PRESCHOOLER SOCIAL EMOTIONAL DEV

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					PRESCHOOLER SOCIAL/ EMOTIONAL DEV
Chapter 13

HALLMARKS
• Increased desire to socialize • Improved socialization skills: compromise, empathy, negotiation, other’s point of view & motivation, more verbal • SUCCESSFUL FRIENDSHIPS IN PRESCHOOL MAY BE THE SINGLE MOST POWERFUL PREDICTOR OF ADULT HAPPINESS

EMOTIONAL GROWTH
• Erikson:
– Stage 1: trust v mistrust – Stage 2: autonomy v shame and doubt – Stage 3: Initiative v guilt

• Kids should be in not overly critical environments that encourage risk taking, creativity, process (v product) • (Guilt/accountability can lead child to take responsibility for own behavior)

SOCIAL INITIATIVE
• An eagerness to engage with friends, family

INITIATIVE & CULTURE
• Initiative isn’t a universal value
– Obedience – Enmeshment – Females INITIATIVE MAY BE EXPRESSED ONLY IN SOME CONTEXTS

SELF-CONCEPT
• A person’s “theory of self” • Especially in youth, self-concept is dev • Positive self-concept for children is based on trying (more than on results) • Success for a preschooler:
– Make an effort – Get positive responses from peers and adults – Follow the rules

SOCIAL COMPETENCE
• Being liked and effective social interaction • Social competence is culturally defined • Adults must help kids acquire these skills over time

PEER STATUS
• Peer view of a child’s social competence • Popular: use language effectively socially • See chart p 292

• Rejected: antisocial behaviors such as aggression-intent to harm (proactive/reactive) • See Chart p 294 • Inability to accurately interpret social cues
– May have punitive parents – May have negative temperament

• Neglected: ignored; prefer to be alone • Cautious, timid • May be situational ex. loner at school but not at home • See chart p. 296

FRIENDSHIP
• Having even 1 friend is important:
– Prevents isolation – Dev play competencies – Most kids have at least 1 friend

SOCIAL PARTICIPATION
• A developmental skill: • unoccupied--little awareness of surroundings • onlooker--interested in contact, observer • parallel--side by side but rarely converses • associative--different themes but converses • cooperative play (4-5 yrs)--shared goal

AGGRESSION
• Any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm or threaten (see chart p 303) • Physical: bite, hit, push, kick • Verbal: tease, threaten, taunt, call names • Aggression is culturally defined • Feelings of recipient need be considered • NOT aggression: rough and tumble, being assertive, conflict, argument, teasing (friendly)

• Reactive aggression: • Proactive aggression:socially most detrimental
– Instrumental: there is a goal (get the toy) – Bullying: no clear goal (hostile)

VICTIM
• Depressed, whines, anxious, withdrawn, cries, not assertive • Victims attract aggression because crying makes the aggressor feel more powerful

CAUSES OF AGGRESSION
• MATURATIONISTS: born that way • PSYCHOANALISTS:aggressive drives can be modified by experience • BEHAVIORISTS: aggression is modeled by people and media (and result is you get rewarded) • SOCIOCULTURAL: scaffolding in ZPD

• COGNITIVE: kids can think about and change behaviors • ECOLOGICAL: systems cause aggressionPoverty, violent media, etc. EACH MODEL CAN GIVE US IDEAS FOR ELIMINATING AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS IN KIDS IN OUR CARE
See case studies

SOCIAL BEHAVIORS & CULTURE
• Altruism & empathy; kids who live in extended families and who contribute to family tasks seem to score highest • Cooperation: seems to be fostered by collectivism • Play: differs between cultures: type, amount • See chart p. 307

• Shyness: is valued more in some cultures • Rough play and teasing: are valued only in some cultures • Peer acceptance: is not usually related to ethnicity in young children • I’M CHOCOLATE, YOU’RE VANILLA, by Marguerite Wright

SOURCES OF VARIATION IN SOCIAL COMPETENCE
• Poverty, as it is a reflection of
– – – – Poor parenting Domestic violence Abuse Mental health disorders

• Siblings: a mixed “picture” • Most conflict exists between sibs of same sex and similar age • Sibling relationships have great importance throughout our lives • Sibling relationships are useful in teaching social lessons • Single kids may be intellectually, linguistically advanced and more creative

CHILD CARE
• Good quality child care seems to be good for kids • Poor quality child care is not good for kids • More than 1/2 the child care in Alameda county was rated fair to poor in a recent study

GENDER AND SOCIAL DEV
• By 18 months kids are playing with sexstereotyped toys • By 2 yrs they are playing with same sex peers • Differences in boy/girl play styles appear to be universal

POSSIBLE CAUSES
• Modeling from adults and media • Cognitive dev of sex role definitions • Should caregivers try to expand on sex role definitions? It is our choice!

SPECIAL NEEDS KIDS
• Observable handicaps are less likely to lead to peer rejection because they are easier to understand than non-observable handicaps • Adults should encourage play between handicapped kids and peers through • Physical accessibility • Choice of toys • Modeling, guiding and teaching by adults

FACILITATING FRIENDSHIPS
• • • • Watch for “authentic” compatible kids Orchestrate one-on-one play Encourage group play Encourage play outside classroom


				
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