NLP and Hypnotherapy for Sports Performance
Be the best you can be
Written by Jimmy Petruzzi And Sara Lou-Ann Jones
Profiles Jimmy Petruzzi
Jimmy Petruzzi has worked in many countries with successful people and businesses including premiership football teams, top athletes, politicians, entrepreneurs and stars of the small screen, helping them to achieve peak performance in all aspects of their lives. Jim trains many of the top champions in the world of Sport based in the UK, and abroad, and has implemented many of his unique and breakthrough concepts in athletic performance. Jim works with elite sports performers including, among others, Premiership footballers and teams, some of the teams and individuals from teams Jim has worked with are Crystal Palace F.C, Queens Park Rangers F.C, Bury F.C, he has also worked with individuals from teams such as Manchester United, Manchester City, Wigan, Fulham, to name a few, he has assisted to prepare international teams for major tournaments such s the soccer world cup also trained rugby players, European Tour golfers, World and Olympic medallists, international athletes, cricket players, tennis players, professional football and sporting teams and establishments. Jim has taken these principles of success in sport with NLP and transferred them to the cooperate sector with great success, presently regarded as one of the most successful and effective business coaches and trainers .Helping companies increase sales, improve leadership and management skills, set inspiring goals and fulfil their potential, become highly motivated and function effectively as a team. Jim Appears regularly on television news, including BBC TV, ITV, including weekly segment on radio 2ky Australia radio, worldwide newspapers as well as sports-related documentaries- He is also often asked to provide commentary for radio and in the press, and has a regularly time slot on Sky TV channel M in the UK, a regular columnist on magazines such as peak performance, men's fitness and Fit Pro, he is a writer for INPLTA and the British Association of NLP the governing body of NLP, frequent contributor to other publications, as well as a sought after industry speaker who regularly presents at the leading conferences in the field.
Received highly commended for coaching award 2006, for his international and domestic work
Sara Lou-Ann Jones www.excelwithhypnotherapy.com
Sara Lou Ann Jones
Sara has worked with a variety of clients in Television, sports and business. She has helped countless people lose weight and get into fantastic shape through her innovative, creative, exciting style of training. She also has a background in Hypnotherapy, NLP and Life Coaching. She has been trained with most of the well known international trainers worldwide and has worked with a wide variety of clients, bringing with her personal experience to back up her practical training. Sara brings a lot of energy and passionate enthusiasm into her training, motivating and inspiring everyone she works with.
This book is designed so you can use the content over and over again, you can revert to the book to continuously help you to get the best out of yourself and your athletes.
The book is full of practical exercises on how to use your mind more effectively. To gain more success in sport as a participant, get the best out of yourself as a coach and get the best out of your players as a coach. To provide coaches, PE teachers, trainers, football players techniques and strategies they can use to enhance their ability as a coach or player, fulfil their potential. The book provides the reader with techniques that focus on achieving results If you’re serious about achieving results this book is for you. Helping you get the best out of yourself, your footballers and athletes Achieve more consistent results. whether your a player aspiring to fulfil your physical potential as a player, are coach, trainer, or teacher who wants to get the best out of your team, whether your are involved with an amateur or pro team.
Using NLP in Sport Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is the process of creating models of excellence. Modelling is the complex activity of capturing in a learnable transferable code the differences that make a difference between an excellent performer and an average performer, between an excellent athlete and an average one, a person who is motivated to get the best out of themselves in training and one who is not. NLP, then, is the process of identifying, coding and transferring precisely those differences in a learnable form to the interested participants and companies to allow significant upgrading of their performance to levels of excellence. Results in sport depend crucially on your ability to use your mind effectively. Many elite athletes say the mental aspects of sport make the difference between being a champion or not. As little as 1% can be the difference between being a champion and being ranked 50th in the world! what ever the level of sport your compete or coach at, or whether your a teacher a fitness professional your mind set has a major influence of the degree of success and fulfilment you achieve in your sport The book gives the reader an opportunity to implement techniques and strategies which include: How to create excellent states of mind at will regardless of circumstances You will learn how to install confidence and motivation in yourself and others Communicate more powerfully and effectively
use of positive language and positive instructions when coaching / teaching and giving half time team talk Anchoring... focusing on past positive experiences in a sensory manner so as to recreate future success...developing a cue which will enable the footballer to tap in to a state of mind... i.e. confidence, relaxed, motivated outcome setting so that aims are planned and agreed so as to maintain and increase motivation reframing so that all experiences and performances are viewed from a positive perspective, with success being internalised to the performer or team the book aims to show how all methods can be easily incorporated into the practical arena without hours spent in the class room
Part 1a: Make sure your football coaching mentally prepares you for the second half! The coach’s role at half-time- Leadership styles- Psychology of half-time substitutions- Using neuro-linguistic programming in half-time psychology- Applying NLP at half-time- Dissociation-reframingPart 1: NLP Physiology Strategies page 15 Part 2: The mindset for success page 15 Part 3: Getting in the Zone page 16 Part 4: Perceptual Positions page 22 Part 5: Motivation to Succeed page 25 Part 6: Goal setting page 26 Part 7: Self Talk page 30 Part 8: New behaviour generator page 36 Part 9: Stress Management and Relaxation page 37 Part 10: Comunications rep systems page 42
Many people study NLP to help them become more effective in their chosen field or for their own personal development, becoming more confident, motivated. The patterns can be employed across a wide area of applications ranging from fields as diverse as Business, Sport, education, team building, sales, marketing, personal development, leadership and coaching. NLP techniques provide the opportunity to grow and develop, helping us fulfil our potential and be the best we can be, NLP can be used to develop and enhance performance. The foundations of NLP are about creating models of success. The most important thing is finding role models that would allow you to create success. This could be anything from a behavioral pattern, characteristic, technique, or skill, such as confidence, motivation, a basis or complex sports technique or skill, modeling a skilled sports participant such as David Beckham free kick technique. Another powerful direction might be about finding athletes that truly participate in their sport in an exceptional way and getting to understand how they do that. For Example Lance Armstrong dedication and determination, Imagine a situation where you can find, sit down and talk to a true role model of success. What goes through the mind of a true champion such as a Federer, Tiger Woods, Then look at exactly how it is they run their brains to create that success. How about then being able to take that information and install it in yourself and others. This is what NLP is really about
NLP modelling is the art of identifying, eliciting, and transferring, the set of differences present in someone who is excellent at a given activity compared with someone who is mediocre at the same activity. NLP modelling is by far the highest skill level in NLP. NLP modelling can be used to capture patterns of excellence present in anyone in any context.
Make sure your football coaching mentally prepares you for the second half!
One of the things that should be taught in any football coaching is that the half-time period in a match is not just about refueling and physical therapy. It‟s also an absolutely crucial time for the coach and team to gather their thoughts and prepare mentally for the challenges of the second half. And, according to Jim Petruzzi, the importance of effective communication is hard to overestimate Looking back to half-time in the 2005 European Champions League final, with Liverpool 3-0 down to AC Milan, according to his Liverpool colleagues, Captain Steven Gerrard was in a state of disbelief and was ready to concede defeat. Afterwards, all he could remember of half-time was the manager getting his pen out, writing down the changes he wanted on the board and telling the team to try and get an early goal, as that could make the opposition nervous. But Gerrard said that, to be honest, he just couldn‟t concentrate. There were all sorts of things going through his head. He just sat there with his head in his hands. He really thought it was over. The half-time period in a game tends to create an emotional experience amongst the players and the coach. A full review might take place a day or two after the game, which can be generally analyzed free of the emotional reactions associated with the game itself. However, at half-time the outcome of the game is yet to be decided. The interval is only around 15 minutes in duration, and is the only direct opportunity the coach will have to speak to all the players and to influence the second-half performance and result. The half-time team talk will, of course, depend on the score and the coach‟s perspective of the match. It is also important to note other variable factors, such as the context of the game – eg is it a cup match in which the loser gets knocked out? Is it a league game and what are the league positions of the teams contesting the game? Is one team an overwhelming favourite to win the game? Is the team winning but not performing well? Football, in particular, is a game with many psychological demands, such as confidence, motivation and concentration, and these demands can be influenced by the situation in the game at half-time. For example, if a team is winning 3-0 and performing very well, it will go into the half-time break with a different psychological perspective from that of the team that is losing. However, if the same team is winning 2-0, and just before the half-time break the losing team score and make it 2-1, the psychological perspective of both teams would be different; the losing team would gain renewed optimism by scoring the late goal, and the team conceding the goal may become frustrated! Half-time is also
psychologically important because it‟s the first time in the game that the players have an opportunity to reflect consciously for a sustained period on the game. The coach’s role at half-time The main goal of the coach during the half-time interval is to influence positively the second-half performance as much as possible. The coach may give the players feedback on how they are performing individually or collectively as a team, and discuss technical, tactical and physical aspects of the game, including formations, styles of play, changing tempos and pitch conditions. A key element of a successful half-time talk is communication. This is a two-way process that consists of giving and receiving information. Coaches can learn a lot about the development of the game at half-time by listening and asking the members of the team questions to prompt a two-way discussion. However, while coaches are typically good at talking, being in charge and giving instructions, they are often poor listeners. It is also important to note that communication is not only verbal. As early as the late 1960s, research in communication had indicated that non-verbal behaviour (ie body language) plays an important role in communication(1-3). Researchers have determined that just 7% of what we communicate is the result of the words that we use or the content of our communication; 38% of our communication to others is a result of our verbal behaviour, which includes tone of voice, timbre, tempo and volume; and 55% of our communication to others is a result of our non-verbal communication, our body posture, breathing, skin colour and our movement.
The leadership style also has a major influence on the effectiveness of a half-time team talk. There are several types of leadership styles, including „authoritarian‟, „democratic‟ and „laissez-faire‟ (see box, page 6). It is possible for coaches to use different methods in different situations, and it‟s important to note that personality types, cultural behaviour and other factors also contribute to coaching styles. Some coaches display a combination of the different leadership traits, whereas others favour one style in particular. A good coach will adapt his or her leadership style to expectations, knowledge, experience and group members. For example, if a group is hostile, the leader may prefer to adopt an autocratic style. If the group is friendly the leader may choose a more democratic, person-centred style. Problems can arise if strategies for preparation used by the leader do not match the group expectations of the team.
Psychology of half-time substitutions
As with other factors in a match, like scoring a goal or a poor refereeing decision, the psychology of a second-half substitution can change the tactical aspect of the game and give an insight to what the manager‟s state of mind may be. For example, if a team is winning 2-0 at half-time and the manager of the winning team substitutes an attacking player with a defensive player, this could be perceived as being a negative tactic, and possibly that the manager doesn‟t have confidence in the team to carry on playing the same style; or as a statement by the manager saying „we are going to hang on to our 2-0 lead, rather than seize the initiative and extend the scoreline‟. Earlier this year, England rugby union coach Andy Robinson came in for criticism for replacing captain Martin Corry during their 18-12 Six Nations defeat to Scotland. Brian Moore (ex-England player, now working as a sports commentator) commented: „I don‟t think you should ever take your captain off, unless there is an injury; it‟s a huge psychological blow once your captain is substituted.‟ The criteria in deciding who to take off depends on the context of the match, and there are many tactical factors that could influence whether a player should be substituted, and who to bring on at half-time. However, substituting your captain when he or she may not be playing well can have a massive impact on the team‟s mental state. It may, for example, have a negative effect, producing the belief in the team that the coach is panicking. It can also be a good idea to bring on a substitute who regularly performs well against the opposition you are playing – this may induce panic in the opposing team. Sometimes a team‟s performance isn‟t always reflected in the scoreline. If the team is playing well and goes into the interval losing against the run of play, is it worth keeping faith in the team to carry on performing well in the second half and hoping that the breaks will come, or does the manager make changes and risk disrupting the flow of the game thereby affecting the team‟s performance?
Using neuro-linguistic programming in half-time psychology
Essentially, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is the study of excellence in how we think, how we behave and how we communicate. It provides a series of techniques, skills and methodologies that can be used to create strategies to enable us to fulfil our potential in all areas of our lives. The brain not only controls the application of skills and strategic movements, but it also affects actual body movements that people used to consider automatic. NLP can help sportsmen and women to gain control over what many consider to be „automatic‟ functions of our own neurology. Research has shown that imagining an event can produce the same effect on structures in the brain as performing that event in reality!
For example, research carried out at the University of Chicago into visualisation in basketballers divided a number of people into three groups(4). Each was tested shooting a number of penalty shots in basketball. The groups were then given different instructions: Group 1 did not practise penalty shots for 30 days; Group 2 practised shots every day for 30 days; Group 3 practised shots only in their mind (visualisation) for 30 days. After 30 days the three groups were tested again: Group 1 showed no improvement at all (as expected); Group 2 showed a 24% improvement (not especially satisfactory given that they had been practising with the ball for one month); Group 3 improved by 23% (impressive considering they had not even seen a ball for 30 days!).
Applying NLP at half-time
NLP can be applied at half-time in a number of different ways, just by using the principle of positive instruction. Stating what you want rather than what you don‟t want
can have a powerful positive effect on the mind, but many coaches still tell players what they don‟t want, producing negative thoughts. „When you shoot don‟t miss the target‟ might be the instruction from the coach to player, but would it not be better to instruct the player when he shoots to hit the target? If somebody asks you not to think of the colour black, what immediately come to mind? The very thing you were asked not to think of! Phrases such as „don‟t foul‟, „don‟t lose the ball‟, „don‟t lose the game‟ can all be replaced by more positive instructions. Here are some half-time techniques that can be used in sequence to create the right state of mind for the coach and the players. These techniques are „dissociation‟, „reframing‟ and „anchoring‟. They are aimed at creating a logical state of mind for the coach at half-time and getting the players to go out into the second half in peak mental state to achieve their desired outcome. Dissociation Dissociation is about recreating a past experience from the perspective of an onlooker or observer. This means that the person does not re-experience the original emotion but instead experiences the detached emotions of an „observer‟. This enables the coach to think logically and not emotionally. The technique of dissociation is useful just before half-time, so the coach can think logically and not emotionally when delivering the halftime team talk. Reframing Reframing is the process of shifting the nature of the problem. It is the process of changing a negative statement into a positive one by changing the frame of reference used to interpret the experience. If all meaning is context dependent, changing the context will change the meaning. Depending on the situation at the end of the first half, we can decide from what perspective we want to go out in the second half. A perfect example of a reframe was in the 2005 European Champions League final when Liverpool‟s manager Rafa Benítez urged his players to „go out and score the first goal and see what happens from there‟. If he had said „go out and score three goals‟ the size of the task may have been too great. Another possible reframe is when a team comes in losing; the coach can reframe the situation by asking them to wipe the first half from their minds and just focus on winning the second half.
NLP Physiology Strategies
By changing the way you move your body, you can have a subtle but important influence on the way you feel? Here's a quick experiment to illustrate this point: 1. Try to feel depressed as you jump up and down and shake your hands in the air. 2. Try to feel confident as you slump your shoulders and look down.
3. Try to feel tired and listless as you march around the room
Changing your physiology is probably the simplest way to change your frame of mind in an instant.
The Basic Physiology Strategy
Walk out on to the football pitch or competitive arena with your shoulders back, your back straight!
THE MINDSET FOR SUCCESS
Have respect for the athlete‟s/coach‟s „model of the world‟. Resistance in an athlete is a sign of a lack of rapport. (There are no resistant athletes, only inflexible communicators. Effective communicators accept and utilize all communication presented to them.) The more flexibility of behaviour you have, the more likely it is that you will achieve your desired result. People are not their behaviours. Everyone is doing the best they can with the resources they have available. (Present behaviour is the best choice available. Every behaviour is motivated by a positive intent for that person.) You are in charge of your mind, and therefore your results (and I am also in charge of my mind and therefore my results). People have all the resources they need to succeed and to achieve their desired outcomes. (There are no un resourceful people, only un resourceful states.) There is no failure, just feedback!
5. 6. 7.
The meaning of communication is the response you get
Getting in the Zone
STATE OF MIND GETTING IN THE ZONE "My creative mind is my greatest weapon. It is a kind of inner vision that enables me to see things that others might not, like a certain way to play a shot. The psychology of golf can be complicated as it does entail mental toughness, selfconfidence, conquering inner demons, instant recall of past successes and being able to purge failures. It is the game within the game, I developed my mental strength early and I cannot emphasise the importance of you developing yours now!" Tiger Woods
The mental aspects prior to performance should involve focusing on what you are going to do during the event! Competition can bring out the best or the worst in athletes, and the psychological demands are especially high when individuals or teams are striving to achieve the same goals. When physical skills are evenly matched, it is often the competitor with the stronger mental approach, who can control his or her mind before and during events, who wins. However, many athletes wrongly assume that mental aspects of performance are innate and unchangeable when, in reality, systematic mental training can have a similar impact on performance as physical workouts. Getting into the correct mind-set prior to competition is one of the most crucial aspects of top performance.
There are many other potential distractions for the sports person, including the actions of friends or family, coaches or team mates, the environmental conditions, memories, delays and irrelevant thoughts. All of these can detract from your preparations, so be ready to clear your mind and refocus as necessary.
Because sports people have varying requirements, it is impossible to standardize the pre-competition preparation. However, you may wish to adopt the anchoring strategy in creating your own pre-performance strategy to achieve the desired emotional state Golfers have routines that allow them to prepare in the same way for each shot, as do some rugby place kickers, and tennis players before serving. The key to any routine is that it provides the athlete with control and directs attention to the important cues. Coaches and athletes should work together in deciding the key attention cues and the sequence in which these should occur.
A classic example of how emotions can affect sport performers came in a famous boxing match between Sugar Ray Leonard and Roberto Duran. Leonard was considered the better boxer who was expected to outclass Duran with slick movements and long-range punching. However, before the fight Duran insulted Leonard in front of his family and this, to the dismay of Leonard‟s Trainer Angelo Dundee, sent Leonard into a rage, which completely altered the course of subsequent events. Instead of fighting to the preplanned strategy devised with his trainer, Leonard let his emotions take over and decided he was going to „beat-up‟ his opponent. Duran‟s actions amounted to a psychological masterstroke as Leonard ditched his boxing skills and opted for a brawl. It was exactly what Duran had hoped for, and he won a points decision
The best performers in the world have the ability to get into the right state of mind in specific situations particularly in certain situations were two competitors are equal physically, technically, and tactical understanding of the game, the ability that certain performers have to achieve consistent results over long periods of time has allot to do with them being able to get in the right mental state in a specific situation What goes through the mind of a performer that is just about to take a penalty kick to win a world cup final in a penalty shoot out? A tennis player who is about to serve for a match of a major tournament
In most sports there is a break of play in between In a game of football which lasts 90 minutes the average amount of ball contact per player is 3 minutes, when we take time out for the ball being out of play I.e. a golfer who is out on the course all day playing up to 18 holes actual ball contact is around 14 minutes Each stroke taking seconds
In a game of cricket a batter has a split second to make a decision on shot selection in between
A formula car driver
When Nomar Garciaparra refastens his batting gloves between every pitch, is it a preperformance routine or a superstition? What about when Dirk Nowitzki sings David Hasselhoff tunes before he shoots free throws
An NLP strategy which can be used to get performers into the right state of mind is Anchoring
Johnny Wilkinson England Rugby international world cup winner clenching his fists before kicking for goal, looking completely focused
What is Anchoring?
An anchor is a stimulus that creates a response in either you or in another person. When an individual is at the peak of an experience during an intense
emotional state, an applied specific stimulus can establish a neurological link between the emotional state and the stimulus. Anchoring can occur naturally or be set up intentionally and can assist in gaining access to past states and linking the past state to the present and future. Anchors can be used by both coaches and players to produce a state of mind or mood needed for a given situation
NLP examples of Anchoring in every day life
Here are a few examples: Flicking through an old family photo album stirs pleasant memories and some of the feelings associated with them. An old song which can take you back to a specific event. The smell of freshly baked apple pies brings back memories of a happy care-free childhood
How we Anchor and are Anchored
When we are with another person who experiences some strong emotion, whatever we are doing or saying becomes associated with that emotion. Usually this process occurs at the unconscious level. Subsequently, whenever we do or say the same thing in the same way in his presence we will tend to re-stimulate for him/her some portion of the previous feeling. Being aware of this phenomenon through knowledge of neurolinguistic programming enables us to be aware of the kinds of responses we are anchoring in others, how we are doing it and conversely, what kinds of responses are being anchored in ourselves and how. This awareness enables us to anchor for mutually productive outcomes.
Anchoring in Sport
Can be used to create a resourceful state of mind for a specific situation to achieve a desired result For example prior to a rugby player taking a kick for goal A golf player teeing off A cricket player getting ready to face the next ball A football player taking a penalty The list is exhaustive
The anchor can be used to create different state of mind Confidence Motivation Focus Relaxation
I was working with a leading striker from a leading premiership club who had been injured for 3 seasons; I had used the anchoring strategy by using idea technology. What we did was get as much video footage of the player performing to the best of his ability, as the players position in the team was to score goals, and this was one of the outcomes he was aiming to achieve as a player, we transferred on to the DVD as many goals as possible, and there were quite a few. We then attached same of the players favourite music to the DVD, initially I had asked the player to take the DVD and watch it as and when he wanted to, just enjoy watching himself playing well, I said the fact he had performed like this before it was possible to perform like this again it was a question of getting him in the same state of mind. I then asked the player that in order to transfer this resource in a game situation we needed to develop an anchor, so just like a light switch we could, switch that state of mind on when necessary, the player decided what he wanted to use as his anchor, whilst watching the DVD we went through the anchoring process 100s of times until the player knew for certain that the anchor produced the emotional stimulus required for him to perform in specific situations we had outlined The result was in the player‟s first game he had scored 2 goals after being out with injury for over 3 seasons Another example of the anchoring process was some work I did with a football player at a lower division club, in this situation I did not have access to video footage of he player, so we did the process by getting the player to reflect of some of his past performances. in this situation the player was going through a situation were he was lacking in confidence, when ever he walked on to the football pitch he didn‟t believe in himself, this player also being a striker whose job it is to score goals was doing well in training, he had no problem scoring goals in training, though when he walked on to the football pitch he couldn‟t seem to score goals. The reasons behind this could have been countless, and I thought that isn‟t wasn‟t necessary to find out why, rather than analyse the problem lets look for a solution. In this situation the player was going through a problem were he was lacking confidence whilst he was playing a competitive game, which was affecting his performances. We went through the anchoring process I had asked him to set down and write down some of his best performances then having done that reflect and think about it, having done this you could see an immediate physiological change, the player sat up straight his breathing changed and almost in an instant was in a different mind set
We decided on an anchor which was a flick of his wrist band And asked him to visualise again his best performances When he reached peak intensity I had asked him to flick his wrist band as this would build an association to the confidence he wanted to resource whilst playing, every time he wanted to tap I to that resource he would flick his wrist band The player performed the technique and practiced whilst on his own And the first thing he does when he walks on to the pitch now is flick the wrist band
Installing an Anchor
Decide on the state you want to anchor - e.g. being calm and relaxed, confident, motivated etc; 2 Choose an anchor (or anchors) that you wish to trigger that state - e.g. press thumb and middle finger together; 3 Recall a memory or imagine a situation where you can experience that state - e.g. recall a situation where you were totally calm, relaxed, confident etc; 4 When the experience is vivid and you are in the desired state at the peak of its intensity, squeeze your thumb and middle finger together; 5 Release the anchors when the experience begins to fade; 6 Now do something else - open your eyes, count down from 10 to break the state and distract yourself 7 Repeat the steps above several times, each time trying to make the memory more vivid (not required when the anchor is established at the high point of a real experience, but you can strengthen the anchor by establishing it at the high point of several such experiences); 8 Apply the anchor and check that the required state occurs; Apply the required anchor during the halftime interval to generate the appropriate emotional state 1
'Although you can train your body physically by sheer persistence, it's much harder to train your mind….all this visualisation did not come to me in a flash, I had to work at it, and learn how to use it.'
"Think of the situation or an incident through the eyes and ears of others; and you will soon find better ways of managing similar occurrences. The steps are easy." Have you ever been in a tense situation in a game, or a player made a mistake in a game, been in a difficult situation in a game and wondered how you could have done it better? This tip will help you to look at an incident from different viewpoints. This should help you to find ways of managing similar future situations in a much better way. Consider a single difficult situation that you have been in recently, by thinking about it from three different perspectives: (1) Yourself (the coach). (2) The Player. (3) An Observer (perhaps an Assessor, manager or a spectator). These are called Perceptual Positions. When you explore perceptual positions, you will start to develop an ability to experience interaction in a new way. You will learn to see and to hear, and to feel the relationship through the eyes and the ears and the emotions of the player. You also develop the ab ility to explore the relationship through the eyes and ears of a neutral observer (a fly on the wall, a hidden video camera, a spectator etc). When you add these new dimensions to your current self -assessment, you will learn new ways of behaving that wil l enrich and enhance each and every relationship you have with players. You do this by putting yourself in their shoes, and by asking yourself how you would have felt in the same behavioural situation. Developing Perceptual Positions: Step 1 of 6: History: As you think about a difficult situation or a specific situation in a game or whilst coaching, you begin to remember other times when things did not go quite as well as you would have liked them to. As you mull this over in your mind, you start remembering the interaction (history) in greater detail. Step 2 of 6: Through Your Own Eyes: First, you see the experience through your own eyes, becoming aware of what trouble the player gave you. You hear the experience through your own ears,
listening to what the player is saying, what you are saying out loud, and what you were thinking to yourself at the time. You experience what it is like to be with this player, what you feel about the player, and also about your behaviour during the interaction. Then you freeze the interaction and notice what you have learnt about yourself. It is here, that you can perceive better ways of dealing with the situation, such as; controlling (or hiding) your emotions; better positioning; ways to be stronger or more pol ite, and making your instructions clearer for the listener etc. Step 3 of 6: Through the Player's Eyes: See the experience through the player's eyes, becoming aware of what you look like from his perspective. You hear the experience through the player' s ears, listening to what you are saying. You feel what it is like to be the player, what you feel about yourself from here. Then you freeze the interaction and notice what you have learned about yourself and the player. It is here, that you can imagine what the player thought about you, as you were dealing with him. Would it have worked better if you had been calmer; or had used different words; or perhaps used more authority; or by being more friendlier and polite etc? Did you really need to embarrass him ? These are the questions seen from the player's perspective. Next time this incident happens, you should now be able to temper your approach to eliminate the things that did not originally work. Step 4 of 6: Through the Eyes of an Observer: See the experience through the eyes of an observer who might be neutral. You listen to the coach and the player talking to one another. You become aware of how they have interacted together previously in the game and notice any patterns and repetitions. Then you fr eeze the interaction and perceive what you have learned about yourself (the coach) and the player. Was there a clash of two strong characters? Who was in charge of the situation? Was the situation resolved in a satisfactory way? How was the situation manag ed? Etc. Step 5 of 6: Using the new Perceptions to Improve
As a result of looking at things from a different perspective what will you different?
Motivation to Succeed
Motivation is the key Identifying what do you want to achieve? and why? Being able to keep yourself continually motivated toward your goals on a daily basis is an invaluable skill that once mastered can go a long way to ensuring your success in any pursuit. While motivation is not the be all and end all of success, it‟s an aspect that very little can happen without. In actuality we are all motivated in many ways every day. Even if we are procrastinating and putting off taking action we are motivated, just toward a different end. There are many elements to motivation but in essence, each of us is primarily motivated to taking action in one of two ways. We are either motivated by the thought of moving TOWARD things or by moving AWAY FROM things. Research has proven that the ingredients to motivation are the same whether the task is to get out of bed in the morning or to go for a run at 6am. Regardless of the desired outcome the same forces of motivation either away from things or toward them, are continually at work. While we each exhibit instances of each kind of motivation, most people will tend to favor one over the other. Understanding under which of these categories your athletes are essential to keeping them continually motivated.
“Toward” Motivation some people are motivated by the notion of moving toward things. This group gets excited by the thought of what they might achieve, or the pleasure that will be gained through the attainment of some task in the future. So in the case of sports performance someone who is motivated towards an outcome might be motivated by the prospect of winning a tournament, or getting a contract with a team and being able to buy new car. Basically they move toward the things they want. “Away From” Motivation the other group of people are motivated by the notion of moving away from things are painful or uncomfortable. This group takes action after the consequences of not taking action become too dire and they have to „avoid‟ some negative consequence. In the sports performance it might be the fear of the possible consequences losing a cup final and never getting the opportunity to play it again or not getting that contract and not being able to pay the bills
Most people would agree the hardest muscle to get into shape Is the one “between the ears”. So, think of something you are
Extremely motivated to do and you will find that you just start Doing it. This proves that you do have motivation – the key is to redirect it towards your goals. One way of doing this is by associating training with pleasure rather than with pain – you could ask your athletes: “If you don‟t train, what are the negative consequences? And if you do train what are the positive consequences?” Get your athletes to write a list of the positive and negative consequences of training and not training. By doing this exercise you will underpin reasons for them to carry on. Also, get them to add to the list and revisit their list whenever they feel like skipping a session.
Setting goals is key to success,
1. State your goal in the positive. Think about what you want rather than what you don't want. If you still come up with something negative ask yourself "What do I want instead?"
2. State it in simple terms. If a five year old wouldn't understand it, it may be too complex - unlike some goal setting techniques your goal needs to be brief, simple and specific.
3. State it in the present tense. Make it as if it is happening now. I have, I am, I'm doing...
4. Is it achievable and realistic? Has someone else already achieved this or might they achieve this? Is it realistic for you? Everyone thought that human beings would expire if they ran a mile in less than four minutes - when it was achieved many athletes suddenly started achieving what was previously thought impossible.
5. Set a time. There is some debate about setting a date and some people feel uncomfortable about this. If it is a small goal then do it. If it is a really big goal then I advise that you leave the time for the moment until it starts to look like things are moving.
1) State the goal in positive terms.
Describe the Present Situation and compare it with the desired future goal.
Where are you now? Where do you want to be? What do you want? State it in the positive (what you want to achieve). What are you going toward?
2) Specify the goal in Sensory Based Terms.
What will you see, hear, feel, etc., when you have it? What steps or stages are involved in reaching this goal? Engage all of your senses in this description process to employ more of your brain and nervous system. Have you broken down your goal into small enough chunks so that each is do-able? What are the sizes of the behavioural chunks? Could the size possibly overwhelm you?
3) Specify the goal in a way that you find compelling. Is the goal compelling? Does it pull on you? Make it a compelling future representation that's dissociated (When you see your goal make sure you see yourself having obtained your goal.).
4) Run a Quality Control check on your Goal to make sure it is for you in all areas of your life.
Is the desired goal right for you in all circumstances of your life? Is your goal appropriate in all your personal relationships? What will having your goal give you that you do not now have? What will having your goal cause you to lose? Is your goal achievable? Does it respect your health, relationships, etc?
Run a quality check to make sure that your goal fits every part. Ask, "Are there any parts of me that objects to actualizing this desired goal?" If so, address those unconscious frames of mind. Pay attention to how your whole self responds to the question in terms of images, sounds, words, and sensations within you. 5) Self-initiated and maintained. Is the goal something that you can initiate yourself and maintain? Test your goal by asking if it is something that you have within your power or ability to do.
Is it within your control?
Your goal must be something that you can initiate and maintain. It must not be something dependent on other people. Make sure that your goal reflects things that you can directly affect.
Is it self initiated and maintained?
6) State the Context of the goal.
Where, when, how, with whom, etc. will you get this goal? Is the goal appropriately contextualized?
Test your goal by applying it to a context: when, where, with who, etc. to make sure that it is going to be fitting and appropriate. Readjust your goal to make sure that it fits. 7) State the Resources needed to achieve the goal.
What resources will you need in order to get this goal? Who will you have to become?
Who else has achieved this goal? Have you ever had or done this before? Do you know anyone who has? What prevents you from moving toward it and attaining it now?
8) Evidence Procedure.
How will you know that your goal has been realized? What will let you know that you have attained that desired state?
MAKING GOALS SMART
- Simple as possible
- Specific as possible
- Meaningful to you - Measurable, so that you know when you‟ve gotten it! see/hear/feel when you have it? - More than one way to achieve outcome What will you
- Achievable – make it a stretch, but not impossible - As if now ie write the goals in the present tense (eg 31/12/10 – I have scored 20 goals this year and played 30 first team matches.)
- Realistic – use your own definition of realistic, but watch for selling yourself short - Responsible – make sure it’s in line with your values and those of other people involved. (The more it’s in line with, or at least not against, others, the less resistance there will be). - Right for you? Is it worth the effort, time and money? Is it in keeping with you sense of self? Does it increase choice? - Retains the positive by-products (if any) of existing situation
- Timed – set a time frame by when it shall be
- Towards – state the goal towards what you want, rather than away from what you don’t want
It has been established by psychologists and neuroscientists that every person in the world carries on an ongoing dialog, or self-talk, of between 150 and 300 words a minute. This works out to between 45,000 and 51,000 thoughts a day. Most of out self-talk is harmless thoughts that serve our daily activities like, "I need to stop at the shop to pick up some milk." The danger is when inner dialogue takes on a negative connotation such as, "I'll never be as good a footballer as he/she is," "I don't have the mental toughness to compete at this level," or "I'll never be able to kick the ball with both feet." The ongoing negative reinforcement created by habitual negative self-talk results in the creation of a limiting belief(s) that goes on to become selffulfilling prophecy Your parents,coaches, family, teachers, friends have such an affect on you that their words can become buried in your brain and phrases echo around your head. Sometimes you hear your parent‟s comments in a situation you've experienced before only this time you're telling yourself the same thing! If you hear the same negative comments too often you may believe them and tell yourself what others think is true
For a relationship to flourish its necessary for the ratio of positive-to-negative comments be at least five to one for a relationship to be healthy and survive long-term. For these reasons, we‟re taught not to let others put us down, particularly were coaching is concerned Our self talk, or the words our inner dialogue uses when we think, can increase our stress levels, limit our potential, and can influence our outlook on an experience. Can almost become a self fulfilled prophecy Language can be influential
If you‟ve been told that a difficult person is to be on the same team , you will probably perceive that person as more frustrating than if you‟ve been told they‟re „particular‟ or „somewhat demanding‟
Limited by our vocabulary If you say “I can‟t do this” or “This is not for me” “I don‟t deserve it”, you more likely can‟t. This is because your subconscious mind tends to believe the thoughts it hears. You can limit your abilities by telling yourself you “can‟t”, that “this is too hard” or that you “shouldn‟t even try”.
Seligman analyzed the explanatory styles of sports teams and found that the more optimistic teams created more positive synergy and performed better than the pessimistic ones
Even sports people such as Michael Jordan didn‟t make the high school basketball team, told he wasn‟t good enough, went on to become one of the greatest athletes of all time
Techniques to break negative states and strategies for positive self talk
Thought-Stopping: As you notice yourself saying something negative in your mind, you can stop your thought mid-stream my saying to yourself “Stop”. Saying this aloud will be more powerful, and having to say it aloud will make you more aware of how many times you are stopping negative thoughts, and where.
Rubber-Band Snap: Another therapeutic trick is to walk around with a rubber band around your wrist; as you notice negative self-talk, pull the band away from your skin and let it snap back. It‟ll hurt a little, and serve as a slightly negative consequence that will both make you more aware of your thoughts, and help to stop them! (Or, if you don‟t want to subject yourself to walking around with a rubber band on your wrist, you‟ll be even more careful to limit the negative thoughts!)
1. Describe a situation in which you often tend to think/talk negatively to yourself.
2. Identify the negative statement you say to yourself.
3. Identify words or thoughts you can use to help you stop the negative thought.
4. List positive, beneficial statements you can use to replace your negative, harmful thoughts. These should be meaningful to you Positive language
They may forget what you said, but they will never forget how you made them feel Carl W. Buechner Inevitably, every coach will hunger for the right words when trying to communicate with his team, especially in certain situations. Whether the situation is before a big game, after a loss, while overcoming adversity, or otherwise, articulating the right idea in words can be most important in the ongoing drive for success. There is always a need for saying the right thing at the right time
The main reason for giving a positive instruction is the mind does not understand a negative instruction I.e. if I say to you don‟t think of the colour black, What do you think of? The very thing you were asked you not to do! By using the principle of using positive instruction Stating what you want rather than what you don‟t want can have a powerful positive effect on the mind, but many coaches still tell players what they don‟t want, producing negative thoughts. When you shoot don‟t miss the target might be the instruction from the coach to player, but would it not be better to instruct the player when he shoots to hit the target? Phrases such as „don‟t foul‟, „don‟t lose the ball‟, „and don‟t lose the game‟ can all be replaced by more positive instructions Communication exercise List 5 negative instructions you say to yourself
And replace them with a positive instruction
For example as a coach you might make a tactical error during a game, and say to yourself you idiot you always get that wrong Are more favourable instruction might be how can I learn from this and improve the situation Focus on the outcome you want Negative instruction 1: 2: 3: 4: 5:
Positive instruction 1: 2: 3: 4: 5:
Watch your thoughts; they become words. Watch your words; they become actions. Watch your actions; they become habits. Watch your habits; they become character. Watch your character; it becomes your destiny. Author Unknown
List 5 negative instructions you give to your performers or clients
And replace them with a positive instruction
For example in football the coach may say don‟t lose the ball to one of his players Are more favourable instruction might be keep possession Focus on the outcome you want Negative instruction 1: 2: 3: 4: 5:
Positive instruction 1: 2: 3: 4: 5:
New behaviour generator
If you have a athlete who is struggling to perform a techniques , struggling with confidence, or generally stay motivated, this NLP technique can be effective and is a quick and easy way of building a strong motivation for a desired behaviour. It is also more likely to produce a lasting change with your athlete. 1. Identify an technique or resource such as confidence you‟d like your athlete to do or have – one that your Athlete understands is an important part of their training Schedule, but doesn‟t necessarily enjoy. It could be going for a Passing a ball, being more confident, or developing a skill. 2. Ask your athlete to imagine a time when they successfully Completed the technique or were supremely confident and ask them to recreate the positive Feelings they received from it. Now ask them to go back into The experience, ask them what they felt, saw, heard and what Was it like? 3. Ask your athlete to imagine themselves in the future having just completed the technique successfully, and then to look at themselves
after actually doing it. Get them to notice the benefits of having done it right now, and to think about the results that will arise from it. 4. Then, ask your athlete to think of themselves doing the Technique or skill in the future easily and enjoyably. Every time they think of the technique or skill, they get a good feeling of anticipation, and hear positive and encouraging internal voices. Ask them to see how good that “future you” feels about the progress they‟re making, then see them having a sense of joy and pleasure at having successfully completed the technique or skill and enjoying the benefits. 5. Ask your client whether they are happy with the change. If yes repeat steps 3 and 4, fine-tuning the benefits. 6. Identify when your athlete is next going to do the Technique in a game , and get them to imagine themselves doing it, easily and enjoyably. By doing this process you can assist your athlete to alter their perspective on difficult exercises in their training schedule and limiting beliefs which could be stunting their progress towards their performance goals.
Stress Management and Relaxation
One mental skill that often is fundamental to developing further mental skills in sport lies in the area of stress management. This includes facets of emotional control. Participation in sport can lead to a number of different emotional responses. One common response is the feeling of anxiety. Some athletes are aware when they feel stressed, feeling a rapid heartbeat, having butterflies in their stomach, and sweaty palms, while others are unaware of these signs. The first key to stress management/relaxation training is to help the athletes identify their emotional responses to stress.
Once they learn how they react to stress, they are prepared to regulate their emotion for optimal performance. When athletes learn how they typically respond to stress, they are better prepared to intervene proactively to reduce the effect stress may have on performance. This is often accomplished by teaching athletes various stress management techniques. The purpose of these stress management techniques is focused on educating the athlete to learn three things: Teaching the athlete to control their mental-emotional states associated with athletic performance; Helping them learn which emotional state are associated with superior performances, and then finally learning how to program future responses for performance.
The educational stage involves the use of various relaxation techniques. This can involve progressive relaxation, breath control, meditation, or imagery. All of which are designed to help an athlete learn to notice signs of tension within the muscle. Another area related to this topic is the teaching of excitation techniques, methods designed to help athletes bring out activating emotions for improved performance. Several methods can be taught to help accomplish this goal. These techniques include the use of cue words, or a phrase to remind athletes of the importance of the situation, or the importance of the practice. Imagery can also be used, imaging that you are about to perform in major competition.
Why the emphasis on getting the athlete into an optimal emotional state? Many sport psychology professionals believe that the odds of an athlete performing their best is greater when they are in this state than when they are not (Robazza, Bortoli, Zadro, & Nougier, 1998). Through observation, interviews and assessment, a sport psychology professional can identify an athletes optimal emotional state, then teach the athlete how to recreate this state during performance. Many of us dream of one day improving our golf swing, having a better backhand on the tennis court or beating a personal best time during a run. Training and practice can achieve this, but hypnotherapy could also be used to help us reach our goals and make us better at our chosen sport. Hypnosis techniques have long been used by golfing professionals but the therapy has become more popular in other sports including football, rowing, boxing and cricket. Sports men and women are increasingly aware of the benefits hypnosis can bring to improving their performance alongside other methods such as sports psychology The use of hypnosis with athletes is well-represented in the literature No other sports person than Tiger Woods displays the brilliance of Hypnotherapy. Tiger Woods has acknowledged the fact he uses hypnotherapy, to claim his mind and improve his focus every game he plays. Visualisation techniques in hypnotherapy can do just that, it helps a player go over the strokes in their mind, correct their technique. Keep calm as anxiety and nervousness creeps in before a game
Wash Away Stress
Stress release technique
As you begin to really enjoy this wonderful, relaxing feeling - I wonder if you'd like to discover a way of washing away all your stress and tension that you've been experiencing
I want you to imagine yourself on a lovely secluded beach - and it's a warm summers day the sun is shining down on you and it makes you feel good - it helps you to feel even more relaxed - and you can hear the sound of the waves and perhaps the call of a bird far away, the smell of the ocean.
And as you visualize this scene - perhaps you can find a particular memory that springs to mind - from your childhood days of a trip or a holiday to the seaside?
Can you think of a time you were really relaxed? Perhaps you can remember sitting down on the soft warm sand, with a cool drink quenching your thirst, lying on a towel on the golden sand staring at the crystal blue ocean. The waves breaking, sky is blue. you feel totally relaxed.
You can hear relaxing music in the distance, the sound of children laughing and having fun.
Imagine yourself with a bucket and spade on this lovely beach - make this image real - be aware of the smell of the fresh salt sea air - the warmth of the sun on your skin - the feel of the soft golden sand beneath your bare feet - the sound of the waves as they gently splash - and perhaps even a gentle breeze on your skin and your hair.
Notice the sunlight glistening here and there on the sea - like millions of diamonds sparkling alluringly - palm trees with single, un-branching trunks topped with a tuft of fan-like or feather-like leaves - and whatever else comes into your mind - right now.
And all those stresses and worries and cares can go into the bucket - with the sand - just pile it all in - maybe there are problems at work/school/home? Put those problems into the bucket - you really don't need them here.
Or maybe you have worries about a particular relationship in your life? If so - Put those worries into the bucket - and know that whatever will be - will be. And when one door closes another one invariably opens.
Perhaps you've been concerned about money or other material issues? In this peaceful place that you have created - materialistic issues just aren't important to you so pile them all into the bucket.
And when the bucket is full - turn it over and make your first sandcastle - here in hypnosis hitting all your cares and worries and problems - together with the sand - to make your first mound.
When the bucket is empty you can consider any other problems that you may have in your life. If there are problems with family, other relatives, friends or anyone else that you know - put those problems into the bucket. You really don't need to be stressed any more.
I'm going to be quiet for a few moments and I want you to go through any negative influences in your life and spade them all - every one of them - into the bucket - and when the bucket is full - make another mound to become part of your sandcastle.
And when you're finished - I want you to stand up and take a really good look at what you have created. All these problems seem so insignificant compared to the vast beach and sea and the sky. You really don't need to feel stressed any more - in any way.
Now - imagine yourself as a bird - flying up in the sky - looking down on the sandcastles that you've built and noticing how much smaller they now are.
As you look down at this birds eye view - a huge wave suddenly washes over the sand - and your sandcastle is gone - taking away all your worries and cares - and the sea becomes calm once again. Hear the sound of those now gentle waves - splashing easily and lazily - back and forth - to and fro - so soothing - so calming - so relaxing - and you take into yourself this soothing - calming - relaxing feeling.
An amazing thing happens to you - you find all those problems that were once on your mind are no longer there. They seem smaller - less significant - less bothersome - and suddenly you begin to see this in proportion - as they really are.
Experience this feeling of calmness now - enjoy it - memorize it - and in a moment or two when I count you up out of hypnosis - you can bring back with you those wonderful feelings and keep them with you - remembering them whenever you need to - whenever you want to.
I'm going to count up from one to five and at the count of five you will be fully alert and refreshed - you will have wonderful feelings flowing through your body - calm and peaceful thoughts flowing through your mind - and these lovely calm and peaceful thoughts and feelings are going to remain and stay with you.
So - when you're ready - one - two - three - coming slowly back - four - eyelids beginning to flutter and five - eyes open - wide awake - refreshed and alert - mind and body returning to normality.
COMMUNICATION REP SYSTEMS
Preferred Representational Systems
The VAK learning Style uses the three main sensory receivers - Vision, Auditory, and Kinaesthetic (movement and tactile or touch) to determine the dominate learning style. Learners use all three to receive information. However, one or more of these receiving styles are normally dominant. This dominant style defines the best way for a person to learn new information by filtering what is to be learned. This style may not always to be the same for some tasks. The learner may prefer one style of learning for one task, and a combination of others for another task. We use all of our senses and depending on the circumstances may focus on one or more of them - when listening to a favourite piece of music, we may close our eyes to more fully listen and to experience certain feelings. Each of us has preferred representational systems. For example, when learning something new, some of us may prefer to see it or imagine it performed, others need to hear how to do it, others need to get a feeling for it, and yet others have to make sense of it. In general, one system is not better than another. However, depending on the context, one or more of the representational systems may be more effective: landscape painters - visual, musicians - auditory tonal, athletes -- kinaesthetic and mathematicians -- auditory digital. People at the top of their profession typically have the ability to use all of the representational systems and to choose the one most appropriate for the situation. Depending on your preferred representational system(s), you may exhibit certain behaviours or characteristics. Before exploring these behaviours, please note that depending on what is going on in your life, or the context, you may change your preferred representational system(s). Hence, it is more useful to notice the representational system a person is currently favouring, rather than pigeon-holing a person. The following are generalizations on the characteristics of people with a preference for visual, auditory tonal, kinaesthetic or auditory digital. Remember, with all generalizations, there are always exceptions. Visual People with a visual preference, will tend to:
Be organized, neat and well-groomed. Why? Because they want to look good. And what do they expect from you? Yes, the same thing! Use visualization for memory and decision making - often getting insights about something. Be more imaginative and may have difficulty putting their ideas in words. Speak faster than the general population. Why? Because they have a picture(s) in their mind and if it is a moving picture, there is a lot to tell in so little time! Famous visual people include scientist such as Einstein and Picasso
Auditory Tonal People with an auditory tonal preference, will tend to:
Perceive and represent sequences and are able to remember directions or instructions more easily. Learn by listening and asking questions. be easily distracted by noise. Famous auditory people include song writers like Mozart, the Beatles, Paul Simon
Kinaesthetic People with a kinaesthetic preference, will tend to:
Speak slower than the general population. Why? Because they need time to get in touch with how they feel about the topic. be more sensitive to their bodies and their feelings and respond to physical rewards and touching. Learn by doing, moving or touching. Famous Kinaesthetic people include Jimmy Connors, Jack Nicklaus and Chris Evert
Canterbury Crusaders' coach, Robbie Deans, said he tried to expose the team to as many different forms of learning
as possible. People learn in different ways and "as a coach you give yourself the best chance if you recognise that". As Crusaders coach he has won more Super rugby titles than any other coach (three Super 12 titles and one Super 14 People learn in different ways and "as a coach you give yourself the best chance if you recognise that". Deans said after determining the different learning styles, he tried to adjust how he communicated with certain players
COMPLETE QUESTIONAIRE AND DO WITH TEAM
VAK learning preferences questionnaire
This questionnaire will help you to get a clearer picture or better sounding or let you get in touch with your sensory representation preference and can help you understand how you learn, how you think, and how you communicate. Answer the 10 questions below as spontaneously as you can and put a 1 in the box next to each answer you have chosen. When you have answered all 10 fill up the scorecard below
1 When you contact people, do you prefer?
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a. Face-to-face meetings? b. Talking on the telephone? C. Getting together to share an activity (walking, golf etc.)?
2 What do you notice most about people? a. How they stand or move? b. How they look or dress? c. How they sound when they talk?
3 How do you learn most easily? a. Get verbal instructions? b. See someone to demonstrate what to do? c. Get hands-on experience? When you are angry, do you: a. Go very quiet and perhaps seethe inwardly? b. Shout and let everyone know about it? c. clench your fists, grit your teeth, storm off? In conversation, do you:
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a. Use a lot of gestures? b. Enjoy listening but get impatient to talk? c. dislike either talking or listening for too long? When you have many things to do, do you tend to: a. Make lists for yourself or imagine doing them? b. Keep reminding yourself that you have things to do? c. Feel uncomfortable until all or most of the things are done?
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When you are reading, do you: a. Prefer action stories, or tend not to read much? b. Enjoy descriptive passages, imagine scenes clearly? c. Enjoy dialogue, hear characters speaking? How is your memory? Do you tend to: a. Remember names, words and numbers? b. Forget names but remember faces? c. Remember best the things you’ve done? When you have leisure time, do you prefer to: a. Watch TV, a video, or go to the movies? b. Do something physical or athletic? c. Listen to music, radio, or read books? What would make you suspect that someone was lying to you? a. The way they look or avoid looking at you? b. Their tone of voice? c. A feeling you get about their sincerity?
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Col 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 a b b a c a b b b c a b b b c a Col 2 c a c c a c a c Col 3
9 10 Total
Interpreting your score Column 1 contains visual modality answers, Column 2 is auditory, and Column 3 kinaesthetic. The column with the highest score will indicate your preferred representational system
© Copyright all content belongs to the author and cannot be reproduced with consent
Disclaimer: The author has no responsibility for the implementation of any of the techniques or material used within this literature
Jim Petruzzi is a performance coach, specializing in sports science and sports psychology, who works with several professional football clubs and international teams References 1. J Counselling Psych 1967; 31:248-52 2. European J Social Psych 1970; 1:385-402 3. RL Birdwhistle (1970) Kinesics and Context, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania 4. J Curriculum Studies 1985; 18:197-209