Careers in Math

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					 Career Prospects for
Mathematics Graduates


  A/P David Panton
          Summary of Presentation

• Graduate Capabilities and Employer Objectives

• Graduate program differentiation

• The job market

• What does a mathematics graduate do?

• Supply market factors and why we are not delivering

• What can be done?
           Graduate Capabilities
          and Employer Objectives
• Problem solving skills

• Modelling skills

• Knowledge in key areas of mathematics

• IT capable

• Ability to collect and analyse data

• Understand solution boundaries and applicability

• Mathematical communication skills
        Degree Differentiation


• Pure vs Applied

• Generic vs vocational

• “Industry” affiliation

• The IT influence
Why do we need Mathematics
     Graduates?

        The reluctance of young people
        to study science and maths
        has the potential to become a
        dragging anchor to economic
        growth in SA




        It would be wrong to make
        science or mathematics
        compulsory… what is needed
        is for leading business and
        scientific figures to advocate the
        virtues of science …..
            The Job Market
• Banking, Insurance, Finance, Investment,
  Electricity Market
• Transport (Rail, Air, Road, Sea)
• Mining Oil and Gas
• Agriculture (Forestry, Fisheries etc)
• Health and Medical Research
• Environmental Agencies
• Defence organisations (DSTO, BAE
  Systems, Tenix, ASC, etc)
• Government (State and Federal)
• Teaching at all levels
• Research laboratories (e.g. CSIRO)
• University based Research
Yes but what does a
Mathematics Graduate
    actually do?
             What does a Mathematics
                  Graduate do?
• Collect and analyse data
   • Experimental design
   • Statistical analysis
   • Data modelling
   • Data mining
   (Health, Agriculture, Mining and Energy, Government etc)


• Mathematical modelling
   • Continuous (e.g. differential equations)
   • Discrete (e.g. time stage models)
   • Numerical (e.g. when dealing with data)
   • Simulation when dealing with complex systems
   (Transport, Defence, Mining, Environmental, etc)
           What does a Mathematics
             Graduate do?
• Discrete Optimisation modelling and solutions
    • Model generation
    • Computer implementation
    • Solution analysis
    (Transport, Mining, Defence, Agriculture,
      Environmental, Manufacturing, Service, etc)


•   Biostatistics
    • Data analysis
    • Clinical trials
    • Epidemiological studies
    (Health, Government, etc)
          What does a Mathematics
            Graduate do?

• Financial modelling
   • Pricing and portfolio risk management
   • Structural equation and choice modelling
   • Volatility, risk, pricing and arbitrage assessment
   • Time series analysis (stock market trends)
   • Loss reserve modelling
   • Investment planning and modelling
   (All areas of Business, Finance, Banking, Investment and
     Insurance)

   All of these activities must be supported by good
     computing and communication skills
         Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates at year 12
•   Mathematics participation trends
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
      Demographic Realities




• Population declines

  South Australia has Australia's lowest
  birth rate, the oldest population and
  continues to lose residents to other
  states, according to new figures
  released yesterday...

  16 Feb 06
       Adelaide and SA Population
              Trends
                               At June 2051
City/State   At June    A          B           C
               2002
Melbourne     3.5 M    5.56M      4.79M       4.37M

Victoria      4.87     6.97       6.20        5.85

Brisbane      1.69     3.78       3.02        2.48

Queensland    3.71     8.09       6.43        5.17

Adelaide      1.11     1.24       1.14        1.10

 SA           1.52     1.62       1.48        1.43
          Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Mathematics participation trends
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
                        Decreasing Yr 12 cohort


                Students completing the SACE, actual and projected to 2020

               12,000

               11,500


               11,000
No. students




                              Actual         Projected

               10,500

               10,000


                9,500

                9,000
                         00            05         10           15            20

                                              Year
                           Apparent Retention Rates

                     Apparent retention Rates for full time
                       students from year 10 to year 12

                    85.0
Percent retention                                               NSW
                    80.0
                                                                Vic
                    75.0
                                                                Qld
                    70.0
                                                                SA
                    65.0                                        WA
                    60.0
                           1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
                                         Year
         Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Mathematics participation trends
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
              Student EFTSU Trends 89-02
                 (Tertiary Enrolments)


35000
                                              Mathematical Sciences
30000
25000
                                              Physical/Material
20000                                         Sciences
15000                                         Biological Sciences
10000
                                              Chemical Sciences
5000
   0                                          Behavioural Sciences
-5000
      89

             93

                    97

                           01

                                  02

                                         c
                                       / de
    19

           19

                  19

                         20

                                20
                                   inc
          Enrolments in Mathematics
               Programs

• Disaggregated data is not available

• Anecdotal evidence however suggests that
  enrolments have been declining steadily in the past
  10 years

• “Regional” areas have fared worse than others
          Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
Teacher Demographics
                          South Australian Data

              Proportion of Government Secondary School
                  Teachers by Age Group, State, 2003


        WA                                                           unknown
                                                                     60 & over
         SA
                                                                     55-59
State




        QLD                                                          50-54
                                                                     45-49
        VIC                                                          40-44
                                                                     35-39
        NSW
                                                                     30-34
                                                                     25-29
              0.0   5.0     10.0      15.0      20.0   25.0   30.0
                                                                     20-24
                                   Proportion
Secondary Teacher Employment
           Growth
          Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
        Teacher Role Models

• How important is the teacher in influencing
  career choices?

• What factors are important in this process?

   – Depth of knowledge
   – Opportunities to gain further knowledge
   – Ability to inspire and encourage
          Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
        Curriculum Influences


• Business - how much influence do they really
  have; should they have?
• Community - ?
• Political – Social inclusion
• Educational bureaucracy
• Universities - is the tail wagging the dog?
         Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
Motivation, self-discipline & work ethic


• Has the student work ethic changed?

• Have student expectations changed?

• A study released in December by University of
  Pennsylvania researchers Angela Duckworth
  and Martin Seligman suggests that the reason
  so many U.S. students are “falling short of
  their intellectual potential” is not “inadequate
  teachers, boring textbooks and large class
  sizes” and the rest of the usual litany cited by
  the so-called reformers - but “their failure to
  exercise self-discipline.”
• “Kids have convinced parents that it is the teacher
  or the system that is the problem, not their own lack
  of effort,” says Dave Roscher, a chemistry teacher
  at T.C. Williams in this Washington suburb. “In my
  day, parents didn't listen when kids complained
  about teachers. We are supposed to miraculously
  make kids learn even though they are not working.”



• As my colleague Ed Cannon puts it: “Today, the
  teacher is supposed to be responsible for motivating
  the kid. If they don't learn it is supposed to be our
  problem, not theirs.”
            Cultural Influences

To what extent are cultural influences important?

  In a recent study by Terry Lyons at UNE it was
  found that

“It was decidedly NOT the case that science
proficient students choosing physics and chemistry
courses, or indeed other science courses, describe a
more, or less, attractive picture of their school
science experiences than did those choosing not to
continue science study.”
          Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
         Where are the Guys?


• High achievement statistics

• Is this the tip of the iceberg?

• To what extent is this influencing Mathematics
  and Science enrolments?
          Supply Market Factors


•   Demographic data
•   Participation rates in year 12
•   Teaching workforce
•   Teacher Role Models
•   Curriculum influences
•   Student work ethic and cultural attitudes
•   Male vs Female
•   Student self belief
          Student Self Belief


Conjecture ………….

That students have a good sense of how well
  prepared they are (putting aside their latent
  interest) and will not want to take on this
  “challenge” if they don’t feel confident of their
  abilities ………….
          What can be done?

• The Teacher training issue

• Community awareness

• Business and Industry involvement

• Cultural attitudes

• Focus on literacy and numeracy and the reduction
  of choice
THE END