ROLE PLAYING LESSON PLAN (Case Study 10.1 Lesson Plan) Subject Area: Physical Education Grade Level: 6th-9th grade Specific Content: Resolving Conflict Length of Lesson: 50 minutes Instructional Objective(s): The learner will participate in role plays that illustrate effective ways of handling conflict during a softball game. State Content Standard / Benchmark / Grade Level Expectation: Social Studies: Use laws and other ethical rules to evaluate their own conduct and the conduct of others. Language Arts: Speak confidently, listen and interact appropriately. Demonstrate how communication is affected by connotation and denotation, and why one particular word is more effective than others in a given context. Long-Term Unit Objective: The learner will participate in collaborative problem solving using discussion, compromise, and consensus rather than resorting to verbal or physical confrontation. Previous Lesson: Yesterday’s lesson consisted of a softball game during the students’ sports period. Several fights broke out during the game and there were many disagreements on the field. Following Lesson: After this lesson, the students will participate in another softball game in order to assess whether or not their role playing was successful. A discussion following the softball game (right after or the next day) will help the students decide if the role playing helped and whether or not the new solutions worked. Prerequisite Knowledge or Behaviors Needed: Skills: Knowledge of softball – In order to have a proper discussion about softball, the students will need to have an understanding of the game and its rules. Concepts: Role Playing – The students will need to know the rules of role playing and have an understanding of what role playing is and know that it is just acting. Behaviors: Listening to others – This lesson includes dialogue and discussion, so the students will need to be able to listen to each other. Respecting other students’ opinions – To have a successful discussion, students will need to be able to respect opinions that are different from their own. Why is the Content of Today’s Lesson Relevant for Your Students? The content of today’s lesson is relevant for the students because they have demonstrated difficulty in handling conflict on the playing field. In the previous softball game, there were many disagreements on the field including runners knocking down fielders, pitchers hitting the batters, thrown bats hurting catchers, and several instances of teacher umpires being accused of missing illegal maneuvers on the field. Conflict occurs in all areas of life, not just on the playing field, and in order for students to be successful in life and become contributing members of society, it is important for them to learn proper ways of handling conflict rather than resorting to verbal and physical confrontation. Materials: Chalkboard Chalk Where are your materials to be kept until their use during the lesson? The materials should already be in the classroom prior to the lesson. When/How will your materials be passed out? Students will not be directly using the materials so they will not need to be passed out. Model of Teaching: Role Playing Procedures: List each procedure according to stages of Role Playing. Warming Up the Class Review yesterday’s sports period with students. o What specific things do you remember that happened yesterday that you argued about? Let the class brainstorm ideas for a few minutes and write responses on the board. Choosing the First Set of Participants After a few minutes of brainstorming, choose one problem that you feel is best to role play first. o We need two of you to act out the first role play. Who’d like to volunteer to get us going? Pick the first set of volunteers and have them come up to the front of the room. Establishing the Problem, Characters, and Setting Once the problem is chosen and clarified, the characters and setting need to be described. o Who are our characters? o Where is this scene taking place? o When is this scene taking place? Review the characters and setting with the class. Make sure they know who is who is the scene and when and where it is taking place. Preparing the Observers Set the expectations for the students observing and explain what you want them to look for during the role play. o Remember, right now our jobs as observers are to watch how accurately they set up the problem and then be ready to analyze their motives and reactions to one another. Don’t respond to them during the role play. We’ll all get a chance to discuss what we saw when the scene ends and I call “Cut!” Role Playing the First Scene Once the scene is set up and the characters and setting are described, let the chosen participants improvise and role play the situation. Remind the students that the scene should reflect what really happened yesterday during the game. o Ok, our first two volunteers are going to set up the problem for us. Let’s see what happens. Let the students role play for a few minutes until the first solution has been illustrated. Stopping Action for Discussion and Evaluation After the first solution has been acted out, stop the action to discuss what the students heard and saw in the role play. Lead the discussion by asking the students thought-provoking questions. o So, how was this problem resolved yesterday? o How else might they have handled the problem? o What else could have happened? o What do you think about…? o Any other ideas about how this problem could have been handled? o Would it have been easier if…? Let the students talk for awhile about what they saw and heard as the scene played out. Encourage the students to think of alternative solutions to the same problem. Revising Scene with New Players After the students have discussed for awhile and brainstormed alternative solutions, choose different students who have proposed new solutions to come up and role play the scene. The scene will need to be set for these new students by reviewing the characters and setting. o Where are you? o What are you doing as the scene begins? o What will you need to say to show how your solution works? o What will you need to do to show how your solution works? Let the new students role play the situation until the revised solution has been illustrated. Stopping Action Again for Discussion and Evaluation Once the second solution has been acted out, stop the action to discuss what the students heard and saw in this role play. o What was different about how the characters handled it this time? o Do you think what the characters did this time helped? o Do you think that this solution worked better? o Is there another way we could react in this situation? o Are there any new ideas? Encourage students to continue brainstorming new ideas and solutions and then have the students role play the new solutions and discuss them. Depending on the time available, this cycle may be done several times with alternative solutions. Generalizing About the Experiences Once the students have exhausted all the solutions, guide the students in deciding what they learned as a result of the role play by asking the following questions: o Which of the solutions to this problem do you think is best? o Why is this best? o For whom is it best? o Who will be unhappy with this solution? o How do you choose if you can’t make everybody happy? o If you were _____ (a person in the scene), how would you choose? o If you were _____ (another person in the scene), how would you choose? Closure: To bring this lesson to a close, have the students summarize what they learned from today’s lesson. Ask the students, “If you could sum it up in one sentence, what would the “headline” be for today’s role play.” Let the students discuss their ideas for a few minutes. Challenge them to think about the different solutions they saw in the role plays and encourage them to try the new solutions on the field today when they play softball. How did you address student learning styles during this lesson? Visual - Visual learners were addressed in this lesson in a couple ways. As the students brainstormed different problems that occurred during yesterday’s softball game, their ideas were written on the board. The students also watched the role plays that their classmates acted out. Auditory - This lesson included a lot of dialogue and discussion so auditory learners were addressed. The students had to listen to the teacher and their peers during the discussions as well as listen to the role plays as their classmates acted them out. Kinesthetic – Since this lesson used the Role Playing model of teaching, kinesthetic learners were addressed. The students were up out of their seat and moving around as they acted out different scenes in the role plays. Tactile – In order to address tactile learners in this lesson, props could be added to the role plays. Assessment Criteria: What tangible evidence will demonstrate your students’ learning today? The evidence that will demonstrate students’ learning will be an observation of how students deal with conflict during the next softball game and whether or not students resort to verbal and physical confrontation during the softball game. What will be considered quality work? After today’s lesson, the amount of verbal and physical confrontation during softball games is expected to decrease, and as long as it does and students demonstrate alternative ways of dealing with conflict, it will be considered quality work. Do you need a rubric to structure your assessment? A rubric will not be needed to structure assessment for this lesson, just a thorough observation of the students’ behavior and interaction during the next softball game. Will students also self-assess using this rubric? The students will not need to use a rubric, but it may be a good idea to have them self-assess themselves after the next softball game. The students could write a few sentences about their behavior during the softball game and state whether or not they thought the game went better than the previous game. Gender or cultural concerns may affect your instructional or assessment choices in this lesson. If appropriate, identify these and describe how you will address them. Since the students will be role-playing, it is important to make sure that their roles are not stereotyped. For example, make sure that when the students take turns role playing that both boys and girls have equal opportunities to play different parts so neither gender is perceived in a negative way. Since this is a sports class, gender stereotypes may arise. If this happens, do not discourage students from talking about these issues, but make sure that they are dealt with in an appropriate and sensitive way. Also, to be fair, make sure to call on boys and girls equally during the discussion as well as when choosing volunteers. Instructional Modifications – Describe a student in your class who has special needs. Consider how you might modify your instruction and / or assessment for this student. Traditional print, Internet and NETS resources can assist you. Brady is a student who has an emotional impairment. He works very well individually, but has difficulty working with others. He tends to get very defensive and physical very quickly. This lesson may be difficult for Brady because he might have a tough time remembering that role playing is just acting. In order to help Brady during this lesson, it may help to have a typed out script that he can read from. This way, he will be less likely to take things that happen in the role play personally. Also, by typing out the script ahead of time, the teacher has control over what happens in the role play and can give Brady a part in a scene that has minimal confrontation. Technology – What technology might enhance this lesson or this unit at some point? Traditional print, Internet and NETS resources can assist you. One piece of technology that may enhance this lesson is the use of a video camera. Sometimes students do not realize how they act or sound to other people, so it may be helpful to video-tape some role plays so that the students acting are able to watch themselves. Also, you can replay the tape as many times as necessary and discuss different options that could be used. Movie clips that include conflicts during ball games may also be useful for the students to watch so they can talk about what happened and discuss other ways of dealing with the conflict. How will you provide practice for this objective to ensure that your students master this content? The students will have a chance to practice what they learned from this lesson everyday during their sports period. Each time they play a ball game and conflict arises, they will have the opportunity to use what they learned from this lesson and implement the alternative solutions they discussed.