Fieldwork in the study of a local ecosystem by akimbo

VIEWS: 130 PAGES: 10

									      Fieldwork worksheet: An Overview of Sugarloaf Point and
                Buffalo Creek Reserve/Kitty’s Creek


      Map of Buffalo Creek Reserve, Sugarloaf Point and Kitty’s Creek




Key          Vegetation Types                                            Features




                                                  B1
                                Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
Your fieldwork will be based in remnant bushland. What does this mean?




What are the effects on the flora and fauna as a result of the reserve being a remnant?




Vegetation corridors between reserves are important for their long-term survival. Why?




What other remnants are the reserves linked to?



List examples of human impact in the reserve. Categorise them into recent and past.

                      Past                                                    Recent




Notes on the changes to the Sugarloaf Point environment:




Notes on the changes to the mangrove environment of Buffalo Creek Reserve or Kitty’s Creek:




                                                       B2
                                     Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
                                            Measuring Distribution

    Observation:        Can you make an observation concerning the distribution of plant species on either side of the track?




    Purpose:            What are you going to do in this investigation?




    Hypothesis:         What are you trying to prove? Make a statement that describes the variables that you are investigating.




                        What are you trying to disprove? What is the opposite relationship you are trying to test? - by proving this relationship to be wrong or
    Null hypothesis:    false you will have proved the hypothesis correct!




    Method:             What are you going to do to test your hypothesis? Include biotic and abiotic factors to be recorded.




    Total length of transect:                                                 Length of sampling interval:


      Use the personal results table on the next page to record abiotic and biotic factors for your
       section of the transect.
      Transfer the abiotic factor results to the combined class results recording sheet.
      You will need high quality data for the processing and analysis back at school.
               1. Record abiotic factors
                  using supplied
                  equipment.
               2. Record the distribution
                  and height of each tree
                  and shrub species on or
                  over the transect line.
               3. Make notes about the
                  presence of other plant
                  species in your transect
                  description.




                                                                        B3
                                                      Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
                  B4
Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
                             Interactions Between Species
                             (This page may not be completed during the field trip due to time constraints.)


Organisms within a community interact with other living things in a number of ways. No organism
can exist independent of others. Some of these interactions are beneficial to both organisms,
others are detrimental to one or both organisms. List fieldwork examples.

Beneficial Relationships
 Mutualism:           Interaction between two organisms from which both benefit. A symbiotic relationship.


 Example:

 Commensalism:        A relationship between two organisms that benefits one and does not harm the other. Where both could survive without the other.


 Example:


Detrimental Relationships
 Competition:         Two organisms in the same community which both require the same resources experience this type of interrelationship.


 Example:

 Parasitism:          An interaction where one species feeds directly on another, living on or in its host, and often harming the host.


 Example:

 Allelopathy:         The production of chemicals by a plant that can harm or benefit another plant.


 Example:


Trophic Interactions in an Ecosystem
Match the words to their meanings by writing the term and an example observed.
         Producer or autotroph, primary consumer(herbivore), secondary consumer (carnivore),
                  tertiary consumer (carnivore), food web, decomposers, trophic level

                                                                                      Term                                            Example

Feeding levels
The linking of food chains to demonstrate
more complicated relationships
Animals, fungi and bacteria that breakdown
and absorb dead material
Green plants produce their own food from
carbon dioxide and water, using sunlight
Animals that eat the producers

Animals that eat the primary consumers

Animals that eat the secondary consumers

A food chain is the movement of energy as one organism is consumed by an organism of a higher
trophic level. Draw a food chain to show energy flow using organisms in this ecosystem. Include
the trophic level (producer, primary/secondary/tertiary consumer, decomposer) of each organism.




                                                                      B5
                                                    Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
              Worksheet: Quadrat Sampling of
    Mangrove Trees at _____________________________
                               (This page may not be completed during the field trip due to time constraints.)


Land managers often use abundance as a measure to track the impact of a disturbance on a population over
time. In this case we are looking at the long term effect of the installation of the boardwalk by sampling
mangrove tree abundance 5m either side of the boardwalk and comparing the average estimated abundance
figures to historical data collected using the same method. Sampling is limited to trees greater than 1m tall.

 Purpose:                What are you going to do in this investigation?




 Hypothesis:             What are you trying to prove? Make a statement that describes the two variables that you are investigating.




 Method:

 Size of quadrats used:
 Placement of quadrats:
 Distance from boardwalk:
 Species half in/out?:
 Equipment:




                         Briefly describe the site in which your study is located, especially any information which will help to explain your findings (i.e.
 Description:            disturbances).




Now count and record all the target species found in the quadrat. Only count trees greater than 1m tall.
Repeat this process for a total of four quadrats.

      QUADRAT                      TALLY                                 COUNT                                                NOTES
        Q1
        Q2
        Q3
        Q4


 Calculations:
   Total Count =

 Mean (average) =                                     (Total count  No. Quadrats)
 Conclusion/Discussion:




                                                                       B6
                                                     Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
 Worksheet: Measuring Distribution and Abundance of Crabs
 using a Belt Transect at ___________________________
In this investigation you will be using the scientific method to investigate the relationship between distribution
and abundance of crabs near the boardwalk.

 Observation:          Can you make an observation concerning the number of crab holes visible as you walk toward the creek?




 Purpose:              What are you going to do in this investigation? What are the two variables you are going to investigate?




 Hypothesis:           What are you trying to prove? Make a statement that describes the two variables that you are investigating.




                       What are you trying to disprove? What is the opposite relationship you are trying to test? - by proving this relationship to be wrong or
 Null hypothesis:      false you will have proved the hypothesis correct!




 Method:               Design an experiment that will test the relationship between the two variables. Are there any assumptions you will need to make ?




 Equipment:

                       Briefly describe area around the belt transect, especially any information which will help to explain your findings. (i.e. position of
 Description:          creek, tide height, recent rain, shadows cast by the boardwalk, litter and the distribution of drainage channels.)




 QUADRAT            POSITION                     TALLY                   COUNT              MEAN (av.)                        NOTES
 Q1
 Q2
 Q3
 Q4
 Q5
 Q6
 Q7
 Q8
 Q9
 Q10

Is crab abundance consistent along the transect?
Make a statement about the patterns of crab distribution. Are we able to accept or reject our hypothesis?

Conclusion/Discussion:


                                                                        B7
                                                      Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
                                       Plant Adaptations
Outline the physical characteristics and adaptations of the Avicennia marina using the guide below.

 Scientific name:          Avicennia marina                                 Draw and label the distinguishing features
                                                                                      of Avicennia marina
 Common name:

 Growth habit:             tree – shrub – grass - other
 Average height:

 Leaf size:
 Leaf shape:

 Leaf colour above

 Leaf colour below:

 Leaf arrangement:         opposite or alternate?

 Flowers:
 Fruit:                    a fleshy capsule


 Habitat description:


 Species interactions:


 Human influences:

Adaptations relating to:
 Salt:


 Anaerobic soil:


 Reproduction:



 Sunlight:



 Wind:


 Nutrients:


                                                Vulnerable/                Locally
 Status:                        Rare                                                      Common           Abundant
                                                Threatened               significant




                                                          B8
                                        Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
                                  Animal Adaptations
Outline the physical characteristics and adaptations of the Pseudochirus peregrinus (or other
specified animal) using the guide below.

 Scientific name:        Pseudochirus peregrinus
 Common name:

 Size:

 Colour:

 Food:



 Competitors:



 Predators:



                                                                                       Image: www.calm.wa.gov.au



 Habitat description:


 Species interactions:


 Human influences:


Adaptations:
 Structural:




 Behavioural:




                                             Vulnerable                Locally
 Status:                      Rare                                                  Common         Abundant
                                             Threatened               Significant




                                                       B9
                                     Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp
                       Adaptations of Australian plants
Tick  the adaptations you observe during the fieldwork
Drought Resistance
 Leaf surfaces that protect from excessive light:
         grey waxy coating, eg, many eucalypts and some wattles
         shiny coating to reflect some light away eg kurrajong
         curled or folded leaves to protect the underside where stomates lose water to
           the air, eg, some grevilleas.
 Succulent leaves that store water, eg, pigface. Not common in Australia.
 Hard, tough leaves - sclerophyllous leaves that resist wilting, eg, eucalypts, some
   wattles, hakeas, bottlebrush, grevilleas.
 Vertical leaves. Instead of holding their leaves horizontally like many rainforest
   plants, leaves held vertically reduce the amount of sunlight energy taken in, eg,
   eucalypts, wattles, hakeas. Adult eucalypt leaves have equal numbers of
   stomates on each side of the leaf.
 Reduced leaves reduce the loss of water and are also an adaptation to poor
   soils. Often a reduction in leaves results in a sharp leaf tip which acts as a
   deterrent to grazing animals.
 A large root system as in eucalypts provides an ability to extract water from
   quite dry soil.
Fire Resistance
 Insulating bark to protect the living cambium layer. Dry bark is a good insulator.
    Pale bark reflects heat. Eucalypts show a wide variety of fire resistant barks.
    The many thin papery layers of paperbark trees, bottlebrushes and geebungs
    are also fire resistant.
 Fire resistant resin between the leaf bases of the grasstree protects the living
    trunk and the growing bud on top of the stem.
 If the canopy of some trees and shrubs is damaged in a fire, new shoots sprout
    straight from epicormic strands that run through the bark and right into the wood
    on trunks and branches.
 Woody lignotuber. Above ground stem may be killed but underground buds
    survive and sprout, eg, eucalypts. The lignotuber contains the buds and food
    reserves.
 Underground stems. Many plants such as ferns and grasses have buds on
    underground stems.
 Hard woody fruit to protect the seed. Hakea, banksia and casuarina have woody
    cones that do not open until the parent plant (or branch) is dead.
 Eucalypt seeds are released after the branch dies and the capsule dries out.
    This results in slow release of seed throughout the year. Ants eat most of the
    seeds because of their slow release. After fire there is a massive seed release.
    Ants cannot eat all of these; there is an ash bed effect of nutrient released by the
    fire and less competition from grasses.
 Fire resistant seeds. Wattles and other legumes have pods that burn easily but the
    seeds have hard coats which survive in the topsoil when a fire passes over.
Defence against herbivores
 Oil glands. Eucalypts, callistemon have melaleucas have a strong aroma from
   crushed leaves.
 Milky sap or latex which is often bitter tasting.
 Gum or kino to 'gum up' borers that have penetrated the bark, eg, eucalypts,
   wattles, kurrajong.
 Surface hairs on leaves.
 Thorns and spines on stems, on leaves and sometimes on the leaf tips.




                                                        B10
                                      Field of Mars EEC 2004 P.Spiers S.Papp

								
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