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The opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily
represent those of the European Commission
COMMUNITY POLICE 3
Ideas and Principles of Community Policing
Introduction respect for human rights.
The past performance of police departments in This concept that proper policing serves society can
post-Soviet countries following the dissolution most accurately be dubbed “Community Policing.”
of the Soviet Union accentuated the role taken by Other terms that are often used to describe this
these departments to repress, rather than protect, concept are “partner policing” and “democratic
the society and to further aid in the perpetuation of policing.”
non-democratic regimes. In the societies of transi-
tional democracies , where democratic institutions The Community Policing Consortium1 deﬁnes com-
are still fragile and the rule of law is in the process munity policing as the following: “Community
of formation as a fundamental principle of regulat- policing is a collaborative effort between the police
ing public relations, there is always the danger and the community that identiﬁes problems of crime
that the government might be tempted to use the and disorder and involves all elements of the commu-
police in the old, traditional way. nity in the search for solutions to these
Taking into consideration this factor and the poor
track record of the last decade police in carrying CP2 considers the role of the police in a wider con-
out their social duties, it is important to take a new text than the traditional model and does not conﬁne
approach towards organizing a police force which this role to the struggle against a crime alone, but also
will be in full compliance with the principles of de- includes the maintenance of public order and
mocracy and rule of law in transitional countries. improvement of living conditions within the society
through the creation of an environment which is crime
Initially, this task requires that police function free among the main functions of a police system.
independently from an obligation to merely protect
the interests of a governing apparatus and must CP is based on the understanding that the resources of
also become separate in its functions from that of any police system alone are not adequate to provide
the state military. effective measures to prevent crime, eliminate of
violations and create necessary conditions for high
A modern police force must, ﬁrst of all, focus on standards of living within a society3 . The police also
the public and their needs. The activities of the depend on the active support of the public and the
police should include the implementation of resources provided by society to ultimately become
community services and should base all their successful. CP considers the public a partner of the
actions on the principles of responsibility and police and a co-participant in police activities
1 Community Policing Consortium - US based organization, which conducts studies and implements programs in the ﬁled of community policing
2 CP – this abbreviation will be used to refer to community policing throughout the document
3 meaning an environment that is free/protected from criminal activities
conducted to ensure the safety and welfare of the public. tors: geographical features of the area (people living
or working in certain locations), identity or relevant
The police implement their professional activities in characteristics of the area (e.g. ethnic religious
cooperation with the community, targeting the groups, representatives of a certain demographic or
maintaining of peace, order and security within the a particular social group) and common problems and
society as their overall goal. This becomes the main needs in the area (groups of people uniﬁed to achieve
element in preventing crime and limiting the overall a common goal or solve a common problem). Any
number of crimes that are committed. By entering into group of people that ﬁts into at least one of these
this partnership, however, the community must take its three parameters can accurately be labeled a “com-
portion of responsibility. munity” when speaking of “community policing.”
Such a dynamic approach was taken by Robert Pill, one The vision of community policing is based on the
of the founders of the London Police, in 1829. While belief that people have the right to assert certain
speaking about the role of the police Pill noted that it is inﬂuence on the police in exchange for society sup-
imperative to “maintain, at all times, a relationship with porting and participating in the process of policing.
the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that This vision is also grounded on the opinion that
the police are the public and that the public are the community problem solving requires police and a
police.” This understanding represents the very community to utilizing innovative methods which
foundation of Community Policing. comply with public expectations and needs and,
furthermore, far exceed a narrow focus on particular
crimes or incidents.
In a number of countries the concept of community
Deﬁnition of Community Policing policing has develop professional police services
and has led to the creation of responsive communi-
Based on the aforementioned principles, it is possible to
ties, based on an open and accountable partnership
deﬁne CP. Community Policing is:
between the community and police.
• A vision based on a revised approach to the
The role of the community, in this regard, means
creation of a police force;
the expression of opinions by active and informed
representatives of the community, the offering of
• An organizational strategy giving the police and
their expertise or other resources and the acceptance
the public the opportunity to jointly decide
of responsibility for their actions. Such a partnership
issues relating to crime, public order and
between police and society allows for the opportu-
nity to solve the problems that the public is most
concerned about. This also serves as an approach
When speaking about community policing, a very wide
to mobilizing resources and taking into account
deﬁnition of “community” should be employed. Particu-
long-term perspectives. Alternatively, the approach
larly, it is imperative to take into consideration three fac-
COMMUNITY POLICE 5
wherein police, independent of society, react to community;
particular crimes or incidents generally serves only to
achieve short term goals. • Open and easily identiﬁable4;
The fundamental principles of community policing • Professional;
• Focused on citizens and should respect all
• The implementation police functions, based citizens regardless of sex, age or afﬁliation
on mutual agreements and not coercion; with different social groups;
• Integration into a community; • A provider of qualiﬁed services through the
conducting of effective and result oriented
• Determining community needs to forge work;
better cooperation with a community;
• Accessible to all citizens;
• A relationship based on partnerships with all
citizens and structures within the • Sources of advice and guidance;
• Active and preventive in its actions.
• The application of police activities based on
the needs of a community; The occurrences of important social changes are
characteristics within any transitional society, a time
• The provision of qualiﬁed services; during which crime increases signiﬁcantly. Speaking
about the implementation of CP in countries under-
• Accountability in regards to services going these social changes will always be met with
rendered. criticism of CP, as it is often viewed as a weak way
to combat crime. However, this opinion can easily be
The above mentioned principles can also be trans- refuted. Community policing does not entail a gentle
formed into a pyramid of community policing charac- approach towards a crime. On the contrary, CP works
teristics (illustrated in Chapter VIII). CP should be: to establish strict requirements for police in combating
crime, as a community as a whole requires more from
• Organized and provide services that beneﬁt such police. Additionally, police must try to make so-
a community and not implement any ciety free from fear of crime. CP allows for reasonable
repressive social functions; and just actions to be taken after active criminals have
been targeted and found guilty.
• Accountable to both the law and the
4 It means that police ofﬁcer should wear uniform
Differences Between Traditional and Whereas police alone are obliged and responsible to
combat crime according to the traditional under-
Community Policing standing of policing a community, CP perpetuates
the notion that this responsibility falls partially on
First and foremost, one great difference between tradi- members of the community. In other words, police
tional and community police is the way in which each alone are not viewed as the only organization strug-
of these organizations is structured. A traditional police gling against crime.
force is strictly centralized, dictating that work is done
by one or several big departments and the person at An additional characteristic of traditional police
the top of the hierarchy is the ultimate decision maker. is their overall reactive response when a crime is
Police ofﬁcers working at the operative level are committed. Such is not the case with CP, as an
generally not included in the decision making process. understanding of a necessity for proactive actions,
These organizations tend to be closed, making it nearly these being the main condition for solving the
impossible to receive any relevant information. crime issue, is inherent within this new approach.
The overall goals of CP are to limit the number of
In contrast to traditional police departments, a police crimes and violations of public order, to provide
force based on the principles of community policing is society with a secure environment and improve the
decentralized. Primary police activities are conducted relationship between the police and the commu-
by police departments authorized to act in certain areas. nity. Three main components determine the proper
Any ofﬁcer working in his/her area is fully authorized implementation of these goals: public participa-
to make an independent decision. This police system, tion, problem solving based on partnership and the
as an institution, is transparent and makes information organizational transformation of the police system.
easily accessible to the public. A discussion about how these elements should be
understood in the context of CP, which are closely
A traditional police force does not foster close relation- connected to the issues related to implementation of
ships with the community. People consider the police CP, will be included below.
an institution for punishment and there is lack of cred- Please ﬁnd a Q&A session regarding the Canadian
ibility, coupled with great fear, in such institutions. CP vision of classical and community police below.
promotes the notion that a very small distance should
exist between the police and community. Police should
attempt to foster close contacts with the public at all
times. Proper implementation of CP would eradicate
public fears that the police system functions as an
enemy of the people - which promotes a separation
between the police and the community they serve - and
replace them with the belief that the police serve as a
partner to the community, thus increasing the public’s
readiness for cooperation.
COMMUNITY POLICE 7
CLASSICAL POLICE COMMUNITY POLICE
It is a governmental institution, Police and Community are one body.
What is the deﬁnition of the main obligation of which is the Police ofﬁcers are ordinary people
police? provision and protection of rule of who are paid to implement actions
law that protect the interests of their co-
The Police system is a state service The Police system is the same
What is the relationship which is different from others, thus as others state systems. It should
between the police and making it difﬁcult for this system have its own place within a local
other state services/ to cooperate with other institutions, partnership network and participate in
institutions/ often due to certain priorities that activities that are targeted towards the
neither can agree on. improvement of public relations
What is the priority role of It’s main task is to collect materials It’s mission is broad and targets
the police? about cases problem solving
Through the identiﬁcation of
How is the effectiveness of Through the elimination of crimes and
criminals and their subsequent
the police measured? violations
What is the most important Problems that are of most concern to
Violent and grave crimes
priority? the society, regardless of nature
What is the main focus of Identifying and solving the problems
Violations and crimes
police work? faced by the community
What is the criteria that
most determines the police How prompt the police reaction is Cooperation with the public
A member of the police is
How does a police ofﬁcer interested in an incident if it can be The opportunity to improve his/her
understand the tasks? regarded as a “real’ priority” police relationship with the public
Opportunity to maintain contact with
What is the police Quick and effective reaction to a
the society, with the intent of solving
professionalism? grave crime
Information regarding a crime
Data regarding those involved in the
What kind of information which was committed (the study of
crime (information about individual or
has great importance? crimes with special importance or
a series of crimes)
An ofﬁcer’s activities are implemented
An ofﬁcer is responsible for the on the spot and are evaluated in
What is the responsibility of
implementation of instructions accordance with the implementation of
a police ofﬁcer?
given to him/her by a superior the immediate and legitimate needs of
To provide protection from
media pressure for police ofﬁcers To coordinate efforts in order
What is the role of a press
involved in special activities, thus to support the main outlets to
allowing that ofﬁcer to perform communicate with the public
This can be vied as the most
What is the police approach This is just one factor among many
important goal of the police
towards legal persecution? others
COMMUNITY POLICE 9
Understanding Obligations to understand that “all police activities
should be oriented on the community” and
Undertaking by Police and that each employee of the police system is
Community Based on the Concept considered to be a police ofﬁcer oriented
of Community Policing towards the community;
CP requires intensive support from all sectors of a • Signiﬁcant changes in the organizational
community and directs its attention towards solving structure of the police system must ﬁrst occur.
local problems in a more effective ways, which fuse First of all, the traditional organization of
the activities of the police and the community. Such a the police system, which is based on
deﬁnition of an issue requires a more active approach, hierarchy and wherein power is connected
wherein the principle of partnership is dominant. It with rank and position, must change and
is also necessary to establish coordination efforts and autonomy must be given to police on the
support among other law-enforcement institutions. “front line” during any decision making
endeavor. On the one hand, signiﬁcant
CP represents a new and innovative form of agree- organizational changes within the police
ment between the police and the community, one that system are required; on the other hand, these
is based on the notion that police strive to serve the changes will increase the credibility and
community in the most effective manner and takes a respect for police and the decisions made by
responsibility to serve the rule of law and the commu- them;
nity, in turn, works in conjunction with the police to
solve local problems. • CP requires the readiness of police to mobi
lize their resources and became the providers
This new relationship is based on mutual respect and of qualiﬁed services;
trust. This positive image of the police system will
help develop a positive approach towards the police • CP also requires that each member of the
by the public and encourages a relationship between organization should be aware of how to use
the two sides. It is also vital for the police and the innovative means in solving community
community to properly understand their obligations in problems and how to inform and educate the
regards to this system. public during the implementation of police
The police should know:
• CP invests trust in low, operative levels of
• Community policing requires organizational police activities – among the police
strategies and requires that each police employees as well as the local community –
ofﬁcer implements the principles of CP in by allowing ofﬁcers in the ﬁeld to use their
practice. It is important for each employee experience, expertise and knowledge when
of the police system, regardless of rank, solving local problems.
• CP attempts to take into consideration the Association of Businessmen), trade
needs of all groups within society, unions, non-governmental organizations
particularly socially vulnerable people, women, that work with different target groups (i.e.
children and senior citizens. If the crime rate is poor people, women, children,), charitable
decreased, better conditions for social and organizations, international organizations,
economic development will be created, which local government and self-governing
will help increase the living standards agencies, informal leaders and
of all social groups. representatives of other organizations and
may help in establishing consulting groups
The community should understand that: for the police and the community, thus
positively impacting the implementation
• Within their community, citizens must not only of CP principles.
exercise their rights but also take certain
responsibilities, including problem • It is important to mobilize and use the
identiﬁcation, inquiry into problem solving and knowledge, experience and resources of
deﬁning priorities. CP, as mentioned before, all organizations with the intent of
requires permanent and active cooperation, in providing public security and joint efforts
which all representatives of the local, public to identify and solve problems. This may
sector must partake in. be difﬁcult to achieve in communities
wherein fear and a lack of trust towards
• CP requires a reasonable use of technology, but the police has been rampant for a long
also relies on the belief that anything can be period of time.
achieved when people are committed and
work together. Certain positive initiatives - as
sistance for a crime victim, crime prevention
programs that boost school participation, etc…-
support problem solving and help improve the
living conditions within society through the
creation of a secure environment
• There may be different structural units (or
ganizations, associations, groups)
functioning during the early stages of the
CP project which can be utilized within the
sphere of public security and partnership to
promote cooperation and change. These
organizations may include business
organizations (Chambers of Commerce,
COMMUNITY POLICE 11
The Model of Community Policing
The uniﬁcation of the main principles of CP and the and long-term order as priorities and the
elements of its philosophy, as well as the relevant resolve to not focus on short term measures
strategies for management and an implementation taken to eliminate crime;
plan can serve to deﬁne a CP model, which is com-
posed of four elements. The model given below does • Creation of mechanisms for public control,
not fully describe all the details of the CP project, which will be oriented on decreasing crime,
but merely four components that are absolutely vital preventing crime and increasing public
to implement CP successfully. These four elements security;
• Establishment of relationships which are based
• Philosophy/vision on a partnership with the public;
• Necessary organizational structure • Paying attention to social problems;
• Management Policy • The participation, based on mutual
responsibility, of the police and the public in
• Operative strategy of implementation joint activities.
Philosophy/Vision Organizational Structure
It is important to implement the following ideas and • It is important to pay attention the exact
goals to ensure the success of CP: deﬁnition and division of various functions of
police ofﬁcers and not rank;
• Focus of the geographical factor – which
means police activities implemented within • Responsibility should be moved to an operative
the sectors (district) which is totally level, which is a vital component of CP
different from the activities implemented principles; this can be summed-up as “local
during the working hours (8-hour shifts); police ﬁt local needs”;
• Implementation of major services provided • To give more autonomous power to the chiefs
by patrol police; of local police, including the management of
• Determining provision of peace, security
• Development of a more reasonable Operative Strategy for
ranking system, where there will be fewer
members of the management staff and
more “operative” or “front line” employees;
• In-depth analyses of police activities;
• Less functional specialization. This provides
• Development of State policy and deﬁnition
ofﬁcers at the operative level – patrol police
of the main direction of CP;
– and the management the ability and authority
to solve a wide spectrum of issues.
• Implementation of CP pilot project in
selected zones (areas) and the piloting of
• Prioritizing a vision for problem solving;
• In regards to internal and external
communications, more attention should be paid
• Creation of mechanisms to facilitate quick
to those operating at the lower operative levels
responses to all emergency situations;
in order to provide a quick and effective
reaction to any situation that may arise. Also, it
• Implementation of reasonable, intellectual
is important to limit and simplify formal
• Increase of CP capabilities and
• Those people in management positions should
development of training programs for
not depend on their rank but rather on the
quality of their professional knowledge,
experience, sense of responsibility and ability to
• Creation of a team vision;
communicate with an employee;
• Providing visible, easily accessible and
• Work tenure should depend on successfully
transparent patrolling within certain
implemented work and goals achieved;
• A human resources policy should not be
• An increase in the role of the community
oriented on crime but on encouragement and
– controlling crime by granting community
participation and cooperation opportunities;
• There should be constant deliberation and will
• Formation of partnership networks that
to establish “qualiﬁed management”;
function in reality.
• Management should be active;
• The decentralization of resources and
responsibilities should occur during the
implementation stage of CP.
COMMUNITY POLICE 13
It is very important to have relevant mechanisms established that can be expressed in the form of a
diagram (given) for the proper implementation of CP principles:
Police implement the transition of strategic management, which will have a certain mission and vision.
The spheres of activities will be determined. A cooperative strategy will be formulated, as well as a
strategic development plan and business plan
The police implement certain internal and external activities directed towards the creation and
maintenance of CP
RESULTS INTERNAL MEASURES
Improvement in the quality of In-depth study of regional/
police services; Management; local context (conditions);
A professional and accountable
police service; Identiﬁcation of priorities and Public participation;
Accessible justice; Coordination, mutual
Improved relationships between Re-allocation of resources; agreement and consultations;
police and the community;
The creation of an environment local networks;
Long term solutions;
that promotes a willingness to
Important strategic partnerships; serve; formation of a strategic
Secure schools/roads etc…;
Programs targeted at decreasing Community contact and
juvenile crime; Delegation of responsibility, unity;
Community supervision of authority and accountability;
districts Provision of services based
coordination, mutual agreement on need
Community Police and Reform in Police
With the intent to successfully implement a community Choosing strategic management as the fundamental
policing system and corresponding philosophy, princi- step in understanding this process means that the
ples and characteristics of this system should become current police system must clearly understand its
an organizational part of the current police system and priorities and ways in which it plans to implement
should be described further through strategy and action CP. It will be productive to conduct a study to deter-
plans. Based on this notion, police should: mine the current public attitude towards the police
• Understand their constituents (i.e. members of
the community,) whom they serve;
• Be aware of issues related to individual Mission statement
territorial units, at both the local and regional
level; A brief mission statement should be formulated
which will determine the goals that the police sys-
• Adequately correspond to public expectations; tem, as an organization, must strive to achieve.
• Establish obvious and manageable tasks;
• Establish general goals for all law-enforcement Deﬁnition of Major Directions
It is important for the police system to determine the
• Determine strict deﬁnitions for management main directions for its work, particularly its main
authority; functions and the spheres it must focus on. These
spheres should be in-tune with CP principles. Some
• Provide professional trainings and other moti examples include:
vational devices for employees;
• Public security and partnership;
• Establish effective communication methods;
• 24-hour active services;
• Publicize information regarding all work that
has been implemented; • Uniformed patrol police ofﬁcers who can
bolster public security.
• Monitor implemented activities;
• Respond quickly to changes and initiate further
COMMUNITY POLICE 15
Corporative Strategy • Identify needed resources. A detailed plan on
how to best utilize all existing resources will
The formulation of a corporative strategy is neces- be created to help during initial stages.
sary to show that the police system, as an organi-
zation, is uniﬁed in its desire to achieve its major • Parameters on how to determine success will
goals and establish priorities and long-term goals be included in this plan. Criteria for how to
and perspectives. evaluate work that has been implemented,
as well as concrete indicators, will be deﬁned
Strategic Development Plan
A strategic development plan is necessary to
determine the priorities and goals that need to be
achieved within a certain timeframe (generally, 3-5
years). Mechanisms to monitor and evaluate this
process should be established as well.
The action plan should be the most detailed section
during the creation of strategic management, and
will describe all planned activities. The main ele-
ments of such a plan should include:
• A vision for where the project is currently
and a vision for its future, both immediate
and long term. Goals and priorities should
also be formulated
• A clear idea of how to achieve the
speciﬁc goals. The action plan should give
a detailed description of all planned
activities as well as those factors that may
impact their implementation;
Implementation of Community Policing Principles
Conditions for Putting Community A majority of the aforementioned problems can be
avoided if the highest authorities lend their full sup-
Policing into Practice port to the process of implementing CP.
Before starting the implementation process of CP certain An example of how this may be done would be
fundamental issues, risk factors, possible problems and through the introduction of a practice wherein the
ways of answering these concerns should be considered. Deputy Minister of Interior visits a district where
CP is being carried out. He should receive informa-
In order for CP to be implemented successfully, it is tion directly from local authorities about what has
important that higher, strategic and tactical levels of already been done, what is expected to be accom-
management be prepared and possess the will to imple- plished in the near future, whether they faced any
ment these reforms. However, for the overall success-
challenges/failures, etc. These kinds of actions
ful implementation of CP, a will and decision making
undertaken by the Deputy Minister will solidify the
powers within in highest police authorities is not enough.
notion that while the authorities at the lower levels
The willingness of all regional, municipal and district
are directly accountable to those at higher strategic
police, as well as governmental authorities, coupled with
levels, the lower level ofﬁcials are given the op-
a positive attitude and support from society, represent
portunity to share their opinions and suggestions,
very important factors in proper implementation of CP.
based on their practical experience, directly with the
top authorities. These kinds of actions will help il-
Serious drawbacks may occur if certain risk factors
lustrate this important element of CP to members of
materialize, such as a lack of political will at the highest
political levels, insufﬁcient information regarding CP, the general public.
contradicting opinions and attitudes towards CP and its
beneﬁts at different levels, etc. It is very important for CP to single out all leaders
within the system who are capable of implementing
In instances wherein there is a lack of will by the au- changes and who will support the project. Addition-
thorities, all efforts at lower levels are doomed to fail. It ally, those leaders who hinder reforms should be
should be taken into consideration that possible confron- identiﬁed.
tations between different ofﬁcials and leaders, whose po-
litical plans and priorities are based on different visions,
could also become a drawback for reforms. This threat
related or the chance that the opinions of those leaders
who can carry out fundamental changes are not taken
seriously should also be kept in mind during all stages of
implementation of CP.
COMMUNITY POLICE 17
Taking into Account Local process of CP. It should be taken into account that police
ofﬁcers are members of society and, consequently, may
Circumstances have an impact (positive/negative) on the implementa-
tion of CP.
Local police should be very aware of existing prob-
lems and characteristic features within the commu- One of the foundations of conducting on-the-spot police
nity in which they work. Particularly, police ofﬁcers activities is the notion that competences and responsi-
should be aware of the needs of the local population, bilities be delegated to the local police stations. This
know local institutions and unions and maintain type of decentralization of control requires fundamental
contacts with all these sectors of the community. changes and a new deﬁnition and comprehension of the
Local police must realize that CP primarily means role of police ofﬁcers in senior positions; it require those
the consolidation of the society and the promotion of in senior positions to become more involved in policing
cooperation between different groups of the society in as well as adopt a more consultative approach to their
order to best solve common problems. work. The aforementioned type of supervision complete-
ly differs from the existing hierarchical attitude.
While implementing CP, the application of practices
that are recognized as not being effective should be The decentralization of police requires the distribution of
avoided. Such models and mechanisms which are resources that corresponds to the real situation in areas
completely foreign to the local culture and do not and is not based on internal hierarchical structures, rank
correspond to local needs and conditions shall not be and/or status.
introduced. Local factors that often prove problematic
- opposition derived from different ethnic, religious, The existing structures can be of assistance in deﬁning
political or language groups - should also be taken which mechanisms will be most useful for effectively
into consideration during this implementation proc- implementing CP.
ess. These circumstances should not be ignored and a
delicate approach should be employed while imple- Eventually, formal structures focusing on public safety
menting CP. – i.e. local commissions on crime prevention, school
programs, local neighborhood and/or business supervi-
During the initial stage of reforms it will be useful to sion systems, and, most importantly, police and commu-
conduct independent research and evaluation of the nity consultation groups - can be created.
organizational structure of the current police system,
its functions and the attitudes harbored by the public The advantage should be given to the model which
towards this structure. would be the most effective at the ground level and
which considers the unique situation in each particular
It is important to identify the current structures and area. Social, political and economic circumstances that
inﬂuential persons and groups within these structures, may have a negative effect on the implementation of CP
and analyze the extent of their legitimization in order should be closely examined. CP should defuse the exist-
to better predict what kind of positive or negative ing crime/problem situation, not aggravate it. In order
impact they may have during the implementation
to fully consider all problems and provide protection of and analyze regional security and crime related
individual rights, maximum representation of all groups problems.
within a community and their involvement in partner-
ships and public forums should be ensured.
Improving Quality of Service
Understanding Regional Context The activities of CP include the carrying out of
professional services that correspond to the needs
Many crimes and security related problems are regional of the society. The deﬁnition of the quality of these
and are not curbed by the existence of state borders. services is based on different factors, including
Examples of this include be human trafﬁcking (refugees skills, resources, training, equipment, buildings, etc.
among them), drugs and weapons. Above all, however, quality can best be ensured by a
service provider’s (police) attitude that the quality of
In worst case scenarios certain countries are unable to the service they are providing is very important and
control destabilizing factors, such as military conﬂicts should constantly be improving.
or organized crime taking place in other countries.
The employment of an individual who lacks qualiﬁ-
Border guards, customs ofﬁcials and emigration serv- cations, resulting from ineffective recruitment pro-
ices are not able to control or cope with these problems cedures, represents an obstacle for police to perform
for a variety of reasons - lack of resources, corruption or their professional services at the highest level.
lack of coordination among different state bodies, etc.
A lack of equipment and ﬁnancial/technical resourc-
It should be mentioned that, regarding regional prob- es, badly developed infrastructure and insufﬁcient
lems and problems initiated from abroad, different means and mechanisms of communication all hinder
regional and international organizations which have the creation of effective relations between police and
mandates in certain realms could be approached and society, as well as inter-institutional communication
integrated into a more effective approach to these prob- among police.
The existence of an authoritative and inﬂexible man-
In order to successfully deal with these problems agement style employed by authorities may become
it might be necessary to elaborate a corresponding a hindering factor in this process and contradicts the
strategy and strengthen such bodies as border police, changes needed to be implemented. Other obstacles
customs and emigration services. A strategy that takes may be an insufﬁcient understanding of the “pro-
into consideration regional problems as well as prob- vision of public services” notion and/or a lack of
lems originating abroad should be considered during the motivation to improve services - often attributed to
implementation of CP. It would be useful to research those persons in current leadership positions who
COMMUNITY POLICE 19
have their jobs guaranteed and tend to be opposed less effective and efﬁcient if the judicial system is cor-
to change. rupt and/or does not have society’s trust. The existence
of a security system that is not accountable for its ac-
In order to further improve service standards, tions would also make CP initiatives all but impossible
police should be accessible to society. In order to to implement. A lack of will within the criminal justice
increase accountability, police should publicize the system and security/public safety institutions, which will
service standards that they will satisfy while carry- be deeply involved in the organization of civil police, is
ing out their duties. also another potential negative factor. Efforts of CP may
be weakened by the uncoordinated actions of the judici-
Police should always make an effort to interact ary, criminal justice and police systems.
with people. They should also display their readi-
ness to adequately address justiﬁed criticism. In order to avoid these drawbacks, an atmosphere of
The development of model police stations and the trust between the police, other criminal justice system
organization of these police stations as places for institutions and security/public safety sectors must be
the provision of initial services would be a worth- created. This will facilitate open cooperation between
while step in the initial stages of CP. It would also these institutions and will make it easier to deﬁne com-
be of use to introduce “citizens’ journals” in order mon goals and priorities.
to inform every police ofﬁcer what society expects
from him/her and what he/she is responsible for.
Internal and external monitoring mechanism should Issues that should be touched upon in
be introduced to ensure that complaints and interac- the Process of Implementing CP
tions with society are considered, in order to keep
citizens updated on the kinds of responses that fol- There should be a feeling of corporation and an organi-
low certain complaints. The creation of an internal zational system in place at every level of the police
system/mechanism for police ofﬁcers to submit system structure. Police and the society should be able
their suggestions and initiatives on different issues to maintain CP after external assistance decreases and,
would also be important. eventually, ends.
Society and police should be able to have a direct,
positive inﬂuence on all important issues relating to the
Access to Justice local society and, consequently, should be able to ensure
a feeling of security among the people. The creation
CP as an indivisible part of the criminal justice of police trade unions/associations (such as the police
and security system, which requires cooperative, federation in Great Britain) will also encourage feelings
coordinated and mutually supportive approaches of cooperation among police ofﬁcers and society.
to all elements of the system. The overall progress
achieved through the implementation of CP may be It is very importance for police personnel to realize that
that they belong to one organization. Different interests participation in prestigious training courses
at different management levels may become hinder- abroad);
ing factors for the successful implementation of CP. If
reforms are imposed from outside and there is lack of in- • Ofﬁcial recognition of employees (for
volvement and support at the places of implementation, example, giving “inspector of the year”
the overall effectiveness of CP will decrease. An unclear awards, encouragement and rewards for
understanding by police ofﬁcers of ongoing reforms and police ofﬁcers as well as their families).
the essence of CP may result in a negative outcome.
Allocation of additional human and technical re-
In order to avoid these potential adverse outcomes, sources necessary for implementing CP may create
all strategies of CP should be properly introduced and some difﬁculties and, therefore, certain, proportion
elaborated to police ofﬁcers. It may also prove useful to amounts should be retained for the common police
create police and society consultation bodies. budget and additional resources for the implementa-
tion process should be found.
A pilot project phase is absolutely necessary, as imple-
mentation of such major changes requires a careful and
gradual transformation of management. The pilot project
phase will make it possible to detect obstacles at an
early stage so that they may be avoided during the larger
phases of the reform process.
Human resources have great importance for the main-
tenance of CP. Identiﬁcation of employees capable of
managing changes should be a top priority, as this is a
prerequisite for the successful implementation of CP.
Different practical means should be applied in order to
support these people; for example, allocation of ﬁnancial
resources, efﬁcient use of existing resources in accord
with agreed upon priorities, etc should be secured.
The following things should be ensured within the police
• Recognition, which envisages promotion in
• Membership into appropriate positions (for
example, as a member of the CP council);
• Selection for special trainings (including
COMMUNITY POLICE 21
Police Forces and Police Resources
While speaking about police forces, the most com- Mentality behind the Rendering of
mon image conjured up is that of a force focusing
only on crime control, law enforcement and the pro-
tection of inﬂuential people alone. A police service,
The underlying philosophy of CP is an understanding
however, is associated with providing services for
that while conducting police activities, public opinions
communities. The complete provision of services is
and requests should be taken into account. At the same
the ultimate goal and an indivisible part of modern
time, cooperation is emphasized while solving local
police activities, which is directly related to the crea-
problems, as these problems can best be solved through
tion of a safe environment. In many places around the
a collaboration of police and society. Consequently,
world, modern police institutions focus on victims
such an approach designates the police as a service
and not on those who committed the crime. They do
provider and society a service receiver.
not serve the authorities but rather the people.
CP allows the society to become actively involved in
police activities in order to decrease the number of
crimes in the area, carry out crime prevention and in-
crease the number of successfully investigated crimes.
Directs clients are those people who police ofﬁcers have
This is a partnership between police and society that
daily contact with while providing services and solv-
ensures the police provide constant, high-quality serv-
ing problems. Such groups of people include separate
ices to society. This system also helps police in their
citizens (suspects, victims, witnesses, etc.), groups of
duties and allows them to solve some of the most
citizens, internal clients (police centers, regional and
relevant problems that worry the society the most.
district divisions, separate employees, etc.), different
agencies and different departments.
Only when police and society really cooperate to
achieve common goals will citizens start believing in
and trusting the police. Such trust helps police better
serve society, fulﬁll their task to “serve and protect”
and receive afﬁrmation from society.
Indirect clients are people that are not in direct contact
with police ofﬁcers but become involved in certain
activities carried out by police. Such groups may consist
of business representatives (for example, when evidence
of a robbery is found), interest groups (for example,
women’s organizations dealing with violence against
Getting to Know Clients • Effective and reasonable use of resources;
A police ofﬁce should always do his/her best to main- • Provision of timely and high-quality
tain working relations with society in order to estimate services.
how effectively police activities are ensuring the safety
of the public. Constant interaction with society helps
to establish trust. The trust of society for police allows
for easier access to information that may sufﬁciently
help in ﬁghting crime and internal organizational
problems. Consequently, direct contact with society is a
prerequisite for successful and efﬁcient activities to be
Demonstrating Proper Attitude
A demonstration of eagerness by police ofﬁcers to solve
problems relevant to society in conjunction with the
society is important for both parties. In order for police
to effectively pass-on this message to society, the fol-
lowing principles should be adhered to:
• Impartiality and respectful behavior towards
• Joint solution of problems;
• Cultural sensitivity;
• Increase of public safety;
• Partnerships and consultations;
• Open and honest relations;
COMMUNITY POLICE 23
CP in Practice
Involvement of the Society to deﬁne the most sensitive and vital problems faced
by society, set priorities and elaborate and implement
Robert Pyle’s quote that “police are a constitu- reasonable and adequate action plans to address these
ent part of the society and society is indivisible problems and priorities. A true partnership between
from police,” demonstrates a major feature of CP: police and society provides the opportunity to jointly
police should not exist separately from the society make important decisions regarding police organiza-
but should be a partner of the society. This basis tional policies based on practice and directions. The
for rejecting a traditional style of police activities extent of involvement by citizens in police station activi-
was initially stemmed from the recognition of the ties and forms of participation may vary - for example,
fact that a police system, on its own, is unable to representatives of a particular population may create an
independently control crime and prevent violations advisory council; other members may involve them-
of public order. In CP, partnerships between society selves in actively evaluating the police system through
and police help ensure that inhabitants take respon- the provision of awards, complaints, suggestions, etc.
sibility for the situation in the districts they live in.
The expectations and will of the population towards
Police should be able to stimulate activities within police services as well as the elaboration of sugges-
society in order to maintain a safe environment in tions and demands put to the police will, most likely, be
districts and protect citizens from criminal ele- diverse and stiﬂing. Considerable work will need to be
ments. In this relationship, the activities of police carried out in order to select issues that will be realistic,
organizations, which ensure direct contact with the reasonable and are priorities. As Lobrega – Hospitale
local population, are an important element. The (Spain) demonstrates, non- governmental organizations
existence of police stations helps establish close can be actively involved in this process.
contacts with citizens using different methods.
Examples can be long term assignments of a certain Lobrega – Hospitale is a small town of workers, close to
police ofﬁcer to a certain place, horse and bicycle Barcelona. Strong industrialization in the town caused
patrols, organizing regular meetings with the soci- a demographical shift which resulted in difﬁcult social
ety and the implementation of different programs conditions for the town. The small size of the territory
for different target groups - educational programs made it necessary to construct high density, multiple
at schools, volunteer projects etc. No matter how story houses that abided to urbanization standards.
important such programs are, other kinds of activi-
ties are also necessary in order to establish a strong In the 1980’s, existing problems became even graver
partnership between police and the society. One when an economic crisis resulted in increased unem-
such direction is the establishment of cooperation ployment, which, in turn, resulted in an increase in
programs. Such cooperation enables the community crime.
In this area the municipal police force consists of 300 Certain Territorial “Network”
police ofﬁcers, among whom 130 are part of a CP
program. This area is divided into 12 district units. The area where CP is being implemented may be
These divisions consist of 10-14 police ofﬁcers. A junior divided into sectors, which will enable CP members
sergeant heads each unit. Police ofﬁcers work in pairs in to carry out coordinated activities. These divisions
certain districts from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. should be organized in a way that every citizen will
feel the everyday presence of the police and will
The large expectations of Lobrega – Hospitale’s popula- further provide effective services at public places,
tion for the police department have been fulﬁlled with villages and districts.
help of NGOs.
The organization and functions of each service in a
This NGO network, which existed before, consists of given area are deﬁned on the basis of the following
400 associations. It is well-coordinated and actively territorial divisions:
participates in other spheres.
This well-functioning network helps police, who rely on
it to establish an accurate system of identiﬁcation of citi- Sector
zens’ expectations and responses to these expectations.
A sector is a territorial unit where a CP mission is
The associations themselves select those suggestions planned and from where CP will begin function-
and concerns that many citizens have towards the police ing. A sector is an organizational level of CP which
service. They also collect and evaluate information allows for the possibility of different materials and
concerning previous actions taken by the police. The as- human resources to be utilized and coordinated in
sociations also provide the possibility for individuals to all districts.
be united for the sake of achieving a common goal and
actively participating in joint projects being implement-
ed by the police and the society.
Police stations should establish partnerships with the
local population, as well as with separate organizations A district is the place where CP services are carried
and private and state institutions. Organizational bodies out. A district is a place where ordinary CP employ-
usually play important roles in public life. At the same ees will take part in activities.
time, these bodies possess considerable resources that
can be effectively used for problem solving. Such types The conﬁguration and population of a district may
of private and public institutions may be real estate change, but the essence of the police services of-
associations, different NGOs and/or foundations and fered there should always correspond to the unique
interest groups (i.e., unions to combat drug and alcohol problems of a district.
abuse, cultural heritage preservation societies, etc.)
Despite territorial division, sectors and districts are
COMMUNITY POLICE 25
oriented towards coordination and the undertaking of District Inspectors’ Activities
It is very important for a District Inspector to possess
Each division should be deﬁned as a result of careful tactical skills and methods that will help him/her solve
and thorough analysis, during which the following problems in conjunction with society.
factors should be taken into account:
Four methods for district police employees to effectively
• Historical, sociological and demographic carry out their responsibilities should be identiﬁed:
circumstances, speciﬁc features for the
purpose of making territorial divisions; 1. Elaborating the overall proﬁle of the area
• Economic activities, industrial and trade
establishments, places of entertainment; 2. Establishing useful and effective contacts;
• Criminal activities and crime, in different 3. Mobilizing the local community and involving
aspects; them in activities directed against crime;
• Aims of criminal activities and obvious 4. Elaborating practical activities for solving
criminal “hang-outs”; common problems.
• Urbanization, features of a living district, Carrying out these activities requires that a District
infrastructure and roads, means of Inspector utilize diverse professional skills. Proper im-
transportation; plementation of CP is hinged on the idea that all District
Inspectors will be always competent and professional
• Territorial divisions recognized by the while performing their duties.
One of the ﬁrst tasks that a District Inspector should
Informational and statistical means should be widely fulﬁll, after he has been assigned to a district, is the
used and, if necessary, amended to better deﬁne these creation a proﬁle of that district. Due to the speciﬁcs of
territorial divisions. These means represent informa- the District Inspector’s activities, he/she should establish
tional and analytical instruments to be used by police direct contacts with local institutions and residents. Hav-
ofﬁcers in managing their everyday activities. Ad- ing an instrument that would facilitate these activities
ditionally, this allows for the possibility to ensure the would be a helpful tool. A District Inspector should be
collection and interpretation of data to better address aware of local infrastructure, the functions and sphere
local needs; supervise work; create billboards; and of competence of local organizations (both state and
evaluate results. non-state institutions), etc. If such information is inac-
cessible, then activities carried out by the inspector will
always be of a reactive nature and not a purely active
one, as is required by CP.
A district proﬁle should be a considerable compilation of District proﬁle should contain the following points:
data and information, which District Inspectors will use
as a guide while conduction their daily activities. • Maps and photos;
The proﬁle may be a note pad, organizer, binder etc. • Overall Description of the area;
Modern technology also allows that a proﬁle be electron-
ic. The most comprehensive version of a district proﬁle • Details on important people and places;
is a combination of different proﬁles such as written
reports, photos, maps, charts, computer registers, etc. • Details on different institutions and public
A police ofﬁcer should be given the opportunity to
choose any kind of proﬁle he/she most desires. An ofﬁcer • Details on important contacts;
should be as free as possible and should even be encour-
aged to use more creative and practical approaches when • Details on criminal activities;
creating a proﬁle.
• Information on local assistance services.
The Most Important Elements of a Proﬁle:
• It should include as much information as
• It should be systematically updated; A proﬁle should contain maps and diagrams that de-
scribe the area, its surrounding territories, separate
• It should be easy to read and used regularly; buildings, roads and other place/item that may be
useful for a District Inspector.
• It should be a “living” document and not one
that is ﬁlled in once and then put on a shelf;
• A supervisor should check the quality of a Written Description of a District
district proﬁle and how the proﬁle is being
applied. A proﬁle should contain a written description of the
district and its basic places. This description may be
• It should be elaborated gradually and not written by a District Inspector himself on the basis
all at once. of personal observations and research, or by using
other sources. The data should contain information
A district proﬁle assists a police employee in learning on the district’s population (quantity, ethnic/reli-
key features of the district where he/she is assigned in a gious make-up, social groups, etc.), local commer-
short amount of time. cial bodies, governmental and non-governmental
COMMUNITY POLICE 27
institutions, etc. Information should also be given Important and Necessary Contact
regarding places of entertainment and common lei- Information
sure activities enjoyed by the local population. Infor-
mation on the history of the district and tendencies Details, such as telephone numbers, schedules and the
of its modern development, which have a certain addresses of necessary ofﬁces (persons) should also be
impact on the mentality of the local population and included in the proﬁle. This section may also include
their living standards, should also be included in the information about the owners of buildings, security serv-
proﬁle. ices, doctors, rescue services, volunteer organizations,
local press and media representatives.
Photos and Details of Important People and Places
Details on Crimes; Problematic (“hot”) Places; Victims of
A District Inspector should regularly collect photos Repeated Crime; and Criminals That Frequently Commit
and information on people, places and issues that Crimes
play important roles in local life – i.e. politicians and
civil sector activists, places where vehicle accidents There is quite a lot material to be taken into considera-
frequently happen, places where people gather, etc. tion, including police reports, tendencies and analyzes of
crimes, surveys, etc. that relate to crimes, violations of
These materials help ofﬁcers better understand the public order and anti-social behavior. Information should
local situation. These materials may also be used also be gathered on so-called “hot spots” – places where
during brieﬁngs to help clarify certain issues. Many there seem to be systematic incidents - protocols on vic-
sources, such as newspapers, media, public docu- tims and criminals, socially vulnerable groups and indi-
ments, the local library, etc. can be used in order to viduals, etc. Regular meetings with the population should
collect this information. be conducted and the results of local public surveys may
Details on Local Organizations become additional sources of information which may
enable ofﬁcers to draw a clearer and more exhaustive
It is important to collect detailed information regard- picture of the situation in each individual district.
ing buildings, equipment and inventory of every
public institution, including schools, youth clubs,
libraries, social service centers, real estate associa-
tions and state institutions. Additionally, information
should be collected on people responsible for trafﬁc,
Additional Information for
ecology, victim protection, car parking, etc. and their Communication
addresses and telephone numbers should be includ-
ed. Information should also be available on minute All important information regarding the district that can
landmarks such as trashcans, street lights, etc. help support effective communications occurring between
the police and the public should also be included in the
district proﬁle. In addition, information on billboards and
places where local meetings occur should be included as
well. The proﬁle should contain data on people that are • Share information and ideas regarding
eager to assist police in disseminating relevant informa- deﬁnite issues;
• Find mechanisms for solving problems
This list is obviously not exhaustive, as the speciﬁcs of together.
any districts may dictate the presence of other types of
information relevant to the proﬁle. Much will depend on District Inspectors should utilize proper techniques
the skills and ability of a District Inspector to determine for setting up connections. Elements that help
what type of information he/she needs in order to ef- in setting up these connections include: badges
fectively fulﬁll ofﬁcial obligations and determine how to indicating their name and position, business cards,
obtain useful information. questionnaires, brochures on preventing crime and
other relevant topics, invitation cards and other
Finally, most the important thing is for a District Inspec- means that can help set-up connections and main-
tor to remember the essential principle of the proﬁle tain them.
– consistent updating and enhancement of the proﬁle. It
must be stated that work on the district proﬁle is never
Setting up Important Connections and Badge that indicating the name of a police employ-
Effective Relations ee is a simple and effective means to identify an
individual ofﬁcer to the public. This initiative sup-
It is imperative that District Inspectors have good com- ports the elimination of barriers that exists between
munication skills and have the ability to develop good citizens and police. It is not necessary that police
relations, in order to have effective communication with employees start every relationship through a formal
all segments of society. introduction and a name badge eliminates the need
to do so.
First of all, in able to set up good relationships, District
Inspectors need to have good action plans that will dem-
onstrate to the public the overall goals of the police:
• To meet with them;
Business Cards and Information
• Listen to their problems;
A very successful way to set-up and maintain
• Deﬁne their priorities to other employees of the relationships is to dissemination business cards and
police force; short information brochures.
• If necessary, deﬁne the role of the police These types of cards contain:
COMMUNITY POLICE 29
• Name, rank, position, ﬁeld of authority ate the concerns and expectations of the population
and, possibly, a photo; towards the police. This survey should be used as a
guide while conducting similar surveys in Georgia.
• Ofﬁce data, telephone numbers,
information regarding working hours,
place and time for regular meetings, where
one can ordinarily see a police employee; Montreal City Police Service Survey
• Short resume about the role of the police, This survey was disseminated among the population
as well as short biographical and of one of the districts of the Montreal – La Cot De La
professional data. Neaje in 1996 and has since been used on a regular
basis. This type of survey prioritizes the understand-
The role of the District Inspector requires that he/she ing that it must not limit a person in expressing ideas
cooperate closely with all sectors of society; business- and also evaluates different issues.
es as well as state institutions and other groups should
be offered information cards, in order to provide a This type of questionnaire is both a very effective
safer environment and provide more effective solu- method of consultation for both the police and the
tions to problems through cooperation. population. Analyzes of the data collected over the
years may be used as a tool in helping evaluate the
overall effectiveness of community policing in a
Public Opinion Surveys and
In order to set up new and fruitful relationships, Knowledge of the Police
the public must be assured that the police take their Department
problems into serious consideration. Therefore, it is
important that District Inspectors look for information • Do you know where the police department is
regarding unreported crimes and other incidents that located in your district? If yes, where did
the public may be concerned about or other factors you learn this?
that cause fear among citizens. Direct contact (visits
to apartments, places of work, etc), public opinion • Did you have any contact with any police
surveys and questionnaires should all be used to help employee(s) from your district during the
reveal the attitude, fears and problems faced by the last year? If yes, can you recognize these
public at any given time. police ofﬁcers?
A good example of this type of survey is a question- • Did you visit the police department in your
naire prepared by the Montreal City Police Service district during last year? If yes, why?
(illustrated below), used in different districts to evalu-
Changes in District and Police • Please evaluate the level of crime in your
district over the current year.
• Compared to other districts, how would
• Could you list the problems that your district’s
you evaluate the number of criminal acts
population is most concerned with?
committed in your district?
• What was the status of the problems listed be
• If you personally came across a crime
low in your district last year? (theft, burglary,
being committed in your district that was
vandalism, beggary, drug dealing).
not very urgent to address, who would you
inform ﬁrst? What about problems not of a
• Do you sense the presence of patrol police in
your district during all 24 hours of the day?
How visible is this patrol?
• Have you ever witnessed any crime in your
• Please list three major problems, either
Feeling Danger criminal or otherwise, in your district that
should be addressed in the nearest future?
• If you were walking in your district alone,
would you feel safe? at night also?
• Do you think infantry patrol police can
manage to solve your problems?
• If you had the opportunity, would you leave the
• Have you taken any preventive measures
against crime that may affect your residence, Public Participation in District
means of transportation or you personally Activities
during the last three years? If yes, what
measures did you take? • Has a police ofﬁcer ever invited you to a
meeting to discuss problems in your
• Could you specify the crime prevention pro district?
grams that police implement in your district?
• If a police ofﬁcer invites you to a
meeting to discuss problematic issues in
your district, will you go?
Crime and Trust in the Police • Did you participate in activities organized
by collective bodies in your district last
• How much do you think crime has in year?
creased in your district over recent years?
COMMUNITY POLICE 31
• Could you name any activities carried-out To be a Victim
in your district in which representatives of
the police system participated? • Have you been the victim of crime/attempted
crime while living in this district?
• Did you inform the police about this
Satisfaction with Police incident?
• How would you evaluate the effectiveness
of the police when it comes to solving
problems in your district? Public Information
• How satisﬁed are you with the way in District Inspectors should prepare information so that
which police try to solve problems in your they may disseminate this information during regular
district? meetings with the public. This information may relate
to issues of preventing crime as well as encouraging
• In cases where you or a relative dealt with the public to participate in different programs and/or
the police, how would you characterize events. In addition, police ofﬁcers should take into
their attitude towards you/your relative(s)? consideration different ways to communicate with the
public and should utilize these methods - particularly,
• What is the quality of work of the police in local press and TV, radio, billboards for public an-
your district? nouncements, etc.
• How much do the district police respect It is extremely important for a police ofﬁcer to be
and obey the law? active in setting up contacts. He/she should be able to
present himself to the public and communicate with
• How fast does an ofﬁcer respond to people. This will provide regular communication
messages from the population? between police and citizens regarding crime, public
order and other issues that the public may be con-
• Is a district police station opens and does a cerned about.
promotion of dialogue with the public,
what might occur there?
• Do police provide information to the Mobilizing Society
population regarding crime prevention
programs? There are a number of methods that promote public
participation in activities undertaken by police to
solve problems and prevent of crime. It is possible to
form neighborhood forums and committees, encourage • People who will participate in the
the participation of volunteers in patrolling local areas, implementation of the project should be
etc. It is also important to receive complaints and tel- identiﬁed;
ephone calls and respond to these complaints/calls
accordingly. Citizens may also participate in police • At the beginning of the project, meetings
trainings. It is possible to organize speciﬁc programs should be organized with the participation
that include public participation – i.e. organizing differ- of everyone involved in the project;
ent cultural or sport activities for the youth in a given
district. • A timeframe for the implementation of the
project and any separate planned activities
The most important thing is to form and properly should be elaborated;
develop methods of communication and interaction,
so that these methods can better support partnerships • Locations for implementation of the project
between police and the public, contribute to solving should be identiﬁed.
local problems and promote open and fair exchanges of
A police ofﬁcer working in the district should be able to Special Activities
create an action plan that he/she will implement stage by
stage. The following stages should be identiﬁed in the There are many ways to utilize public resources in
program: ﬁghting local crime and violations of public order.
According to the type of a crime, it is possible to
• Initial activities; identify useful elements from different schemes
and take into consideration unique, local situations
• Special activities; when formulating a solution to this crime. Because
of the nature of CP, it is of utmost importance that
• Maintenance and evaluation of the public a District Inspector be capable of recognizing and
participation. evaluating the immediate situation as well as coordi-
nate with the public so that he/she may best address
a crime and ﬁnd a proper solution.
Initial Activities After selecting a method most suited for the district,
it is important that District Inspectors take all neces-
Similar to any project, there are details within initial ac- sary precautions to ensure proper implementation of
tions that require special attention to be paid at this early the project. Mechanisms for monitoring and evalua-
stage, particularly: tion should be provided so as to better determine the
success of the project.
• The publishing of problems and issues that
the project will address;
COMMUNITY POLICE 33
Maintenance of Public Participation statistics included: types of crime; number of
ofﬁcers requested to help during the previous
Any project involving public participation needs to year; average age and working experience of
be frequently monitored and examined. During the the police ofﬁcers;
evaluation of a project the project’s overall aim (i.e.
fear felt by the public towards crime, standard of • Jasper County Sheriff’s department (Texas,
living, relationship between police and public, etc) USA) posts annual reports on the internet;
should be emphasized.
• Police in Tasmania (Australia) place the
Fairness during informational exchanges often most requested data on an internet
requires a compliance of police activities with public web-page which includes: reports on theft,
expectations. Police should also provide mechanisms permission forms to make demonstrations,
to promote interaction with the public. From this etc.
point of view, it will be very effective to make use of
the internet. A proper evaluation may indicate that a project should
not continue. In this event, it is necessary to deﬁne,
The internet serves as a signiﬁcant, interactive and in detail, the reasons behind the failure of the project.
operative electronic means of communication and is Responsible adherence to this step safeguards against
an important tool for community policing in many future failures of similar partnership projects.
countries. The internet can simplify dialogue between
police and the public and provide unhindered interac- Often times the reasons behind inefﬁcient implementa-
tions between these two factions. Several examples tion of a project are insufﬁcient qualiﬁcation, lack of
given below illustrate how the internet can effectively resources and/or lack of/no necessary support. Owing
be used by police worldwide. to these concerns it is imperative that participants of a
project work to utilize new resources, ensure the par-
• Halifax (Canada) police proposed the public ticipation of the highly qualiﬁed persons and introduce
“e-watch” program that provided interested other measures to help secure the success of the project.
persons with the opportunity to receive
precise information (photos, details Monitoring and evaluation should determine:
regarding an incident, etc) via e-mail relating
to crime committed in a districts of their • Whether the project meets its proposed
• Winnipeg (Canada) police publicize • The necessity to involve new people;
general statistics, as well as territorial
statistics, on the internet. This allows an • How well participants understand their tasks
interested party to compare the statistics and whether they know how to perform
of one district with another. The different actions;
• Whether participants are convinced that their knowledge and certain skills that are essential for
knowledge and skills are being fully reducing and preventing crime as well as for imple-
employed; menting projects based on public partnerships.
• The level of motivation participants receive
from public recognition;
Active and Joint Activities Aimed
• The necessity to better inform the public
about the project. at Problem solving
The general public expects the police to provide ef-
Proper evaluation can draw from many various sources fective solutions to problems, measures that reduce
to ensure an accurate picture, including: informa- crime and establish an overall sense of safety in
tive visits by the police, organization of the meetings the community. Also, there are problems related to
between police and expert-speakers or representatives crime and public order that are causes for public
of the public, appreciation letters by the Head of Police concern and it is the obligation of the police system
Departments addressed to active members of the public, to be able to solve these problems through the sup-
publication of photos in the press, etc. port of the public and other state structures.
Positive actions will support an increase of motivation There are many methods of CP employed in coun-
among project participants. However, motivation alone tries around the world implemented to jointly solve
is not enough to ensure the success of a project. Local problems in those countries.
police, along with the public, should always be active
and innovative in ﬁnding resources and supporting the One of example of successful employment of CP
project. They should consider and use all opportunities. relates to the Conﬂict Regulatory Committees in
An example of identifying resources would be to use Hartford (Connecticut, USA).
the rooms of a local school or public institution to house
meetings between the public and police. The solicita- In 1987, the Mayor of Hartford created a commis-
tion of donations – through companies that can afford to sion that undertook the task to study and analyze
donate used computers, printers or other relevant equip- the crimes being committed by street gangs in the
ment to the project – is always helpful for a program. area. A ﬁnal report presented by this commission in
1989 concluded that police institutions alone could
Police and members of society should be innovative and not prevent crimes being committed by these gangs.
creative when attempting to secure further resources for Between1986 and 1996 Hartford was listed as one
the project, but above all, they must be ethical during of 10 American cities with a population of more
this process. that 100,000 people (population of Hartford is 124
000) which had the highest crime rate. This eruption
Thus, the District Inspector should possess professional of street related violence resulted in complaints by
COMMUNITY POLICE 35
the local population, which was unhappy with the eliminating gangs and to punish members of these gangs
inefﬁciency of the police institutions. Additionally, in an appropriate and just manner. Between June 1992
there was a lack of communication and coordination and October 1993, more than 1200 arrests took place.
among various police institutions as well as other
gaps in their work. Partnership networks began operating and these networks
included cooperation between conﬂict resolution com-
Following the conclusions of this commission, mittees, Hartford Police and the Special Forces.
the authorities in Hartford decided to implement
activities that would encourage the public to aid in Statistics showed a clear regression of gang related crime
ﬁghting crime. This participation by members of as a result of these actions. Between 1986 and 1996
the public stimulated police institutions to establish an unprecedented reduction of crime was registered in
partnerships between governmental and non-govern- Hartford.
mental organizations. It became goal of the police to
reduce crime related to street gangs. • 30% reduction of the general number of
Conﬂict resolution committees were formed in all
seventeen district of the municipality. Their mission • 31% reduction of crimes against property;
was to both analyze the occurrences of street gangs
that were characteristic in their districts as well as to • 24% reduction of serious crime.
instruct different institutions to begin implementing
jointly prepared action plans. The National Crime Prevention Council named Hartford
one of six American cities that demonstrated the most ef-
These tactics were successful, as members of each fective reduction of crime during a 10 year period.
committee knew their own districts and local popu-
lation well and were able to base their actions and
insights on this knowledge.
These conﬂict resolution committees had monthly
meetings in order to discuss their experience, share
information and strengthen cooperation between
A Special Forces team was created in 1992 and
joined the municipality police department to prevent
the further advancement of problems related to street
Operations conducted by the Special Forces aimed at
Problem Oriented Policing
The term “problem oriented policing” originated in • Problems should be considered as a major
the United States of America. It was introduced by element of police activity, rather than
Herman Goldstein in 1979. Goldstein was critical of crime, incidents and/or complaints;
the activities being carried out by police, feeling that
modern police were limited to responding to incidents • Problems concern not only police but, most
alone. Goldstein argued the importance of preventive of all, citizens. Problems concerning police
measures and the active participation of police in col- alone are important, but they are irrelevant
laboration with the public and other institutions. in relation to this term;
By the end of the 1970s, researchers, professional • Responding to problems means more than
police ofﬁcers and politicians were gaining an in- just implementing comparatively prompt
terest in increasing the overall effectiveness of the solutions to them. Particularly, a response
country’s police system. Researches alluded to the to the conditions and causes of the problem
weak points inherent in traditional police activities. is imperative;
This served as an incentive to form a new approach
to police activities that considered researching the • Police ofﬁcers should regularly analyze
details of traditional police activities and subsequently problems before they solve them. Police
elaborating a new, effective strategy that could better employees and police stations should work
address the issues that the current model was failing to out speciﬁc practices and systems of
grapple with. Problem oriented policing, as argued by analyzes;
Goldstein, does not depend on the resources of other
law-enforcement institutions. Additionally, problem • Analyzes of the problem should not be
oriented policing encourages the active involvement complicated;
of governmental and non-governmental organizations,
public groups and separate individuals, which can • Problems should be described in details and
signiﬁcantly contribute to problem resolution. Problem should be grouped according to speciﬁc
oriented policing also allows for the implementation of aspects. Issue that seem to be a problem
new strategies, the assessment of police effectiveness from the ﬁrst viewing may not appear to be
in detail and the creation of a report on all achieved a problem upon further inspection;
goals. These activities assist other structural divisions
of the police in taking into consideration a successful • Problems should be understood and
model. This supports the establishment and develop- evaluated by taking into consideration
ment of professional police. different interests. It should also be taken
into consideration that different
The major elements of problem oriented policing are: individuals and groups perceive
COMMUNITY POLICE 37
problems and solutions in different ways. origin and reasons behind the cause of the problem.
Particularly, ofﬁcers would talk to the local population
• Measures must be taken in order to solve and people who frequently visit the park; they would
problems and relevant practices should be consider the period of time that the violation took
evaluated; any lack of efﬁciency should be place; they would attempt to ﬁnd out who the viola-
publicly announced, in order to ﬁnd tors are and why they chose the park to commit their
more successful ways to solve problems; crime; they would study separate places in the park
and any peculiarities of the surrounding area, etc. All
• All forms of action, even the most minimal this data may be used as grounds for responding to the
ones, should be taken into consideration; sug problem. Regardless of the fact that coercive measures
gestions should be based on analyzes may be a possible component of the reaction, this case
and experience with the problems; would involve local inhabitants, members of the park
administration, recreation service representatives and
• Police should take an active approach when others, instead of just the police, as the traditional
trying to solve problems, as opposed to method encourages.
merely responding to crimes and violations
of the law in general. Another successful project involving public partici-
pation in response to problems was implemented in
• Police stations should provide more inde Dusseldorf, Germany.
pendence to their employees in the decision-
making process; police ofﬁcers should be ac Participation of Youth in Fighting Crime in Dussel-
countable for their activities; dorf, Germany
• The efﬁciency of new forms of responses This program in Dusseldorf started in 1971 and aimed
should be evaluated and shared between at improving trafﬁc and the overall conduct of drivers;
other police employees and departments in it also implemented a prevention campaign to better
order to systematically disseminate educate minors about general safety rules.
information regarding successes and failures.
The project encouraged minors to become actively
This concept of problem oriented policing can be involved in different activities related to trafﬁc safety.
illustrated by the following example: the police This strategy was grounded in the approach that it is
department receives several telephone messages possible to signiﬁcantly reduce crime among juveniles
regarding drug dealing and vandalism in a park. An if their leisure time is reasonably managed. It was also
ordinary response would be to send police ofﬁcers to believed that participation of juveniles in altruistic ac-
the park and arrest the perpetrators at the crime scene. tions may increase the sense of solidarity and mutual
Should the police apply the concept and methodol- support among them.
ogy of problem oriented policing, they would also
look for additional information in order to identify the At the time of project implementation, the incidences
of car accidents, especially among youth, in Düsseldorf Transportation to these trainings was free (a bus
were incredibly high. drove them to the ofﬁce and home in the evenings).
Uniforms were given to them for temporary use.
The project aimed at:
This program signiﬁcantly supported the reduction
• Involving youth in activities that may of crime among youth in that city. The number of
beneﬁt society; car accidents signiﬁcantly dropped as well.
• Develop a sense of responsibility and This model was adopted by many other regions of
solidarity among the city’s youth. Germany.
Many police ofﬁcers and 1200 juveniles (boys as well Problem oriented policing may be used at differ-
as girls between the ages of 14 – 20) participated in the ent levels of police organization when dealing
project. with different scales of problems faced at different
levels of the public. It may be used when problems
Basic training took place on weekends. There were also concern all sectors of the public, the solutions to
systematic trainings that took place over three months, which require the participation and resources of
which were of a more practical nature (providing ﬁrst high level police ofﬁcials, the public and govern-
aid, dealing with accidents, providing help). These mental agencies. It may also be used when dealing
trainings were organized by police ofﬁcers and experts with medium scale problems as well (for example,
in trafﬁc safety. The ﬁnal part of the course featured problems in district or regional police stations);
exams in theory as well as practice. Internships were additionally, it may be used at the local level
organized in order to provide opportunities to use the - individuals or groups of people - when minimal
knowledge these youth gained in a practical manner. resources are enough to address problems.
To help in identiﬁcation and for better visibility,
volunteers wore uniforms and badges and were given
two-way portable radios (walkie-talkies). Model of Problem Resolution
This organization was identical to a military model. (SARE)
Particularly, there were Task Forces within the structure
of this program, there were regular physical trainings When resolving problems, the focus should always
and people were promoted based on merit, achieve- remain on the origins of these problems and the
ments and according to hierarchical steps. conditions that provide for an increase in crime
The young participants served on weekends and on
some other days as well (by 1997 11,000 working hours The Scanning, Analyzes, Response, Evaluation
had been logged). Volunteers received pocket money (SARE) method can be actively used when resolv-
(approximately 15 German Marks for a full day). ing problems.
COMMUNITY POLICE 39
Scanning • Research what is known about the existing
Scanning is related to police properly identifying
problems. It is important that police ofﬁcers are capa- • Describe the response to the problem and
ble of really identifying problematic issues. Problems identify the strong and week points of the
may be deﬁned as relating to crime or disorder as well existing response to the problem;
as anything else that is potentially unacceptable for
the public. Problems that attract the attention of police • Determine the speciﬁcs of the problem in
employees may exist when: detail;
• Two or more complains/telephone messages • Determine resources/methods that may
are received regarding the same issue; provide deeper analyzes of the problem;
• It is related to a similar locations - business- • Deﬁne a working hypothesis regarding the
activity, residence or neighborhood; existence of the problem.
• Similar telephone messages or serious It can be said that analyzes is the most important
disorder is noticed; step in problem resolution. The following questions
should be answered during analyzes: Who? What?
• Incident described in a complaint results in Why? When? Where? How?
damage to the district and/or the ﬁler of the
complaint; All information sources should be utilized in order
to make all materials comprehensive and to best
• Has a negative effect on the safety/well being represent the situation as it actually exists. A source
of a citizen. of information may be ofﬁcial information (police
reports, speeches, information provided by other
state institutions), as well as information gathered
from interviews, received by a police ofﬁcer from
the population – businessmen, citizens, other or-
Analyzes ganizations - or from victims and suspects. Helpful
information may be found in the press and on the
The following actions need to be taken during ana- internet and may be acquired at different meetings
lyzes: with the public.
• Determine incidents and conditions that
either precede or follow the problem;
• Determine what data is to be collected;
Response process it is important to maintain contacts with the
various sources of information.
Strategies should aim at revealing problems. Responses
should be adequate and effective enough to signiﬁcantly
improve the situation and reduce the number of people The following steps should be made during the
ﬁling complaints with the police department. evaluation process:
It is also important to use all resources that may speciﬁ- • Determine if the action plan was fully
cally affect the proper resolution to a implemented;
• Verify that sufﬁcient data was collected
Responses should be prepared in a way that they pro- before and after the implementation of the
vide long term solutions to the problem. action plan;
• Deﬁning all possible forms of responses; • Determine if the goal was achieved;
• Sharing experience of solving typical • Deﬁne a new strategy in order to better
problems; implement the action plan in the future;
• Selecting the best solution; • Verify that ongoing, regular evaluations are
being conducted in order to achieve
• Preparing an action plan and determining long-term efﬁciency.
• Determining the speciﬁc goals of the action
• Implementing planned activities.
During an evaluation it is important to determine fac-
tors that provided for success as well as ones that led
to failure. A comparison of statistical data should be
used during the evaluation process; it is also important
to evaluate public interaction. During the evaluation
COMMUNITY POLICE 41
Triangle of Problem Analyzes
Despite the fact that the SARE model may be vate establishments that also affect public spaces. When
useful when developing an approach to resolving trying to ﬁnd solutions, it is necessary to identify how
a problem, it is very often problematic in practice the criminal and the victim were brought together at the
when determining the problem itself. The triangle place where the crime took place. In addition, it is im-
of problem analyzes, also known as the “crime portant to determine the overall conduct of the potential
triangle,” provides that a chain of regular crimes criminal, the speciﬁcs of the crime scene and how well
and law-violations can be determined. According protected the target/victim was. Revealing weak points
to this method, potential crime takes place when 3 in the triangle, in the context of a particular problem,
conditions are met: (1) there is a potential criminal; helps in developing an effective response action plan.
(2) there is a relevant target; (3) there is nobody to Thus, a more complete triangle can be represented as:
protect the victim. This simple method of problem
analyzes can be represented like this:
Criminal behavior can sometimes be prevented by When police ofﬁcers begin obtaining information and
other people who deal with criminals outside of start forming partnership networks, ofﬁcers should take
the police system (bodyguards, private investiga- into consideration certain safety factors. Particularly,
tors, security guards, etc) and the presence of some an ofﬁcer should consider any circumstances that may
sort of guard/witness may also hinder crime from endanger personal safety or the safety of the public.
occurring. In many cases, owners and managers of Additionally, if information that should be disseminated
private institutions provide private security for pri- contains elements of conﬁdentiality and/or matters of
a delicate nature, this must be identiﬁed and police
ofﬁcers should take appropriate measures in order to
eradicate any potential risk and protect any persons,
public and/or private property.
If risk-factors are not properly assessed which results
in a negative outcome this will seriously damage the
image and reputation of the police and make it very dif-
ﬁcult to restore the trust in the police afterwards.
It is essential that police actions comply with profes-
sional standards and ethical norms, even when collabo-
rating with the public in trying to resolve problems.
District Inspectors should be aware that they are the
face of the entire organization in the eye of the public.
Any conduct, such as misuse of power, unethical behav-
ior, etc, negatively affects the reputation of the police
system as a whole. Police should carefully observe all
proper conduct required of police employees, seriously
consider public opinion and uphold the authority of the
police institution at all times.
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