Chapter 1 – OVERVIEW OF NUTRITION THINGS THAT INFLUENCE FOOD CHOICES: 6 CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS: Energy Yielding Nutrients: 1. Carbohydrates (4 calories / gram) 2. Fat (9 calories / gram) 3. Protein (4 calories / gram) Non-Energy Yielding Nutrients: 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water Essential Nutrients (Indispensable Nutrients) – Nutrients that the body cannot manufacture, therefore they must be supplied by food. Calories: Unit by which energy is measured (1,000 calories = 1 kilcalorie or kcal) Energy Density: A measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food. An energy dense food is one high in calories that may promote weight gain. DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: A set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the United States and Canada. EAR (Estimated Average Intake): The average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group. RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance): A goal for dietary intake; the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people. AI (Adequate Intakes): A value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined. UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Level): The maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people. NUTRITION ASSESSMENT To analyze a person’s nutrition status, look for: Historical Information (health status, socioeconomic status, drug use, diet information, etc.) Anthropometric Data Physical Exam Laboratory Tests (blood or urine) Malnutrition: Any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrition intake. Nutrient Deficiencies: Primary Deficiency – Inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient. Secondary Deficiency – A nutrient deficiency cause by something other than inadequate intake (ex: disease state, drug interaction, etc.) Subclinical Deficiency – Deficiency in the early stages, before symptoms appear. Covert Deficiency – A hidden deficiency. Healthy People 2010 Nutrition and Overweight Objectives: A national public health initiative that identifies the most significant preventable threats to health and focuses efforts toward eliminating them. (See page 23 of textbook) DIET AND HEALTH Leading Causes of Death in the U.S.: 1. Heart Disease (28.9%) 6. Diabetes (2.9%) 2. Cancers (22.9%) 7. Pneumonia & Influenza (2.6%) 3. Strokes (6.8%) 8. Alzheimer’s Disease (2.2%) 4. Chronic Lung Disease (5.1%) 9. Kidney Disease (1.6%) 5. Accidents (4.0%) 10. Blood Infections (1.3%) Top 3 Factors Contributing to Deaths in the U.S.: 1. Tobacco (20%) 2. Poor Diet / Inactivity (14%) 3. Alcohol (6%) IDENTIFYING NUTRITION EXPERTS Registered Dietitian (RD): A person who has completed a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in nutrition or dietetics from an accredited college or university, has completed an internship or supervised practice program, has passed a national exam, and maintains registration through continuing professional education. Dietetic Technician (DT): A person who has a minimum of an Associates Degree and has completed a nutrition training program. Assists registered dietitians in both administrative and clinical responsibilities. Has been educated and trained to work under the guidance of a registered dietitian. A Registered Dietetic Technician (DTR) is one who has passed a national exam. A physician is NOT considered to be an expert in nutrition. Only 25% of medical schools in the United States require medical students to take a nutrition course, which may only average about 20 hours of instruction. In many states, there are no regulations for people calling themselves “nutritionists”.
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