Yours faithfully, Adam Unit 6 Office Equipment Related Information 1. Ergonomics ergonomically designed product implies that the device blends smoothly with a person‟s body or actions. Office Supplies You Need to Keep On Hand Once you have found your office space and invested in furniture and electronic gear — phones, computers and the like — you still have some shopping to do. That‟s right: You need to buy office supplies. There‟s quite a list of supplies you‟ll need to set up a new office — and they are all pretty important to keep your office functioning. To make sure you have everything on hand that you need, keep these four general guidelines in mind: Keep a small cache of supplies handy. You‟ll save a surprisingly large amount of time if you keep essential supplies within easy reach — perhaps in a desk drawer. Otherwise, you‟ll find yourself making two or three daily trips to the supply closet. That can break your rhythm and waste your time. Hide supplies you don‟t use every day. Stacks of stationary, rolls of tape, piles of legal pads 2. — it all adds up to an unsightly and distracting mess. Stuff you use monthly should be on a shelf; stuff you use less often should be in a closet. Compile and maintain a master list of the supplies you need. Note whenever an item on the list is running low. Once a month or so, replenish supplies so that you won‟t run out of fax paper in the middle of an important message. Every couple of months, review your office supply expenses. Target one or two areas for savings and have a staffer do some comparison shopping. Check office-supply catalogues, Internet sources and local stationery stores for the best prices on various items. If you prefer to stick with one vendor, ask your source to beat the prices you‟ve found elsewhere. When you can buy in bulk, insist on a discount for doing so. Text A Language Study 1. portfolio n. ① a collection of creative work collected to be shown to potential customers or employers product portfolio a collection of products under one brand or product line ② a collection of assets — such as stocks and bonds — held by an investor. ▲ The real estate portfolio of a major insurance company is composed of six regional malls, four hotels, and eight landmark office buildings. Note: To reduce their risk, investors tend to hold more than just a single stock or other asset. Think of the portfolio as a pie: each piece is divided up into specific assets such as bonds, equities, etc. 2. It is our philosophy to help our clients understand their needs, the issues that are important to them, and the goals they wish to achieve. It 是形式主语,to help... 是真正的主语 和 the goals 并列作 understand 的宾语｡ philosophy n. ① a set of ideas or beliefs relating to a particular field or activity business philosophy any of a range of approaches to accounting, marketing, public relations, operations, training, labor relations, executive time management, investment, and/or corporate governance claimed (by their proponents, and sometimes only by their proponents and selected clients) to improve business performance in some measurable or otherwise provable way. ② the study of the nature and meaning of existence, truth, good and evil, etc 3. tailor vt. to make something so that it is exactly right for someone‟s particular needs or for a particular purpose tailor something to something ▲ Treatment is tailored to the needs of each patient. tailor something to meet/suit somebody‟s needs/requirements ▲ The classes are tailored to suit learners‟ needs. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. tailor something for somebody ▲ We tailored the design specifically for you. More importantly, it gives our clients the opportunity to interact with us and to be confident that they have made the right decision by partnering with us. it 指代上文中提到的 philosophy; 动词不定式 to interact... 和 to be confident... 并列作 opportunity 的后置定语｡ partner v. to work or perform as a partner or partners The most important benefit that we can offer our clients is our total commitment to customer satisfaction. that 引导定语从句,修饰主语 benefit; that 在从句中作 offer 的直接宾语,our clients 是间接 宾语;主句的谓语是 is,表语是 our total commitment,介词短语 to customer satisfaction 作后 置定语｡ We continually strive to address the needs of our clients, whether it be a single workstation or a multi-million dollar project, and we are truly interested in helping our clients find the best solution possible, at a cost that fits their budget. and 连接两个并列句｡ 第一句中,whether... 引导让步状语从句,在让步状语从句中有时会 使用虚拟语气,即无论主语是什么人称,动词一律用原型,因此 whether 从句中的谓语动词 是 be｡ 第二句中,at a cost... 作状语,that 引导定语从句修饰 cost,that 在从句中作主语｡ address vt. ① to give attention to or deal with a matter or problem ▲ The issue of funding has yet to be addressed. ② to speak or write to someone ▲ She turned to address the man on her left. ▲ You will have to address your comments to our Head Office. the best/biggest/fastest, etc possible the best, etc that can exist or be achieved ▲ Try to get the best possible price. Note: 在非正式情况下,possible 有时候放在名词的后面｡ ▲ Try to get the best price possible. Companies must now integrate their entire environment to suit the development of technology and the growth/reduction of their workforce, and to increase communication and productivity. 两个并列的不定式短语 to suit... 和 to increase... 作目的状语;the development... 和 the growth... 并列作 suit 的宾语｡ workforce n. all to work in a particular country or area ▲ Women now represent almost 50% of the workforce. ▲ The company is cutting its workforce. diverse a. varied or different ▲ New York is a very culturally diverse city. OEC Business Interiors‟s own 22,000 sq. ft. showroom demonstrates new office interior innovations. sq. ft. square feet (singular: square foot) innovation n. ① a new idea, method, or invention ▲ This model represents the latest innovations in computer technology. ② the introduction of new ideas or methods ▲ We must encourage innovation if the company is to remain competitive. ▲ We need to encourage innovation in industry. 10. showcase ① vt. to exhibit or display ▲ The main aim of the exhibition is to showcase British design. ② n. a situation or event which makes it possible for the best features of something to be seen ▲ The exhibition is an annual showcase for British design and innovation. ③ n. a glass box containing objects for people to look at in a shop, at an art show, etc ▲ In the showcases were displayed various kinds of goods. 11. facility n. ① a place, especially including buildings, where a particular activity happens ▲ This center is the finest indoor sports facility in the US. ② [plural] rooms, equipment, or services that are provided for a particular purpose ▲ The hotel has its own pool and leisure facilities. 12. Guided tours of our facility are available upon request. guided tour if someone takes you on a guided tour, they show you around a place of interest and tell you all about it guided tour of/around/round ▲ You will be taken on a guided tour of the palace. available a. able to be obtained, used, or reached ▲ Tickets are available from the box office. ▲ Funds are available to assist teachers who want to attend the conference. ▲ No figures are available for the number of goods sold. ▲ There are plenty of jobs available in the area. ▲ Parking is readily available near the station entrance. upon/on request if you ask for it ▲ Further details will be sent on request. Terms 1. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. It is seen as a key performance indicator within business. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy. 2. Case Goods Case goods are pieces of furniture, such as bookcases or chests of drawers, which provide interior storage space. 3. Systems Furniture Systems furniture is a generic term for bundles of panels, work surfaces, shelves, and other items sold by a single manufacturer as a package for furnishing offices. Cubicles are the items most often associated with systems furniture, but other open plan arrangements such as office landscape are possible. Text B Language Study 1. Getting the right office furniture might not make or break your business, but it‟s still important for your comfort and productivity. 现在分词短语 getting... 作主语｡ make or break to cause something or someone either to be very successful or to fail completely ▲ Critics can make or break a young performer. 2. breeze n. ① something which is easy to achieve, often unexpectedly ▲ You won‟t have any problems with the entrance test — it‟s an absolute breeze. ② a light and pleasant wind 3. If you are confused by the many systems that are available, ask other business associates what they are using, and if they are happy with their purchases. If you are confused...是条件状语从句;主句是祈使句 ask other...;主句中 business associates 是间接宾语 并列作直接宾语｡ 4. get away with ① to do something successfully although it is not the best way of doing it ▲ Do you think we could get away with just one coat of paint on that wall? ② to succeed in avoiding punishment for something 5. lease vt. to grant the temporary possession or use of (lands, tenements, etc) to another, usually for compensation at a fixed rate ▲ She plans to lease her apartment to a friend. Note: 比较 rent, hire, lease Rent is used to talk about paying to live in or use a building that is owned by someone else ▲ We rented an apartment together. In American English, you also rent a car or electrical equipment. In British English, you can use rent or hire, but it is more usual to say that you hire a car. ▲ You can hire a car at the airport. Lease is used to talk about renting buildings, cars, or equipment over a long period of time, especially for business use. ▲ The estate contains 300 new homes, about a third of which are leased to the council. 6. Because so many PCs have fax features these days, many businesses are doing away with fax machines. because 引导原因状语从句｡ feature ① n. a typical quality or an important part of something ▲ Our latest model of phone has several new features. ② n. a part of the land, especially a part that you can see ▲ This tour takes in the area‟s best-known natural features, including a waterfall. ③ v. to include someone or something as an important part ▲ It‟s an Australian company whose logo features a red kangaroo. 7. designer a. made by a well-known and fashionable designer designer clothes/jeans/suits, etc designer label an expensive brand from a well- known designer 8. Don‟t forget to check the classified ads of your local newspaper; sometimes you will find some great bargains. classified ad a small advertisement you put in a newspaper to buy or sell something bargain ① n. something you buy cheaply or for less than its usual price ▲ The airline regularly offers last-minute bookings at bargain prices. ▲ There are no bargains in the clothes shops at the moment. ② vi. to discuss the conditions of a sale, agreement, etc, for example to try and get a lower price ▲ Workers are bargaining for better payment. ▲ They bargained over the level of wages. 9. Of course, the list of office equipment that your company needs will probably be longer than the one above, but it should give you an idea of what you‟ll need to set up a basic office. 连词 but 连接两句并列句｡ 第一句的主句是 the list... will... be longer;定语从句 that your company needs 修饰 equipment;第二句主语 it 指代前句中的 list｡ Sample Writing Request for Catalogue Dear Sir or Madam, I visited the office furniture trade show in New York last month and saw the office furniture you displayed. I am planning to set up my own office and interested in your products. Please send me your current catalogue. I look forward to your prompt reply. Yours faithfully, Bill Unit 7 Work Environment Related Information Stress and Stress-related Illnesses Under normal conditions, the human body is in an energetically balanced state that is capable of maintaining the physiological functions of the body and can adjust to any change in the environment. Western medical research has shown that when the human body is under stress for extended periods of time, the nervous system becomes highly active and the person becomes unable to focus on a single item, breathing becomes restricted, the muscles become tense and movement begins to slow down. Stress is the combination of psychological, physiological and behavioral reactions. Stress affects individuals in different ways. Some develop stress-related illnesses, some suffer anxiety, have panic attacks, muscular tension, and hyperventilation, and others respond with obsessive or compulsive thoughts and behavior. Surveys and research reports over the past two decades reveal that: ★ 43% of all adults suffer from adverse health effects due to stress ★ 75-90% of all visits to primary care physicians are for stress-related complaints or disorders ★ 1 million workers are estimated to be absent on an average workday because of stress-related complaints Reduce Stress by Improving the Environment How can stress be removed or reduced in the workplace? Start with the environment: inspect your building and evaluate the temperature, lighting and music to make sure they provide comfort and a good environment to work. Next, inspect the work area. Is it clean and maintained? How is it furnished and decorated? The equipment and furnishings should be ergonomic in design to provide support and comfort for the workers. It may seem impossible to find time to relieve stress at work, but a few well-spent minutes at regularly scheduled breaks can dramatically increase your productivity, work enjoyment and overall health. Some companies offer a “quiet room” where 2. 1. employees are allowed to remove themselves from their work area and take time to relax and refocus. Many quiet rooms are furnished with mood lighting, quiet music or sounds of nature played to help the employees to relax. Comfortable floor pads or massage recliners are nice amenities that encourage a brief period of meditation or quiet time. Some companies provide a walking path for their staff and workers to get outside and benefit from a calm walk out in nature. Picnic, break areas, and walking areas with flowers and shrubs are wonderful benefits for enjoyment. More elaborate areas include running water flowing into a pond. Benches placed along the paths allow those interested to sit and enjoy. Not every business has the resources or space to provide these distinctive break enhancement options. But every business can offer two simple methods that will remove stress and improve the productivity of every person when they take their breaks. Text A Language Study 1. enhance vt. to increase or further improve the good quality, value or status of sb/sth ▲ The use of different colors enhanced the show. ▲ Her face was enhanced by a sweet smile. enhancement n. 2. satisfy vt. ① to give sb what he/she wants or needs ▲ What we have done so far still can not satisfy his requirement. ▲ I had to explain the reasons to satisfy his curiosity. ② to give sb information satisfy sb of sth ▲ I was unable to satisfy them of the truth of my story. ▲ He failed to satisfy the police of what he said. 3. commission ① vt. to give a task or a piece of work to sb to do ▲ The school commissioned that company to design a new teaching building. ▲ He commissioned a statue of his wife. ② n. a task or a piece of work given to sb to do ▲ The company has received many commissions to design public buildings. ③ n. a group of people officially set up to make an inquiry or write a report ▲ A commission has been set up to investigate the truth. retain vt. ① to allow to remain in a place or position ▲ The villagers retained the well till 1976 before the earthquake. ② to keep in one‟s mind ▲ She retains a clear memory of the performance. ▲ Her memory retains everything she reads. reveal vt. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ① to make known to the public information that was meant to be kept as a secret ▲ I promise not to reveal his secret. ▲ The phone call revealed their plan. ② to make clear and visible ▲ These words fully revealed her noble quality. ▲ Her performance revealed that she was a very experienced actress. ▲ The open door revealed an untidy sitting room. please ① vt. to make sb happy ▲ Our aim is to please customers. ▲ He is very difficult to please. ▲ We were pleased by the beautiful music. ② vi. to want, like ▲ The little boy behaves just as he pleases. ③ inter. used in a polite request ▲ Please come with me. impact ① vt. to have an effort on sth/sb ▲ Globalization greatly impacts China‟s economy. ▲ The president‟s words may impact the board‟s decision. ② n. strong impression or effect on sb/sth impact on sb/sth 对……的影响 ▲ His childhood experience has a great impact on his attitude towards life. ▲ The impact of new technology on a country‟s development is obvious. ③ n. hitting of one subject against another ▲ The front of the car crumpled on impact. ▲ The glass fell onto the floor and disintegrated on impact. potential ① a. possible ▲ The chaos in this area these days can be a potential source of conflicts. ② a. in existence and capable of being developed or used ▲ Education develops potential abilities. ③ n. possibility of being developed or used ▲ The commission is inspecting that city to find its potential for further investment. ④ n. capacity that can be developed ▲ He hasn‟t realized his full potential yet. ▲ She has the potential as an artist. focus on ① to concentrate (one‟s attention, etc) on sth ▲ Please focus your minds on the following questions. ▲ We must focus on increasing our profits. ▲ I am too tired to focus on anything today. ② to adjust the focus of a lens or the eye 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. ▲ He was too shortsighted to focus on the object. relationship/relation 两者都有关系,关联的意思｡ 区别在于: ① 两者都可以用来表示亲属关系,后者还有“亲戚”的意思｡ ▲ “What‟s your relationship to her?” “She is my sister.” ▲ A relation of mine is coming this Saturday. ② 若不侧重个人关系或友谊时,可用 relations 或 relationship;而 relationship 可以指更强 烈的感情联系｡ ▲ The relations between the two countries are improving./The relationship between the two countries is improving. ▲ Their relationship has lasted for many years. dependable a. 形容词后缀-able 与-ible 是同义后缀,加在动词后,使动词变为形容词,其意义相当于情态 动词 can +此动词被动式, 在语义上有被动意义｡ 例如: These flowers are eatable. = These flowers can be eaten. manufacturing n. the process or business of producing goods in factories ▲ This town‟s manufacturing is a major support of its economy. a. 制造业的 ▲ Manufacturing industry was worst impacted by the fuel shortage. manufacture vt. to make goods on a large scale using machinery ▲ Those shoes were manufactured by the biggest factory in town. ▲ This firm manufactures cars. manufacturer n. a company or industry that makes large quantities of goods ▲ They bought the machine directly from the manufacturer. install vt. to fix (equipment, furniture, etc) in position for use ▲ The workers are installing the heating system. ▲ Can you further explain how to install this software? installation n. The murals help bring the outdoors in, making the work environment a more positive and motivating place for the employees. 现在分词作状语,可以表示时间､ 原因､ 条件､ 让步､ 方式和伴随情况｡ 分词的逻辑主 语同时也是句中的主语,现在分词和主语之间是主动关系｡ ▲ Seeing the teacher entering the room, the students stood up. (时间) ▲ Being excited, I couldn‟t go to sleep. (原因) ▲ He sat on the sofa, listening to the music. (伴随) reflect vt. ① to show the nature of sth ▲ The picture reflects the life style of ancient people in that area. ▲ Her face reflected her dissatisfaction. ② to make a visible image of sb/sth ▲ The sunlight was reflected in the water. ▲ Her pale face was reflected in the mirror. reflection n. Text B Language Study 1. get sth done ① 做完 ▲ I will come after I have got my work done. ② have sth done 使……被……(让他人来做) ▲ I will get my watch repaired tomorrow. 2. break ① vt. to cause sth to an end ▲ Her voice broke the silence in the meeting. ② vt. to separate sth into two or more parts ▲ She fell off a ladder and broke her left leg. ③ vt. to do better ▲ He broke the world record. ④ vt. not to follow or obey ▲ She didn‟t break the rules. ⑤ vi. to become two or more pieces by force ▲ Glass easily breaks. ▲ She dropped the cup and it broke. ⑥ vi. to get away or get into by force ▲ The man broke away from the jail. break into 破门而入 ▲ The police broke into the house and captured the suspect. break down (因机械故障问题等) 停止运转,失灵 ▲ His car broke down on his way home last night. break through 有突破,重要发现 ▲ It is said that scientists have broken through in the fight against lung cancer. 3. No longer associated only with elevators, the dentist‟s waiting room or phone call hold functions, and music is now making its way into general office spaces. 过去分词作状语,表示被动的动作或完成的动作｡ 其逻辑主语一定要与句子的主语保持 一致｡ 意义上相当于状语从句,表示时间､ 让步､ 条件､ 原因,方式或伴随情况等｡ ▲ Frightened by the noise outside, the little girl dared not sleep in her bedroom. (原因) ▲ Given more time, we could do better. (条件) ▲ Followed by a group of students, the teacher entered the classroom. (方式) ▲ Seen from the hill, the city looks very beautiful. (时间/条件) ▲ Even if invited, I won‟t take part in the party. (让步) 4. movement n. ① moving or being moved ▲ Her every movement is very graceful. ▲ Casual clothes give you greater freedom of movement. ② an organized effort by supporters of a common goal ▲ The Trade Union Movement works to obtain higher wages and better conditions. ▲ She was the leader of the movement for women‟s rights during the 1960s. ▲ We‟re starting a movement against smoking. 5. firm ① n. a business company ▲ This firm was set up in 1986. ▲ He established a firm of his own. ② a. not subject to change; fixed and definite ▲ We must hold a firm attitude towards this issue. ▲ The habitants there need to find firm grounds to build houses. hold firm to sth (习语)不放弃原则等 ▲ She holds firm to her belief. 6. implement ① vt. to carry out ▲ The government has just implemented a new policy to improve the public security. ▲ It is not the proper way to implement a policy by force. ② n. a tool or instrument ▲ What implements are needed for the maintenance? ▲ The shop supplies agricultural implements. 7. While certain music pleases some people, others may find it distracting. while 在这里作并列连词,表转折的关系,相当于 but,译为“然而”｡ ▲ I like listening to music, while my brother likes doing sports. ▲ While this policy is supported by the majority, a small group of people oppose it. 8. agreement n. ① a promise or contract ▲ The two parties will sign an agreement next Tuesday. ▲ They broke the agreement between us. ② harmony in opinion or feeling ▲ Finally we reached an agreement about the price. ▲ We are in agreement with their decision. 9. objection n. feeling of dislike or disapproval ▲ Do you have any objection? objection to sth/doing sth ▲ I have no objection to your proposal. ▲ He has an objection to getting up early. 10.drive vt. ① to operate a vehicle ▲ Can you drive a car﹖ ② ▲ Can you drive me to the park﹖ ▲ My mom drives me to school every day. ③ ▲ The cattle are being driven by a man on a horse. drive out to force to go away 逐出;使离开 ▲ They managed to drive out the enemies. ④ to cause sb to be in a special state or to do sth ▲ Hunger drives him to steal. drive sb crazy 使某人疯狂 ▲ The panic almost drove them crazy. 11.worth prep. be worth something to have a value in money ▲ The house must be worth quite a lot of money now. ▲ be worth doing something to be important or useful to do ▲ A lot of the small towns in the area are definitely worth visiting. ▲ It‟s worth checking the details of the contract before you sign it. 不能单独使用,要加名词或动名词,不能接不定式｡ 其后接的动名词在逻辑 上与主语有动宾关系,因此该动词不能用被动形式,不能说 That movie is worth being watched. 可以用 well 来形容 worth,不能用 very,very much 或 quite 等｡ 如:It is well worth trying. Practical Writing Sample Writing April 6th , 2008 Dear Mr. White, I am writing to discuss with you a problem that I and some other colleagues concern. We all enjoy the nice and comfortable work environment of this company very much. However, as programmers, we often need some quietness for our work. It seems unavoidable that some people need to have discussions or make business phone calls constantly, and we find it difficult to concentrate on our work. We are wondering if the company can do anything to handle this problem. In our opinion, a room where people can go for small-group discussions or a particular room for programmers when they need some quietness for their work will be helpful, or the company can do something else to reduce the noise in the public area. We look forward to a solution to this problem. Thank you. Yours sincerely, Alice Wong Unit 8 Job Satisfaction Related Information Job Satisfaction and Job Burnout Job satisfaction is a factor that affects productivity in the workplace. Employees are dissatisfied with their jobs for various reasons. Dissatisfaction may be caused by the employee‟s performance at work, or it may be caused by the job itself. People with no job satisfaction are likely to suffer from stress and even job burnout, which is an increasingly common phenomenon in today‟s stressful workplace. But while some job stress is a normal occurrence at least some of the time in most jobs, how can you tell when you‟ve lost the ability to manage the sources of that stress and when they‟re leading to job burnout? Job burnout is a response to work stress that leaves you feeling powerless, hopeless, fatigued, drained and frustrated. But since job burnout is not an overnight occurrence, it‟s important to recognize its early signs and to act before the problem becomes truly serious. Causes of Job Burnout While some careers have higher rates of burnout, it‟s present in every occupation. Those most at risk are employees who feel underpaid, underappreciated, or criticized for matters beyond their control. Service professionals who spend their work lives attending to the needs of others, especially if their work puts them in frequent contact with the dark or tragic side of human experience, are also at risk. Other causes of job burnout include: Setting unrealistic goals for yourself or having them imposed upon you. Being expected to be too many things to too many people. Working under rules that seem unreasonably coercive or punitive. Doing work that frequently causes you to violate your personal values. Boredom from doing work that never changes or doesn‟t challenge You. Feeling trapped for economic reasons by a job that fits any of the scenarios above. How to Deal with Job Burnout Identifying the what, when and why of burnout can help start you on the process of exploring options to change the sources of your stress. Sometimes simple things, such as talking to a supervisor about changing your job responsibilities, can make a difference. Sometimes more serious measures may be necessary, such as changing jobs or even changing your career field. Most importantly, job burnout is a reaction to work stress. Methods of handling stress can be identified and encouraged. Career counselors specialize in helping people gain control over their work life. They can assist individuals in identifying their interests, values and skills in relation to work and can help in the career and life planning process. 3. 2. 1. Text A Language Study 1. You have dreamed about an ideal job in which you are motivated, inspired, respected and well paid. in which…是介词前置的定语从句,先行词是 job｡ ideal ① a. considered the best of its kind; perfect ►The location of the new house is ideal. ►This dictionary is ideal — it's exactly what I needed. ②n. a goal ►The job falls short of my ideal. ►They worked very hard in order to realize their ideal. 2. settle for to accept in spite of incomplete satisfaction ►The company was in a very serious financial situation, and the workers had to settle for a lower wage than they requested. ►As we know that the hotel has tried its best to improve the services, we agree to settle for two double rooms and two single ones. 3. resource ① n [常作复数] an available supply that can be drawn on when needed ►Alaska is a large state rich in natural resources. ②n. the ability to deal with a difficult or troublesome situation effectively 才智 ►Although he has undergone a lot of training, he has never become a person of resource. 4. promotion n ①an advancement in rank or responsibility ►He congratulated me on the recent promotion. ►He took the job because he believed he would have better opportunities for a promotion. ②advertising; publicity ►Many business people travel around the world every year for the promotion of their commodities. 5. An effective way to improve your job satisfaction is using positive thinking to reframe your thoughts about your job. 本句主语是名词 way,其后的不定时短语作定语;using…是动名词短语,在句中充当表语｡ 6. reframe vt. to form the opinion of something again ►The teacher told the students to reframe their views about decent jobs so that they might find it easier to adapt to the job market. 7. overnight ①ad. in or as if in the course of one night; suddenly ►Kate‟s adventure became a sensation overnight. ►Byron became famous overnight. ②ad. during or for the length of the night ► We stayed overnight with my mother. ③a. happening as if in a single night; sudden ►The show was an overnight success. ►His business partners were surprised at his overnight decision to become a vegetarian 8. alert a. giving all your attention to what is happening, being said,etc ►Taking notes is one of the best ways to stay alert in lectures. ►The animal raised its head, suddenly alert. be alert to something to know about or understand something, especially a possible danger or problem ►The authorities should have been alert to the possibility of invasion. synonym: watchful, attentive 9. Look for the silver lining. silver lining a hopeful or comforting prospect in the midst of difficulty 一线希望 来自英语谚语 Every cloud has a silver lining. 黑暗中总有一线光明｡ 在文中可理解为 solution,即“解决办法”｡ 10. grateful a. feeling that you want to thank someone because of something kind that they have done, or showing this feeling I'm so grateful for all your help. I am very grateful to all those who took the trouble to write to me. gratitude n. gratefully ad. 11. You may enjoy meeting new friends at work, or you may cherish the opportunities you are offered. 本句是并列复合句,or 是并列连词,连接两个并列的分句｡ you are offered 是省略关系代词 的定语从句,先行词是 opportunities｡ cherish vt. to treat with affection and tenderness ►I cherish the memory of that day. ►In marriage, a man promises to cherish his wife. 12. Whatever job you take, making the best of difficult work situations by being positive will help you manage your stress and experience the rewards of your profession. Whatever 引 导 的 从 句 是 让 步 状 语 从 句 ,making… 是 动 名 词 短 语 , 在 主 句 中 充 当 主 语,being…也是动名词短语,充当介词 by 的宾语｡ 主句中 help 和 experience 并列,充当谓 语代词,manage your stress 是省略 to 的不定时短语,充当宾语补足语｡ reward ① n. something that you get because you have done something good or helpful or have worked hard ► The job is difficult, but the financial rewards are great. ► The school has a system of rewards and punishments to encourage good behavior ② vt. to give something to someone because they have done something good or helpful or have worked for it ►The club‟s directors rewarded him with a free season ticket. reward somebody for (doing) something ►She wanted to reward the cleaners for their efforts. ►He gave the children some chocolate to reward them for behaving well. rewarding a. Text B Language Study 1. Do you dread that alarm going off in the morning and then dragging yourself out of bed to go to work? 本句中 dread 一词为及物动词,后面两个并列的动名词短语 going…和 dragging…并列充 当宾语,that alarm 为 going 的逻辑主语｡ dread ① vt. to feel anxious or worried about something that is going to happen or may happen ►I am giving a demonstration of our product tomorrow and I‟m dreading it. ►He dreaded the prospect of being all alone in that house. ►I‟m dreading that I‟ll be asked to make a speech. ►I dread to think what will happen if they get elected ②n. a strong fear of something that is going to happen or may happen ►Bernice looked with dread at the end of the passage. ►The prospect of flying filled me with dread. ►She lives in dread of the disease returning. synonyms: fear 2. If you have answered yes to these questions, keep in mind that you are not alone. 逗号后的分句为祈使句,短语 keep in mind 相当于 remember,其后的 that…从句为其宾语 ｡ keep in mind remember 记住 ►When we travel in a foreign country, we should always keep in mind that we should respect the customs of the local people. 3. Feeling drained and totally used up with little desire to continue is what is commonly known as „Job Burnout‟ and we all reach that point sometimes. 本句是并列复合句,第一个分句的主语是动名词短语 feeling…,分句中包含了 what 所引 导的表语从句;第二个分句是个简单句｡ drain ① vt. to make someone feel very tired and without any energy ►Working with children all day really drains you. ►I felt drained sorting out information about different models all day. ②vi. to flow away ►I watched the bath water drain away. 4. ③n. a pipe or channel by which liquid is drawn off ► Your kitchen drain has become blocked by tea leaves. use up to consume completely 用完,耗尽 ►The young man used up every cent his father had left him. ►The car broke down after we used up all the gas we could get. Knowing what the causes or symptoms of job burnout can perhaps help those who are suffering needlessly. 本句中包含了两个从句:what 引导的宾语从句是主语的一部分,who 引导定语从句,修饰 those｡ symptom n. a sign or an indication of a disease or a serious problem ► The disappearance of jobs is a symptom of a deeper socio-economic change. ► Common symptoms of diabetes are weight loss and fatigue. frustration n. the feeling of being annoyed, upset, or impatient, because you cannot control or change a situation, or achieve something ► People often feel a sense of frustration when they are not being promoted quickly enough. ► In spite of his frustrations, he fell in love with the country. ► The frustration of his ambitions made him a bitter man. synonym: depression depression n ① a feeling of sadness that makes one think there is no hope for the future ► Lucy‟s mood was one of deep depression. ► A holiday will help cure his depression. ②a long period during which there is very little business activity and a lot of people do not have jobs ► Many people believe that the continual appreciation of RMB will cost China an economic depression. grumble v. to keep complaining in an unhappy way ► Farmers are always grumbling about the weather. ► A few passengers grumbled that their cabins were too small. basis n. the facts, ideas, or things from which something can be developed ► Their claim had no basis in fact. ► Bread forms the basis of their daily diet. ► The video will provide a basis for class discussion. on the basis of something because of a particular fact or situation ► We are against discrimination on the basis of sex. on a regular/daily/weekly, etc basis every day, week, etc 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ► I'm saving money on a regular basis. on a voluntary/part-time/temporary,etc basis a system or agreement by which someone or something is voluntary, etc ► Nurses are employed on a full-time basis. heighten v. if something heightens a feeling, effect, etc, or if a feeling, etc heightens, it becomes stronger or increases ► There are fears that the march will heighten racial tension. ► Increased levels of fat in the diet could heighten the risk of cancer. chronic a. ① a chronic problem is one that continues for a long time and cannot easily be solved ►There is a chronic shortage of advertising agents. ►The man sees no hope of a good life as a result of his Chronic unemployment ②a chronic disease or illness is one that continues for a long time and cannot be cured ►Teachers and doctors are among those who easily fall victim to chronic heart disease. threaten ① vt. to say that you will cause someone harm or trouble if they do not do what you want ► Postal workers are threatening a strike if they don't receive a pay increase. ► He threatened to take them to court. ► Doctors are sometimes threatened with violence if they don't do what patients want. ► He became angry and threatened that he would go to the police. ② v. to indicate danger or harm ► The incident threatens to ruin his chances in the election. ► Large areas of the jungle are now threatened with destruction. threat n. self-esteem n. pride in oneself; self-respect ►Playing a sport can boost a girl's self-esteem. ►Students who do poorly in tests usually have a low self-esteem. credibility n. the quality of deserving to be believed and trusted ►Predictions of economic recovery have now lost all credibility. ►The scandal has damaged his credibility as a leader. ►There are serious questions about the credibility of these reports. challenge ① n. something that tests strength, skill, or ability, especially in a way that is interesting ►The company is ready to meet the challenges of the next few years. ►Martin now faces the biggest challenge of his career. ②n. refusal to accept that someone or something is right and legal ►This is considered a direct challenge to the Governor's authority. ►The president faces a strong challenge from nationalists. ►The strike represented a serious challenge to the government. ③ to refuse to accept that something is right, fair, or legal vt. ►Viewpoints such as these are strongly challenged by environmentalists. ►They went to the High Court to challenge the decision. Practical Writing Sample Writing Dear Mr. Ben Stone, It is so nice to receive your letter. I understand the situation you are in. Perhaps the heavy workload has caused too much pressure on you. In my opinion, you had better make sure whether you like your job or not. If you are sure it is not the kind of job that you fancy, quit it as soon as you have found a better one. A job without interest will drive anybody mad! On the other hand, if you really like the job and it is just the workload that bothers you, you should try your best to adjust yourself. Socialize with your co-workers. Isolating yourself will make you feel more bitter. You can even talk with your supervisor and see if it is possible to hire more staff to relieve your burden. Whatever you decide, you should be open-minded. Keeping the problems to yourself will only heighten the pressure you feel. Besides socializing with people around you, you should always manage to leave time for physical exercise. Work while you play; play while you work. That is a good way to adjust yourself. In short, keeping a positive attitude about your job will improve your satisfaction. I hope my advice will be of some help. Thanks for trusting me. Please take care. Editor Unit 9 Business Contact Related Information Business Contact Business contact can sometimes be called business communication. It plays an important part in the success of business. In fact, it includes many situations, such as receptions, telephone calls, meetings, oral presentations, negotiations, etc. To communicate successfully in business, we should know all the techniques and hints often used in the above mentioned fields. Furthermore, if we communicate with people from a foreign country, we should also pay much attention to the differences between cultures. Otherwise, misunderstanding will occur, thus leading to the failure of the business. 1. 2. Appellation in Business Contact In most of the western countries, people address each other by their first names from the first time they meet, even with elders and people of authority. Do not feel uncomfortable when someone asks you to use his/her first name; it is customary. If you are in doubt about how to address someone, you should first use the full name with title and wait for them to suggest that you use the first name. 3. Etiquette for the Call Beginning Every country has its own codes of etiquette. It is common for Anglo-Saxons to use first names very quickly even in a telephone call. Such instant familiarity is much less acceptable in the rest of Europe and Asia where even business partners and colleagues of many years‟ acquaintances address each other by the equivalent of Mr or Mrs and the last name or job title on the phone. In addition, the British have a tendency to engage in a small talk at the beginning of a telephone conversation. Questions about weather, health, business in general and what one has been doing recently are all parts of the telephoning, laying a foundation for the true purpose of the call. 4. Language Use Different cultures have different ways of using language. Some speak in a very direct and explicit way so it is always clear what they mean. Others are more indirect, using hints and understatements (e.g. “not very good means absolutely disastrous”). North America, Scandinavia, Germany and France are “explicit countries” while Japan, Russia and Arabia are “subtle countries”. If they say an idea is good, it may be just out of politeness. If the British say something is good, you have to judge from the way they say whether it is good or bad, as they have a convention of politeness and a tendency to avoid showing one‟s true feelings. The plain speakers can seem rude and dominating to subtle speakers, as Americans can sound to the British, or the British to the Japanese. Using English on the phone is difficult for people who speak English as a foreign language; therefore, being aware of these differences can help in understanding those with different cultural traditions. Text A Language Study 1. There are a few different reasons why people use small talks. Why 在此引导了一个定语从句,其先行词是 reasons｡ 2. The first, and the most obvious, is to break an uncomfortable silence. 在此句中,to break an uncomfortable silence 是不定式作表语｡ uncomfortable a. not comfortable ▲ The letter was an uncomfortable reminder of my debts. 3. occur vi. ① to come into being as an event or a process; happen ▲ When did the accident occur? ② to exist; be found ▲ The disease occurs most frequently in rural area. 4. initiate ① ▲ ② ▲ 5. vt. to put a scheme, etc into operation; cause sth to begin The company plans to initiate a reform in its personnel department. n. a person who has just been initiated into a group Tom is an initiate of this economic association. 6. 7. 8. 9. local ① a. belonging to a particular place or district ▲ Following the national news we have the local news and the weather. ▲ the local farmer, doctor, shopkeeper, etc ② n. (通常用复数) inhabitant of a particular place or district ▲ The locals tend to be suspicious of strangers. extremely ad. to a very high degree ▲ To increase the sales of the company this year is extremely difficult due to the depressive economic situation. ▲ I am extremely sorry for the delay. extremist n. person who holds extreme views especially in politics extremism n. holding of such views compliment ① n. expression of praise, admiration, approval, etc (compliment on sth) ▲ One likes to hear compliments on one‟s appearances. ▲ She paid me a very charming compliment on my painting. ② vt. to express praise or admiration of sb (compliment sb on sth) ▲ I complimented her on her skillful performance. comment ① n. written or spoken remark giving an opinion on, explaining or criticizing (an event, a person, a situation, etc) comment on sth ▲ Have you any comments to make on the recent development? ▲ The scandal caused a lot of comment. No comment (said in reply to a question) I have nothing to say about that ② v. to give one‟s opinion ▲ The discovery is hardly commented by the press. ▲ He commented on the bad management of the factory. involve vt. ① to make sth necessary as a condition or result; entail ▲ The scheme involves computers. ▲ The job involved me/my living in London. ② to include or affect (sb/sth) in its operation ▲ The strike involved many people. be involved in sth Three leaders were involved in this bribe. 10. deem vt. to consider, regard (尤用于被动语态) ▲ He deemed that it was his duty to help. ▲ She was deemed to be the winner. ▲ It is deemed advisable. ▲ I deem it a great honor to be invited to address you. 11. Lastly, it is not wise to continue talking about an issue that the other person does not seem comfortable with or interested in. ① 在此句中,that 引导了一个定语从句,先行词是 issue,虽然 issue 是一个抽象名词,但是 在这里却是一个定语从句,就是因为 issue 在定语从句中是充当句子成分的,在这里 充当了介词宾语,即 with 和 in 的宾语｡ ② continue 后面通常跟的是动名词即: continue doing sth ③ 此句中还有另一个常用的结构即 a.+ to do sth 在这里 it 充当了句子的形式主 语｡ 类似的例子有很多｡ ▲ It is necessary for you to learn how to write business letters. ▲ It is important to make a market research before the promotional activities. Text B Language Study 1. Naturally, the phone is an extremely important instrument in our daily business. The following are some helpful hints and proven phone techniques, which will help you make your phone conversation more effective. proven 在此句中是过去分词,在这里作 techniques 的前置定语｡ Which 引导了一个非限定 性定语从句,对 techniques 进行进一步解释｡ instrument n. tool ▲ an instrument for writing ▲ musical instrument ▲ optical instrument hint n. ① subtle way of indicating to sb what one is thinking or what one wants, indirect suggestion ▲ She coughed to give him the hint that he should go. ② slight indication, trace ▲ There was more than a hint of sadness in his voice. ▲ The calm sea gave no hint of the storm that was coming. 2. acknowledge vt. ① to accept the truth of sth; admit sth ▲ acknowledge the need for reform ▲ He acknowledged it to be true./He acknowledged that it was true. ② to report that one has received sth ▲ We have acknowledged this order letter. acknowledgement n. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. straightforward a. ① (of a person, his manner, etc) honest and frank, without evasion ▲ John was straightforward in his business dealings. ② easy to understand or do, without complications or difficulties ▲ The procedure is quite straightforward. ▲ The letter is written in straightforward language. straightforwardness n. straightforwardly ad. confirm vt. to provide evidence for the truth or correctness of (a report, an opinion, etc); establish the truth of ▲ The announcement confirmed my suspicion. ▲ Please write to confirm your reservation. ▲ Please send a fax to confirm your oral order. confirmation n. a statement, etc that says that something is definitely true, or the act of stating this ▲ There‟s still no official confirmation of the report. detail ① n. small, particular fact or item ▲ I checked every detail of her research. ▲ Please give me all the details. ▲ He refused to go into details about his plan. ② vt. to list sth fully, item by item, describe sth fully (to/for sb) ▲ I detailed our plan to her. Sending a fax after a telephone conversation is an important way to check that there has been no misunderstanding in the conversation. 在此句中,动名词短语 sending a fax after a telephone conversation 充当主语,所以谓语动词 用单数;that 引导了一个宾语从句｡ It is advised that you follow this structure when solving problems on the phone. 在此句中 it is advised that 后面其实是使用了虚拟语气,只是 should 被省略掉了｡ 经常用 于此结构的词还有 suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, ▲ It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week. ▲ It is ordered that all the people (should) attend the lecture. ▲ It is proposed that a market research report (should) be finished in time. Active listening is an intent “listening for meaning” in which the listener checks with the caller to see that a statement has been correctly heard and understood. 在此句中, in which 引导了一个介词提前的定语从句,先行词是“listening for meaning”｡ statement n. ① stating sth or expressing sth in words ▲ Clearness of statement is more important than beauty of language. ② thing that stated ▲ The president made a statement of his aims. state vt. ▲ Please state your name and address. 9. violate vt. to break or be contrary to (a rule, principle, treaty, etc) ▲ violate an agreement, oath, etc ▲ These findings appear to violate the laws of physics. violation n. an action that breaks a law, agreement, principle, etc violent a. involving actions that are intended to injure or kill people, by hitting them, shotting them, etc 10. paraphrase ① n. re-wording of a piece of writing, statement, etc, especially in order to make it easier to understand ▲ a paraphrase of the policy ② vt. to express the meaning of something in different words ▲ Would you please paraphrase the speech in colloquial English? Practical Writing Sample Writing Dear Sirs, We are staging an important exhibition of our latest products at the 103 session of the Chinese Import and Export Commodities Fair in Guangzhou from April 15 to April 20. We would be glad if you could come. Yours faithfully, Office Secretary Unit 10 Business Advertising Related Information 1. Advertising Advertising is attempting to influence the buying behavior of your customers or clients by providing a persuasive selling message about your products or services. Not all advertisements are aimed at all people. To ensure that their advertisements will appeal to those most suited to their products, advertisers ensure that they have a target audience in mind when they design their campaign. People have been generally divided into different parts of many target audience, ranging from wealthy professionals to students, the retired, and the unemployed. This means that an advertiser can tailor their appeal according to the socio-economic background of their target audience. 2. Consumer Behavior Consumer behavior is defined as those acts of individuals directly involved in obtaining and using economic goods and services, including the decision process that precedes and determines these acts. The studies on consumer behavior offer important insights useful to advertisers both in designating target groups as well as an understanding of consumer behavior in the marketplace. The discussion of the aspects of consumer behavior is based on the external environment and internal states that have an impact on consumer behavior. 3. Advertising Media The major advertising ways in terms of advertising expenditures are newspapers, magazines, television, radio, out-of-home, direct mail and the Internet. Text A Language Study 1. Television is nowadays very popular throughout the world, for it is a very efficient channel to communicate information. 在此句中,for 后面的分句表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句｡ nowadays ad. now, at the present ▲ Nowadays, advertisements can be found everywhere in any big city. efficient a. have good effect on sth, effective ▲ This new copy machine is more efficient than the old one. efficiency n. antonym: inefficient communicate ① vt. to make sth known, convey sth ▲ Generally speaking, teachers are able to communicate their ideas clearly. ② vi. to exchange information, news, ideas, etc ▲ The Minister for Foreign Affairs has already communicated on this event with the American President. communication n. communicative a. 2. In order to make their products reach more consumers, producers will advertise their products on television. Reach more consumer 的意思是让更多的消费者了解产品;In order to... 是不定式短语,在 这里充当目的状语｡ advertise ① vt. to make sth generally or publicly known ▲ advertise a meeting, a concert, a job ▲ It may be safer not to advertise your presence. ② vi. to praise sth publicly in order to encourage people to buy or use it ▲ The company advertised for a new secretary. ▲ We should advertise for someone to look after our children. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. advertisement n. advertiser n. advertising a. commercial ① a. sth about business or trade ▲ A commercial college teaches things that would be useful in business. ② n. an advertisement on TV or radio ▲ The aim of the repetitions of the same commercial on television is nothing but to brainwash consumers into compulsive consumption. Here is a widely accepted standard: a good advertisement should reach at the lowest possible cost the most people who can and will buy what the producer sell. 在此句中 the most people 是 reach 的宾语 at the lowest possible cost 充当了句子的状 语,who 引导了一个定语从句,先行词是 people,最后的 what the producer sell 是 buy 的宾 语｡ The first thing one must do to succeed in advertising is to have the attention of the reader. 在此句中 the first thing 后面省略掉了定语从句的引导词 that; to have the attention of the reader 是不定式短语作表语｡ rectify vt. to put sth right, correct ▲ rectify an error ▲ to rectify the mistakes in my bill rectifiable a. rectification n. indicate vt. ① to show sth, especially by pointing ▲ a sign indicating the right road to follow ▲ With a nod of his head he indicated to me where I should sit. ② to suggest the possibility of sth ▲ I indicated that his help was not welcome. ▲ The committee indicated that it might take action. indication n. a sign, remark, event, etc that shows what is happening, what someone is thinking or feeling, or what is true ▲ He gave no indication of his own feelings at all. indicator n. be related to have sth to do with 与……有关 ▲ The advertisement is closely related to our daily lives. ▲ He is relating to me by marriage. attract vt. to catch the attention of others ▲ She was attracted by the novel advertisement. ▲ Do any of these designs attract you? ▲ Flowers attract many bees. ▲ The film attracts a large audience. attractive a. 10. reliable a. can be relied on, can be trusted ▲ It‟s not reliable to judge a man only by his looks. ▲ It is reported on reliable authority that the salary will be increased. ▲ He is a very reliable person. rely v. reliability n. Text B Language Study 1. Advertising costs can quickly consume a large part of new businesses‟ start-up costs and existing small businesses‟ operating expenses — but without advertising there will be no customers or continuing sales. 在此句中,start-up costs 是启动资金的意思;operating expenses 是运营资金的意思｡ consume vt. ① to use sth up ▲ consume resources, time, stores, etc ▲ The car consumes a lot of fuel. ▲ He soon consumed his fortune. ② to destroy sth/sb by fire, decay, etc ▲ The fire soon consumed the old wooden buildings in the neighborhood. consumer n. consumption n. 2. Fortunately, there are low-cost ways to advertise that require more of your creativity and time than dollars. 在此句中 ways 后面有两个定语,一个是不定式 to advertise,另一个是由 that 引导的定语从 句｡ 3. donation n. things donated ▲ a donation of money to the hospital ▲ a blood donation ▲ make/give a donation 4. exchange ① vt. to give one thing or person in return for another ▲ You may exchange the shoes but not return them for a refund. ▲ The two parties exchanged the contract. ② n. the act of giving someone something and receiving something else from them ▲ He gave me an apple in exchange for a cake. ▲ Let‟s have an exchange of views on the matter. ▲ The technical cooperation and cultural exchanges between the two countries are on the increase. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. stock exchange 股票交易所 exchange rate 汇率 participate ① vi. to take part in, attend ▲ participate in a discussion ▲ participate in profits ② vt. to share together ▲ participate sb‟s sufferings participation n. participator n. cooperate vi. to work together ▲ If we all cooperate, we‟ll soon finish. ▲ The British cooperated with the French in building the new craft. cooperate with (sb) in (sth) cooperate in harmony cooperation n. cooperative a. evaluate vt. to assess ▲ The research project has only been under way for three months, so it‟s too early to evaluate its success. ▲ She is advised to evaluate her chance of success before taking any action. ▲ I cannot evaluate his ability without seeing his work. evaluation n. evaluative a. evaluator n. demonstration n. ① showing sth by giving proof or evidence ▲ convinced by a scientific demonstration ▲ a demonstration of a law of physics ② showing and explaining how sth works ▲ to give a demonstration ▲ the demonstration of a machine demonstrative a. demonstrator n. demonstrate v. Whether you use these promotions or your own ideas, always aim your promotions where they will reach your target customers — the ones market research has determined are most likely to buy your goods or services. 在此句中,the ones 后面的定语从句的引导词 that 被省略掉了 be likely to do have the possibility to do sth 可能 ▲ She is not likely to come next month. ▲ The manager is likely to hold a meeting this afternoon. Practical Writing Sample Writing ABC company is a large scale and very famous software company. Due to the rapid business development, we are inviting some technicians to work with us. Requirements: Under 45 years of age; with a Bachelor‟s degree and three years experience; fluent in English; ambitious and hardworking; enjoy working with people and have the ability and desire to advance rapidly. Qualified Applicants: Please send your resume to Mr. Wu, Floor 15, , Apt C, 485 Huanshi Road, Guangzhou or e-mail to ABCsoftware@sina.com.