Salt and Melting Ice

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					1. Lesson: The Melting Points of Water and Salt Water
Objectives: LO: Grade 3 Properties of Matter; Grade 5 Heat FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking, Numeracy Time: You can do this lesson as a centre where students work on the challenge themselves, or you can have a motivational discussion of what the question is, and have them work as short or as long as you want. If you have the activity set up for a centre, have the instructions on a laminated card, and the materials available. Instructional Method: Predict, Explain, Observe, Explain Materials: Ice, container (jar, plastic cup, beaker), thermometers Safety Precautions: Students must be very careful with the thermometers. They must be warned not to shake the thermometers, or to use them to stir the melting ice. Activity: Problem: What will happen to the temperature of melting ice when you add salt to the melting ice. Why do you think this will happen? Make a data table for recording the time, and the temperature. Put the time along the top and temperatures in the expected range (from about -10 to +10 C) along the side. Once the temperature has stabilized at the beginning, record the temperature by putting a dot in the spot in the data table which indicates the time and temperature. Put several ice cubes in a container. Add some very cold water. Put in a thermometer. Wait until the temperature stabilizes. Then, take the temperature every 30 seconds for three minutes. Then, add salt. Continue recording the temperature for five more minutes. Key Questions for Debrief: What happened? Why do you think this happened? Assessment Tool: Students should write what they did, what happened, and why they believe this happened. They should include their data tables in their observations. After you have read the students’ write-ups, and their suggestions for what happened, hand back their write-ups and show them how their data table is a graph. They can connect the dots they made in their data tables, and the line that connects the dots is a graph. The graph shows in a picture what happens to the temperature of melting ice when salt is added. The picture is much easier to see than reading the data table. Extensions: Does the amount of salt added make a difference to the temperature? Does the ratio of water to ice make a difference to the initial temperature? Does the ratio of water to ice change when the salt is added? Does the amount of salt added change the ratio of ice to water? What else might have the same effect on melting ice as salt? Try these different experiments!

Lesson: Inertia
Objectives: LO: Grade 1 Motion, All FO’s FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking Time: Instructional Method: Predict, Explain, Observe, Explain Materials: One to four raw eggs or similar size and weight of a less fragile object (plums, apples, tennis balls), the same number of coffee mugs as eggs (or you could use wine glasses – risky), cookie sheet with a rim on the end where the broom handle will hit it, toilet paper roll tubes, straw broom. Safety precautions: Students should not sit too close. They might get hit in the teeth with the cookie sheet! Have them stand to the side, or sit back at least three metres. Activity: Set up the cookie sheet on the mugs, and the toilet paper rolls on the cookie sheet. Centre the toilet paper rolls exactly above the mugs. If you want to use the eggs again, put some water in the mugs. I prefer to have nothing in the mugs, so I can show the students there is nothing in the mugs, if they are a skeptical lot. Then put the fat side of the eggs into the toilet paper rolls. The edge of the cookie sheet must be protruding off the edge of the table. Stand on the straw of the broom. Show the students that when you bend the handle back, while standing on the straw, the broom handle will spring forward with a strong force once you let go. Ask the students what will happen to the eggs if you let go of the handle so that it hits the cookie sheet. The students must make a prediction, and explain why they think this will happen. If they are in grades 2 or up, have them write their predictions and their explanations. They should be encouraged to illustrate their predictions and explanation. Once they have recorded their predictions, let go of the broom handle, such that it really thwacks the cookie sheet. Ideally, the sheet should go flying, and the eggs should disappear into the mugs. I am always amazed at the way the eggs just disappear, so even the students who predict the eggs will go in the mugs will be amazed. Key Question: What forces were acting on the eggs? (Probe – don’t tell. If they don’t get what you expect them to, that is ok.) The forward force on the cookie sheet from the broom handle does not affect the eggs, but does remove the cookie sheet from under the eggs. The force of friction between the toilet paper rolls and the cookie sheet does not act on the eggs, but does move the toilet paper rolls from under the eggs. The force of friction between the toilet paper rolls and the eggs is very small, because it is only around the rim of the roll, and the eggs have more inertia than the toilet paper rolls. Thus the eggs have more resistance to the friction than the toilet paper rolls. Gravity acts on the eggs, pulling them down into the mugs. If the eggs go flying, this is because the force of friction is greater than the eggs’ inertia.

2. Lesson: Every Action has an Equal and Opposite Reaction
Objectives: LO: Grade 1 Motion, All FO’s; Grade 3 Solar System All FO’s FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking, Independent Learning Time: At least thirty minutes Instructional Method: Play Debrief Replay Materials: more than enough balloons for each student to have one. Put the balloons at the station, such that there are more balloons than students. Various sizes, and types of paper, tin foil, plastic. Scissors. String. Straws. Tape of various types. Straws. Popsicle sticks. Safety Precautions: Students should be told that once one person blows up a balloon, no one else should blow up that balloon. They can get a new balloon for each person. Activity: Blow up one balloon and release it. Students must observe this closely. What happens to the balloon? Key question for Debrief: Why does the balloon zig and zag all over the place? (If the students don’t know, tell them to watch the balloon more closely.) If the students don’t notice that the nozzle of the balloon zigs and zags, such that the air comes out in different directions, do not tell them. They do not need to know Newton’s laws in elementary school! The reason the balloon does zig and zag is because the nozzle does, and so the air escapes the balloon up, then down, then to the right, then to the left (or whatever pattern). If the air escapes up, the balloon shoots down (equal and opposite reaction) etc. Second Activity: Now, with the materials available, students are to design a method to make the next balloon go in a straight line. Give them fifteen minutes to come up with their method. There are many ways to get the balloon to go in a straight line. Let them do something creative! Key Questions for Debrief: How did each group get their balloon to go in a straight line? Why did each method work? Replay: Give the students the same set of materials and another fifteen to twenty minutes to work with the balloons.

3. Lesson: Inertia
Objectives: LO: Grade 1 Motion, All FO’s; Grade 3 Solar System All FO’s FSL: CELs: Time: twenty to forty minutes. Instructional Method: Play Debrief Replay Materials: Corel ware mugs, paper. For the challenge, have various types of fabric, and Corel plates to go with the mugs. Safety Precautions: Use corel dinner ware which is supposedly unbreakable. Activity: Each group has several different kinds of paper and one heavy bottomed mug. They are to place the mug on the paper, and pull the paper out from under the mug without the mug moving. (Five minutes) Key Questions for Debrief: What kind of paper worked best for this? What kind of pull on the paper worked best for this? Challenge: Magicians pull table cloths from under dinner settings. Try pulling a piece of fabric from under the plate and mug. Assessment Tool:

4. Lesson: Inertia
Objectives: LO: Grade 1 Motion, All FO’s; Grade 3 Solar System All FO’s FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking, Numeracy Time: Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: A set of cans (such as coffee or pop cans), each set with a can containing sand, another with oatmeal, another with rice, another with marbles, balance for weighing the cans, ramps (made out of wood planks), books to prop the planks against, meter sticks. Safety precautions: Just the usual – students should play nicely. Activity: Students are to record their predictions of which can will roll the farthest (on the flat) if released at the same vertical height on a ramp. Students will design data tables to record the vertical height (this should be the same within one student group, for all their cans) from which their cans were started, the mass of each can, and the distance each can rolled. They will mark a point on the ramp, and release each can in turn from this point on the ramp, and measure how far each can rolls, recording all this information in their data tables. Key questions: What did they observe about their cans (the students are likely to notice that some of the cans did not roll, but rather slid down the ramp. Did the mass of the can affect whether the can rolled or slid? Did the mass of the can affect how far the can rolled? Did the vertical height (different groups will have released their cans from different vertical heights) affect the distance the cans rolled on the flat? Why do they think their cans behaved the way they did? (If the students don’t come up with the expected answer, that is ok. They do not need to learn Newton’s laws now. These activities are to prompt their thinking – to prepare them to construct the knowledge later.) The reason the cans slide instead of rolling is because of the friction of the material inside the cans. The material has greater or lesser friction among its particles, depending on the shape or slipperiness of the materials. I expect that oatmeal would have the greatest friction, and rice and marbles the least. Assessment Tool:

5. Lesson: Every Action has an Equal and Opposite Reaction
Objectives: LO: Grade 1 Motion, All FO’s; Grade 3 Solar System All FO’s FSL: CELs: Time: 15 to 20 minutes Instructional Method: Undemonstration (a demonstration would be telling the students the principle they are about to see illustrated, then showing them an example of the principle. In this case, you will show them something, and they are to try to explain it.) Materials: Coffee can with a loop of elastic thread through two holes in the bottom, and two holes in the lid, with a weight (such as a washer) tied to the centre of the loops. One partly assembled coffee can. Safety Precautions: Just the usual. Students should play nicely. Activity: Tell the students you have a magical can, which knows its name. Tell the students the cans name. Then roll the can away from you, then when it has just about stopped, start calling it back. It will roll part way back to you. Key questions: Why might the can have rolled back to you? (hint: it is not magic! Newton would have explained it.) The students will need to disassemble the can. These cans are difficult to assemble, so have one that is not completed for them to examine. Show them how the elastic wraps up as the can rolls, then unwraps. Every action (the elastic wrapping up) will have an equal and opposite reaction (the elastic will unwrap). Why does the can not roll all the way back to you? (some of the energy of wrapping will be used up in friction.) Assessment Tool: Have the students build their own magic cans at home. Give them the elastic thread, and the washers. They must provide their own cans. They must explain to their parents why their magic cans return to them.

6. Lesson: Mystery Boxes
Objectives: LO: Scientists must make inferences to learn about the natural world; Grade 5 Properties of Matter. FSL: CELs: Time: sixty minutes Instructional Method: Simulation Introduction: The mystery boxes represents how scientists learn about very small or very distant things. They cannot check to see if their hypotheses area correct, but they do have indirect observations, and they make educated guesses. Materials and Activity: You can assemble a class set of mystery boxes – shoe boxes, coffee cans, whatever you have lots of but which aren’t breakable. These mystery boxes contain one or several objects, and then are wrapped. I use objects such as Barbie doll heads, marbles, pencil erasers, sand, rice with a marble in it, hot wheels car, single sock folded on itself, etc. The students have to guess what the object inside the box is, without opening the box. This represents how scientists learn what they do about atoms. They cannot see atoms. They infer what atoms look like through the use of indirect evidence. Two other types of mystery boxes and the activity: Have each student bring a small (shoe?) box to school. Each student is given two to four file cards and a small ball. The student folds the file cards and tapes them, erect, to the bottom inside of the box. Then the ball is placed in the box, and the box is taped closed. Students trade their boxes. The students must roll the balls in the box, and attempt to determine where the file cards are, how they are placed. Jim has an excellent set of mystery boxes. He has assembled three sets, each by using straws, nails (as pivots) and elastics. The ends of the straws protrude from the boxes. As a student pulls or pushes on one straw, the other will move. The students must try to determine how the straws are connected inside the boxes. Jim has them work with set A boxes first, and lets them look inside to confirm their hypotheses (after they have collected sufficient indirect evidence and justified their hypotheses). Then the students are presented set B of the boxes. Again, after justifying their hypotheses, they are allowed to look inside. Set C is much more challenging, and they are not allowed to look inside! Key Questions: How were your investigations of the mystery boxes like science research? (Your students will suggest many things that you had not thought of. The main point is that scientists must make inferences from the empirical data available.) How were your investigations of the mystery boxes not like science research? Assessment Tool: Anecdotal comments on what students say in their small groups and what they present in the whole class discussion.

7. Lesson: Surface Tension of Liquids
Objectives: LO: Grade 3 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking Time: Thirty minutes Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: One penny, one eye dropper, one beaker of water per students. Activity: Explain that the students are going to put drops of water on their pennies. How many drops do they think they will be able to put on their pennies? Take answers from students, and ask them to justify why they think that many drops. (They should learn that they cannot justify a particular number but can justify quantities such as many, just a few, about ten. Comment on this tendency – that we cannot usually predict exact results, but we can predict general results. There are times when scientists can predict very exactly what they expect. These times are rare.) In small groups, students are to carefully place drops of water on the penny. They are to count how many drops they can put on the penny. Key Questions: What happened to the water they put on their pennies? What did it look like? How many drops were they able to put? Were they surprised? Why do they think they were able to put so many drops on their pennies? Assessment Tool: Anecdotal comments regarding the patience with which some students worked, the haste which others showed.

8. Lesson: Surface Tension of Liquids
Objectives: LO: Grade 3 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking Time: Thirty minutes Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: One “beaker” full of water, many many pennies – at least one hundred per station, and one beaker partially full of water. In actuality, you cannot use beakers as they have a spout on them. You will use the kind of beakers I recommend for elementary school – jars, or plastic cups. Activity: Explain that the stations are already set up (or tell them that first they are to fill one of their beakers to the top with water before they begin. The tidiest way to do this is to partially fill both beakers, then, when the beaker they want to fill is settled on a flat, stable surface at their station, they can top it up with water from the other beaker.) Once their beakers are full, they are to put a penny carefully into their beaker. How many pennies do they think they can add before the water will spill out? Key Questions: What happened to the shape of the water as pennies were added? How many pennies could be added? Why do they think they could add so many pennies? Explain to them that when the water is bulging up, we call that the meniscus. When we measure volume of water in a graduated cylinder, the water will not line up exactly on our measurement line, so we cannot measure the volume exactly. However, scientists have all agreed to read the bottom of the meniscus. Assessment Tool: Anecdotal comments on students care and precision as they added pennies to their beakers.

9. Lesson: Surface Tension of Liquids
Objectives: LO: Grade 3 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking Time: from five to twenty minutes – depending on how much guidance you give them. Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: One cork, two “beakers”, one eye dropper at each station. Both beakers should be about three quarters full of water. Activity: Set up the materials at the stations, with the cork in one of the two “beakers” at the station. Before the students pick up their materials or move to the stations, they are told that the cork will not float in the centre of the water – it always moves to the edge to touch the beaker. They must find a way to keep the cork in the centre of the water. They can only use the materials they have available! (This is very difficult! But if students have already done the pennies in the beaker activity, they might remember that the water bulges up, until there is enough for it to start to bulge over the edge. Then the water becomes concave in the centre, at which point the cork will “fall” to the centre. You might have to remind them of the pennies in the beaker activity and the different shapes of the surface of the water. But leave them to try different things first. Someone might happen upon the method. After all, you have a class full of scientists!) Key Questions: Why does the cork move to the side of the beaker? What changed as more water was added to the beaker? Assessment Tool: Anecdotal comments about the connections the students made between the water on the pennies, the pennies in the beakers, and the cork floating on the surface of the water. Which students use their vocabulary, calling the “beakers” beakers, and the curve of the water surface the “meniscus”.

10. Lesson: Surface Tension of Liquids, Cohesion and Adhesion
Objectives: LO: Grade 3 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking, Numeracy Time: sixty minutes Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: Dropper bottles with vegetable oil, rubbing alcohol, water, pieces of plastic wrap, waxed paper, loose leaf paper, pennies. Safety Precautions: Remind students that rubbing alcohol is fatal, so they must not drink it. It is called rubbing alcohol because it evaporates from your skin quite quickly. To evaporate, a liquid requires energy, and the rubbing alcohol takes this energy from your skin, thus cooling you. Rubbing alcohol used to be used to cool a person who had a fever. However, rubbing alcohol breaks down your cell walls, so would kill the surface skin cells. Nowadays, we use luke warm (about body temperature) water to cool a person who has a fever. Rubbing alcohol can also be used as a disinfectant. Just as it will kill our skin cells, it will kill bacteria cells. However, it stings as it disinfects, and will cause scarring. I prefer to use hydrogen peroxide as a disinfectant. It is not as effective at killing bacteria, but it does not sting nearly as much, nor does it cause scarring as easily. Remind them that all alcohol is fatal if too much is consumed. A person can literally drink themselves to death in one drinking bout. Use alcohol of any kind moderately or not at all (wine and beer are more dilute than are “hard liquors, so are less toxic. However, in France, where people drink a lot of wine, there is a high incidence of a fatal disease called cirrhosis of the liver.) Activity: Remind the students that they have put drops of water on pennies to see how many drops each penny could hold. Now they are going to compare the number of drops of vegetable oil and rubbing alcohol that each penny can hold. Which of the three liquids do they think they can get the most on a penny? There will be three students to a group. Each student will have one of the three liquids, an eye dropper and a beaker of water. Each student is to carefully count how many drops s/he can put of his/her liquid on his/her penny. Key questions: (Call the students away from the stations for questioning.) Record the data on a data table on the blackboard. Discuss what an outlier is – if there is one number that is very different than all the others, it is usually eliminated from the “data set”. Average the numbers in the data set. What shape did each liquid make on the penny? Why do they think the liquids made these shapes? What else did they notice? Second activity: The liquids each made unique shapes on the pennies. Do the students think that the liquids will make different shapes depending on the surfaces they are on?

Students return to their stations and put several drops of each liquid on each of the materials they have. They observe the different liquids’ shapes on the different materials. Key Questions: (This time, leave the students at their stations.) Did the different surfaces affect the shape of the liquids? Why do they think this was? How did the liquids behave in relation to the surfaces? Third Activity: Liquid Races. Ask the students if they think that the way the liquids acted in relation to the different surfaces would affect the way the liquids moved on the surfaces? Each group is to set up a ramp, using text books. They must put two math text books flat on top of one another. The third should make a ramp from the edge of the two to the desk surface. They are to cover the third text book with plastic wrap. Then they will first use plastic wrap, and put five to six drops of each liquid at the same height on the plastic wrap, and observe. Which drop moves the farthest, which moves the fastest. They must record their results. They must repeat this with each of the three surfaces, leaving a protective coating of plastic wrap on the text. Key Questions: (Call the students away from their stations, back to their desks.) Which liquid did each group find moved the farthest? How far did the liquid move? Which liquid did each group find moved the fastest? Was it the same as the liquid which moved the farthest? Why might this be? New vocabulary: When a substance sticks to itself, we use the word “cohesion”. When a substance sticks to something else, we use the word “adhere”. So, when the water bulges up, it is because the water particles are sticking to one another. They are cohering to one another. When the water soaks into the looseleaf paper, the water particles are joining with the paper particles or adhering to them. When the water particles bulge up in the beaker, it is because the water particles in the centre are cohering to one another. At the edge of the beaker, where the water meets the beaker, the water particles cohere to the beaker. Assessment Tool: Have the students write what they believed would happen in each activity, what they did, record the class results, summarize the class results, and attempt to explain what happened. Read carefully. How did the students manipulate their data. Did they describe the “outliers”? Did they use their new vocabulary in their explanation? Ask questions in the margin, pushing each student to answer one more question than s/he did already. Hand them back, and ask them to make the revisions, incorporating your corrections (grammar and spelling) and the answers to your questions in their second drafts.

11. Lesson: Sink and Float – Does the liquid make a difference?
Objectives: LO: Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 3 Properties of Matter; Grade 5 Properties of Matter (in which case, you will have the students calculate density of objects, and determine this has an effect on whether they sink or float) FSL: CELs: Communication, critical and creative thinking, numeracy Time: sixty minutes Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: Hard boiled eggs (have one egg for each group, but have several prepared as back-ups. Someone will accidentally break his/her egg), “beakers” (three per station), water, salt water, salt (bags and bags of salt – put about 50 mL at each station, with more available if they need it), teaspoons, balances, dishes for holding the beakers. Activity: “There is a beaker at each station labeled by the liquid it contains – at each station there is a beaker of tap water and a beaker of salt water. There is one hard boiled egg at each station. Please be careful with your egg: do not drop or break it because you will need it for three activities. Weigh your egg. Fill the tap water beaker to the very brim with tap water. You will put the egg in the tap water. Catch all the water that spills out of the beaker. Record whether it sinks or floats. Weigh the water that spills out. (Retrieve the egg carefully with the spoon.) Fill the salt water beaker to the very brim with salt water. Put the egg in the salt water, and catch the salt water that spills out. Weigh the salt water. Record the results.” Stop here in your instructions to ensure that your students understand. If there is water in the dish before they put the egg in the beaker, will they just be catching the water that came out because of the egg? They must be sure that the dish has as little water as possible in it before they put the egg into the beaker. Key Questions: Did the egg sink or float in tap water? Did it sink or float in salt water? What was the relationship between the weight of the egg and the weight of the water that spilled out? Did the egg weigh more than the water that spilled out when it floated or when it sank? Second Activity: Can the students mix the salt water and tap water, or add salt to the tap water, such that their eggs will be off the bottom of the beaker but below the surface of the water? Key Question: Is the egg floating or sinking when it is suspended between the surface of the water and the bottom of the container? (This will lead to an interesting discussion. Some suggestions for resolution – but not until they have argued themselves silly and taken it up with their parents at home – is to check a dictionary, or to invent a new word.)

Assessment Tool: Students are to record the class information from the data tables in their notebooks. They are to write and/or illustrate what they did. In their conclusions, they are to describe why they think the eggs floated in one of the waters and not the other. Read their write-ups and make note of whether they prefer to illustrate or write or both. What does this tell you about the students? Make grammatical corrections and ask them questions where you are not sure what they mean. Challenge each student to explain just a little bit more than s/he has. For students who have chosen to illustrate, ask them to label their illustrations. For those students who used only text, ask them to make a drawing of their group at work, or of the materials they used. The students are to hand in a second draft, incorporating the answers to your questions in the appropriate places, and the grammatical corrections. Which students show greater levels of abstract thought? Which students respond to your questions in the text of their second drafts? How can you encourage each student to incorporate your feedback into their writing, rather than appending your questions and putting the answers there.

12. Lesson: Sink and Float
Objectives: LO: Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 3 Properties of Matter; Grade 5 Properties of Matter (in which case, you will have the students calculate density of objects, and determine this has an effect on whether they sink or float) FSL: CELs: Communication, Critical and Creative Thinking, Numeracy Time: thirty to sixty minutes Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: A selection of small items which will sink or float (plasticine, elastic bands, pennies, rubber balls, corks, nails, marbles, milk bottle caps, metal juice bottle caps, etc.), a beaker with a large surface area with water in it, dish just larger than the beaker for catching water spillage in. Safety Precautions: Students play nicely. Activity: Students are to examine the different objects at their stations. They are to draw or write the names of each of the objects they think will sink in one circle on their papers. They are to draw or write the names of each of the objects they think will float in another circle. All the objects inside one circle are considered members of the same set. They are not members of the other “set”. Once all the students in a group have finished classifying their objects, they can test each one in the water. They are to record the new, accurate sets. Key Questions: Were their predictions correct? Which objects moved from one set to another? Why do they think that some objects sank and others floated – ie: what was the difference between the objects? Second Activity: Students are to weigh each object. They are to fill their beakers to the very brim with water, and catch all the water that spills out of the beaker as they gently put their object in the beaker. They are to weigh the water that spills out and record the weight of the water and compare it to the weight of the object. Key Questions: The data table is put on the blackboard and students call out their results. The different weights of their different objects are recorded, and whether the objects sank or floated, and the weight of the water that spilled out. A last column is to record whether the weight of the water was greater or lesser than the weight of the object when the object floated. Is there a relationship between whether the object floated and whether the spilled water was heavier than the object? Show them one example of this relationship to show them what you mean by relationship.

Assessment Tool: The students hand in their data sets, and their data tables. Notice which students have chosen to write and which to illustrate the objects. Why might this be? What does it tell you about your students’ abilities to learn and the ways in which they express their understanding?

13. Lesson: Sink and Float – Making Boats
Objectives: LO: Grade 3 Properties of Matter; Grade 5 Properties of Matter (variables other than density affect boat design. Surface tension of water also affects whether a boat will float.) FSL: CELs: Communication, critical and creative thinking, technological literacy Time: thirty to fifty minutes Instructional method: Inquiry Materials: one 30 cm by 30 cm squares of tin foil per station, one dish pan half full of water per station, about 100 pennies – per station. Activity: In small groups, students are to design a boat made of tin foil. Their boat must float, and must continue to float as pennies are added to it. The group with the boat that will hold the most pennies will win; as well, the first boat to be finished according to plan will win a prize. (Have prizes, enough for each group – the prizes can be boat which held the least before sinking, the most artistic boat, the most interesting boat that didn’t float, etc.) The first piece of tin foil is for experimenting with. Once the group has had a chance to experiment and come up with a good idea, they will make a sketch of their plan. They will show their plan to the teacher, and turn in their pennies to get their second piece of tin foil. (The teacher will need to spread the pennies out to dry.) They return to their stations and build their boat to their design. Once all students have built their boats, the competition will begin. In an aquarium at the front of the classroom, each team will place their boat in the water, and one person will carefully add pennies, while the audience counts. When the boat sinks, the teacher will record the number of pennies. That team will retrieve their boat and the bulk of the pennies quickly and tidily from the aquarium, and the next group will come up. Key Questions: In the last two sink and float activities, the students discovered there was a relationship between the mass of the object and the water that was displaced. Do they think the water that was displaced here was as great as the mass of the boat and the pennies? How could they tell? Assessment Tool: Students are to design an experiment to measure the mass of water displaced and the mass of the boat with pennies in it. They will do this as a group, using writing and illustrations. They will hand this in to the teacher. The next day, the teacher will provide them the materials to carry out their experiment.

14. Lesson: Expansion and Contraction of Air
Objectives: LO: Grade 1: The Earth, FO 3; Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 4 Predicting Weather; Grade 5 Heat; Grade 5 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: critical and creative thinking, communication Time: five minutes for activity, expand for debrief and analysis Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: wooden matches, short candles, tin pie plates, water with food colouring, jars about 5 cm taller than the candle Safety Precautions: Students must be taught how to light the matches. Remind them that they must not put the blown out match in the garbage or in the sink. They must wet the blown out match, then put it in the garbage. Activity: Students are to find a way to stand the candle on the base of the tin pie plate. Show them that they can light the candle, then drip some wax onto the centre of the pie plate and stick the candle on this melted wax. This will stand the candle up. Then they will add about one cm depth of water to the pie plate. They should add a drop of food colouring to the water, so they can see it through the jar, which they will invert over the candle. They will invert the jar over the candle, such that the jar rim rests on the bottom of the pie plate. Observe. Explain. Key Questions for Debrief: What happened to the candle when the jar went over it? Why do they think this happened? What happened to the water when the jar went over the candle? What happened to the water when the candle went out? Why do they think this happened? [NOTE: THE OXYGEN GAS DOES BURN, BUT THIS DOES NOT CHANGE THE VOLUME OF GAS IN THE JAR. THE EXPLANATION OFTEN GIVEN IN SCIENCE ACTIVITY BOOKS IS THAT THE BURNING UP OF THE OXYGEN DECREASES THE VOLUME OF AIR IN THE JAR, SO THAT THE WATER MUST RISE UP. THIS EXPLANATION IS WRONG. WHAT ELSE COULD CAUSE THE CHANGE IN VOLUME OF THE AIR? HOW MIGHT WE TEST TO SEE WHICH EXPLANATION IS CORRECT?] Assessment Tool: In their small groups, students should plan a method for testing whether it is expansion and contraction of gas or oxygen consumption which causes the water to rise in the jar.

15. Lesson: Expansion and Contraction of Air
Objectives: LO: Grade 1: The Earth, FO 3; Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 4 Predicting Weather; Grade 5 Heat; Grade 5 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, critical and creative thinking Time: sixty minutes Instructional Method: Demonstration and Inquiry Materials: glass bottles with top openings about the size of the old milk bottles – an opening just large enough to support an egg. You can get different sized eggs, to find the eggs that work best with the bottles you find. Try it out at home first, because finding bottles with the right sized opening is not the only problem. You also need a bottle large enough that the air can contract enough to move the egg into it. Hard boiled peeled eggs. Hair dryers. Ice, in buckets. Paper. Matches. Safety Precautions: The students will be working with matches. Teach them how to light matches, and remind them that they must dip the extinguished match in water before putting it in the garbage. [Since the activity involves lighting paper on fire, I think I might actually do this part as a demonstration. The second part, the students could do themselves.] Activity: Each station will have a bottle, a peeled hard boiled egg, a package of wooden matches, some paper. The students are to twist a piece of paper, light it, and quickly insert it into the bottle and rest the egg on the bottle opening. Observe. Key Questions for Debrief: What happened? Why do they think this happened? Depending on the age of the students, there are likely to be two possible explanations – one will be the oxygen gas was consumed (grade 9 or up) and the other that the air expanded and contracted (grade 5 and up). If the students are younger than grade five and don’t have an explanation, tell them that heat causes most things to expand – to get larger. What would happen to the air as it expanded as the paper burned? As the air expands in the bottle, where will it go? (how can the air get bigger when it has no place to go?) When the paper burned out, what would happen to the air? As the air contracts in the bottle, how will it take up less space? [it will have to pull the egg into the bottle so that the space is smaller.] Is there another way we can heat and cool the air, other than playing with matches? Second activity: At each station, there should be a bottle and a peeled hard boiled egg, a hair dryer and a bucket of ice. Students are to place the egg on the bottle, and turn the blow dryer on the bottle. After a few minutes, they can turn off the blow dryer, let the bottle cool briefly and then put the bottle on ice.

Key Questions for Debrief: What happened when the blow dryer blew on the bottle? Did the air expand? How do they know if it expanded? How could we test if the air expands when hot air is blown on it? What happened when the blow dryer was turned off? What happened to the egg? Did the air contract? How do they know the air contracted? Is there some way we could test that air actually contracts? Assessment Tool: Have the student write or draw their explanations of what happened. Those who illustrate, ask them to label their illustrations. Ask them to use their new words “expansion” and “contraction”. Those who write, ask them to illustrate their writing. Ask them to use the words “expansion” and “contraction”. Correct their grammar and spelling, and ask questions where you do not understand what they mean. Have them hand in a second draft of their explanations.

16. Lesson: Expansion and Contraction of Air
Objectives: LO: FSL: CELs: Communication, critical and creative thinking Time: thirty minutes Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: glass bottles with small openings, such as wine bottles, blow dryers, ice cubes in buckets, balloons. Activity: Using the materials, the students will test if air, when heated, expands; and if air, when cooled, contracts. Key Questions for Debrief: What did you do in your groups? What did you observe? Does air expand when it is heated? Does air contract when it is heated? Explanation to students: Air expands when it is heated. This means that the volume of the air increases. Air contracts when it is cooled. This means that the volume of air decreases. When we write a hypothesis and then a conclusion to an experiment, we almost always write it as how one variable (in this case, temperature) affects another variable (in this case volume). So the hypothesis should have been written, for this experiment, as “I think that volume of the air will increase as the temperature of the aira increases.” The conclusion would be written as “The volume of air increased as the temperature increased.” You could also add the other hypothesis “I think the volume of air will decrease as the temperature of the air decreases.” And the conclusion would be … Assessment Tool: Have each group of students discuss how they would test whether the volume of a liquid changes as the temperature of the liquid changes. They are to write the hypothesis and their procedure for testing.

17. Lesson: Expansion and Contraction of Water
Objectives: LO: Grade 1: The Earth, FO 3; Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 4 Predicting Weather; Grade 5 Heat; Grade 5 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Time: one hour Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: “Beakers” for every station, water, blow dryers for every station, thermometers for each station, ice buckets for every station, graduated cylinders for every station Activity: Using the materials, students are to find out if the volume of water changes as the temperature changes. Key Questions for Debrief: What sort of temperature change did the students manage to increase their water to? Did the volume of the water change as the temperature increased? If the volume changed, did it increase of decrease? What sort of temperature change did the students manage to decrease their water to? Did this decrease in temperature affect the volume of the water? Did the volume decrease or increase as the temperature decreased? Explanation to students: When we find in science that increasing one variable causes the other variable to increase, we call this a direct relationship. The temperature increased, causing an increase in volume – since both variables increased, this is a direct relationship. Assessment Tool: Students must write their experiment, with hypotheses, description of what they did, data table recording results, and their conclusion. They are to illustrate their write-up. Assess which students are able to write the hypothesis as the relationship between one variable and another variable. Which students used the term “direct relationship” in their write-ups? Correct spelling and grammar, and ask questions where you don’t understand what the student mean. Encourage them to use the term “direct relationship” and to write their hypotheses and conclusions as the relationship between two variables. Have them re-write their work and hand it in again.

18. Lesson: Expansion and Contraction of Liquids and Gases
Objectives: LO: Grade 1: The Earth, FO 3; Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 4 Predicting Weather; Grade 5 Heat; Grade 5 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, critical and creative thinking, numeracy Time: 30 minutes of actual student work time, but they have to wait about three to four hours (maybe overnight) between the beginning of the activity and the end of it. The students need other activities to work on between starting the experiment and finishing the experiment. Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: enough 2 L glass pop bottles with tops for each station, enough 2 L plastic bottles with tops for each station, thermometers which will stand up and can be read through the side of the bottles – two per station, and fridge space for all these bottles. Activity: “We know that as the temperature decreases, the volume will decrease. Supposing the volume cannot decrease? Will the temperature be able to decrease? The volume of water in a glass bottle cannot decrease; however, the volume of water in a plastic bottle can decrease – the sides of the bottle can cave in. Using the materials at your station, design an experiment to test if the temperature is supposed to decrease, but the volume cannot, what will happen to the temperature. Write a hypothesis. Write your procedure. You may use the fridge in the staff room. When your group has finished writing its procedure, bring it to me to be approved before you begin working.” Give the students about five to ten minutes to write their procedures. Some groups will have their procedures worked out really quickly, so will get their bottles in the fridge really quickly. The activity for students to work on when they are done this should be independent, because other groups will take up to fifteen minutes to negotiate their procedures. When checking their procedures, make sure that they have plan to put the thermometers in the bottles. If they have to open the bottles to put the thermometers in, the temperature will drop as soon as the liquid can contract. Key Questions for Debrief: Did the temperature change in either of the bottles? Did it change in both of the bottles? Did it change the same amount in each bottle? Why or why not? Assessment Tool: Student groups are to write the experiment, with those students who are good at writing doing this part, those who are good at illustrating doing this part, and with the hypothesis and conclusion written as the effect of one variable on the other.

19. Lesson: Expansion and Contraction of Liquids and Density
Objectives: LO: Grade 1: The Earth, FO 3; Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 4 Predicting Weather; Grade 5 Heat; Grade 5 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, numeracy Time: twenty minutes Instructional Method: Role Play Materials: Students Activity: Explain that as we add heat to particles, such as water or air particles, they have more energy. This energy causes them to move faster. All substances are made of teeny tiny (I go on for some time with the teenies and tinies to emphasize that these particles are really really small) particles. The particles of solids are actually attached to one another, so that the shape of solids does not change. The particles of liquids are not attached, but are attracted to one another, so the liquid particles stay together, but do not have a constant shape. Liquids take the shape of the container they are in. Gas particles are very slightly attracted to one another, so they can expand to fill the container they are in. If we add enough energy, these gas particles move so fast that they will move much farther apart and might even break the container. “The role play we are about to do will illustrate this. When you start, you will be a solid. You will all be close together, and you will be holding hands. As I tell you how more heat energy is being added, you will move faster and faster. You will try to keep holding hands, but you will jiggle and jump, and shake your arms and move your feet. If you lose your partners’ hands, grab them again. When I tell you you are changing into a liquid, you will continue to jiggle and jump, but as you lose hands, you will not grab them back. Eventually, you will all be free of one another, and you will be moving around close to one another, but not holding hands. You change places with one another. I will continue to add heat energy. You will move faster and faster. Eventually, I will tell you you are changing into a gas. Then you can move freely, and quickly. Please do not run into one another, or hurt yourselves.” As you (the teacher) start the students out as a solid, etc, stop at key points to ask them what has happened. For example, they should realize that when they are liquids, they take up more room than solids did. They need more room because they are moving faster and don’t want to bang into one another. Taking up more room is called …? Key Questions for Debrief: What happened as heat energy was added to the solid? Did the solid get bigger? When a bond broke between two particles of solid, what happened – while you were still a solid? - while you were changing to a liquid? What happened as heat energy was added to the liquid? Did the liquid expand? Why did it expand? What happened when heat energy was added to a gas? Did it expand?

Explanation: Scientists have made a model of matter, and the model is that all things, all substances are made out of teeny tiny particles called molecules. They explain the expansion and contraction of solids, liquids and gases using this model. So far, the model seems to make sense – it works to explain most things we know about matter. Assessment Tool: Anecdotal comments about which students answered the questions and how thoroughly they were able to answer the questions.

20. Lesson: Temperature, Density, and Weather
Objectives: LO: Grade 1: The Earth, FO 3; Grade 2 Weather all FO’s; Grade 4 Predicting Weather; Grade 5 Heat; Grade 5 Properties of Matter FSL: CELs: Communication, critical and creative thinking, numeracy, technological literacy Time: 30 to 60 minutes Instructional Method: Inquiry Materials: enough baby food jar, with string tied around the top, for each station. The string is for a handle. Large beakers, containing cold tap water, beakers to be large enough to easily contain the baby food jar. Food colouring. Kettle for the classroom. Activity: Explain to the students that the beakers at their stations hold cold water from the tap. (Not freezing, but cold). They want to see what will happen to hot water when it is submerged in cold water. What do the students think will happen? How will they know? They are to get into their lab groups, write their hypotheses, and design a procedure using the materials they have at their station. They will have access to hot water from the kettle. When they have written their hypothesis, and their procedure and illustrated what they will do, they should bring this to the teacher who will approve or make suggestions. Then the students will carry out the activity. Key Questions for Debrief: What did they observe happening in their beakers? When might they observe this same effect in their homes? (Putting cold milk or cold cream in coffee or in hot chocolate. They might have noticed that the top of the hot chocolate stays hot, so they are likely to burn their tongues!) Do hot things always rise? How might the rising of hot things through cold things affect the world? What happens when water from the equator flows north? Will it go over or under the water farther north? What about the cold water from the north – will it go over or under the warm water coming from the equator? Assessment Tool: Each group is to write up their experiment, and hand it in. Each individual is to describe one example of when they have seen a hot thing rise through a cold thing. [They might suggest hot air balloons, or the smoke from a house, or the examples you gave of cold milk in hot coffee.]

Newton’s Laws of Motion Background Information for Teachers Isaac Newton (who was born in England in the 1600’s on the day that Galileo died) is one of the most famous scientists, and considered by many to have been one of the greatest human geniuses. He grew up in a small town in England, and was raised by his mother and step-father. Stories suggest he did not get along well with his step-father. It was an uncle who paid for young Isaac to go away to school, where he excelled. The plague came to the university in London where Isaac was studying, and he retreated to the his mother’s home in the countryside. Here it was that the famous event of the apple falling on his head is supposed to have taken place. However, some say that Newton did not wonder why the apple fell down; rather he wondered why the moon did not fall down. This puzzle led him to his three laws of motion, which helped to explain the ways the planets moved. Einstein has since modified Newton’s laws, but most of the time, we don’t have to worry about Einstein’s modifications, since we do not travel fast enough. Newton’s three laws of motion are: Objects resist forces, and this resistance must be overcome before an object will move. The resistance is proportional to the mass of the object. We call the object’s resistance “inertia”. Everything that has mass has inertia. We often use the example of human laziness as inertia, but of course, this is not what Newton meant. A rock remains at rest, unless a force which is strong enough to move it acts upon it (perhaps a cow trips over it, and the rock rolls). A mountain remains at rest, unless a force strong enough to move it acts upon it (perhaps there is an earthquake, and this loosens one of the layers, and gravity pulls the mountainside down). A person remains at rest, unless a force strong enough to move him/her acts upon him/her (the person decides it is time to get out of bed, and uses his/her internal force to move). An object moves in a constant direction, at a constant speed, unless acted upon by a force. (A car travels along the highway, at constant speed. The force of friction is constantly slowing the car, thus, the car is designed to have a constant input of force from its engine. But consider the special case of a car on a frictionless surface – an icy road. The driver turns the wheels, but the car continues in the same direction, because there is no friction.) The object’s continuing to move in the same direction at the same speed can be considered the object’s inertia. After all, an object sitting still is just a special case of objects which move. Some objects “move” at a speed of 0! Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This third law is merely telling us how the direction and speed of the object changes when acted upon by a force. The object changes its speed and direction in reaction to the force. (Consider the moon, traveling in a straight line around the earth. It would continue in a straight line, and travel out into space, except that the earth’s force of gravity acts on the moon, and pulls the moon down into a circular orbit – down enough for the moon always to fall towards, but never to hit, the earth. Thus, Newton’s question about why the moon doesn’t fall down, like the apple, led him to think about objects continuing to move in the same direction unless acted upon by a force.)


				
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