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					1. Sandtray 2. Social= Parten, Vygotsky, Sullivan Baby Steps 1. Piaget=Cognitive chart Lying, M. Burns 2. Learning Disabilities=kids w/ADHD

Industry vs. Inferiority

• Erik Erikson‟s stage • Accomplishment in the world vs. lack of same (previous = trust vs. mistrust, initiative vs. shame/guilt



1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Unoccupied play Solitary play Onlooker play Parallel play Associate play Cooperative play

Harry Stack Sullivan
• Friendship = key to sense of wellbeing • „Chumships‟ = very close friendships between two peers • Friendship networks • Intimacy

Perspective taking
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Egocentric; notes diff Social-info;focus on one only Self-reflective;back & forth Mutual; simultaneous Social/conventional; context added


• Self-disclosure & sharing private thoughts • Companionship, stimulation, phys. support, ego support, social comparison, intimacy



•0-2 yrs

•Understand world through the senses •Symbols, animism, egocentrism, magical beliefs

•Preoperational •2-7 •yrs

•Concrete operational
•Formal operational

•7-11 •Conservation, •yrs reversability, classification
•11- •Hypothetical15yrs deductive, abstract

• Preoperational; form stable concepts, reasoning, egocentrism • Concrete; age 7; Waldorf • Four milestones; conservation, logical reasoning, not abstract & classification

Lying Tape

Cognitive Monitoring • Take stock of what you are doing, what you will do next and how effectively the mental activity is unfolding

Schema & Scripts

• Schema:Network of associations that organizes and guides an individual‟s perception • Script; schema for an event


Child/teen able to think about their own thinking or think about doing something (plan ahead)

Cognitive Lazarus = Cognitive appraisal 1. Primary: Initial evaluation 2. Secondary: Evaluate resources and strategize problem-solving

Piagetian Critique • Stages do not appear in synchrony • Education may accelerate stages • Cultural norms impact development

Critical Thinking
• Grasping the deeper meaning of a problem, thinking reflectively vs. accepting statements • Ability to see things from a variety of perspectives

Sternberg‟s Triarchic Theory

1. Componential; analyze and abstract 2. Experiential; can use previously successful strategies
3. Practical

• Convergent; one correct answer • Divergent; many answers to the same question • Creativity; unusual answers, Einstein; „Intelligence is meaningless w/o imagination‟

Intelligence • Verbal ability, problemsolving skills, and ability to learn from and adapt • Sternberg‟s different types of intelligence;


• Long-term memory; relatively permanent and unlimited • Control processes; Rehearsal, organization (key words), and imagery

Math Tape


1. A man buys a horse for $50 2. He sells it for $60 3. He buys it back for $70 4. He sells it for $80 5. Does he make or lose money?


Developmental Learning (Lillian Katz)

• Hands-on vs. rote learning • Kinesthetic • Age appropriate • Not „back-to-basics‟ • Attitude, motivation and health

Disposition to learn

• Attitude, motivation, and health • Previous knowledge „content memory‟

Performance Approaches

•Mastery orientation; Perceiving vs. judging •Performance orientation; Judging vs. perceiving

Individualized Education Plan
• Meeting between teachers, resource specialists, counselor, school psychologist to enact change; strength-focused.

• Whole language • Phonetices

Learning Disabilities: Criteria
• Normal intelligence or above • Difficulties in several areas but not in all • R/O other potentially contributing disabilities

Types of learning disabilities
• Auditory • Visual • Cognitive • Memory • Subjects; ie math, reading, writing, spelling

Attention Deficit Disorders
• Attention Deficit Disorder; difficult to focus/hyperfocus • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; „manic‟ component

Attention Deficit Disorder

• 4x as many boys as girls • Excessive drinking • Severe vitamin deficiencies • Higher level of expectations in the schools; Ritalin

ADHD Video

• Deficiencies in social relationships; extreme social isolation • Repetitive patterns of behavior • Speech abnormalities such as echolalia • Insistence on preserving sameness in the environment

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
• Defies or refuses to comply w/requests and rules • Blames others for mistakes • Angry and resentful • Vindictive • Easily annoyed with others

Mental Retardation (Developmental Delays)
• Condition of limited mental ability and difficulty adapting to everyday life (below 70 IQ) • Mild (89%) (55 - 70 IQ) • Moderately retarded (6%)(40 - 54 IQ) (second grade level) • Severe (3.5%) (25 - 39)(need help functioning)

• Learned helplessness; trapped and identify self with what cannot do;

Moral Development

Kohlberg (page 344)
• Level 1; Preconventional Stage 1;Punishment/Obedience Stage 2; Individualism • Level 2; Conventional Stage 3; Interpersonal Stage 4; Social system morality

Kohlberg (page 344)

• Level 3; Postconventional Stage 5; community rights vs. individual rights Stage 6; Universal ethics

• Justice perspective; rights of individuals and individuals decide morality=Kohlberg • Care perspective; interpersonal connectiveness guides moral choice

Moral Dilemmas

• Spanking • Retaining children • Teaching for Tests vs. Learning

“Teaching Tolerance”

Wrecked the bike
• Piaget • Erikson • Ainsworth • Parten/Sullivan • Parenting styles • Object Relations