BERKS CAREER TECHNOLOGY CENTER by xjw19747

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									BERKS CAREER & TECHNOLOGY CENTER




   Developing an
Informational Essay
   From a Set of
    Instructions
           Developing an Informational Essay from a Set of Instructions

1. Have students brainstorm the steps for a procedure and number them in order.
   Write in complete sentences and begin each sentence with an action verb.

2. Tell them to add safety precautions before the appropriate step.

3. Ask students to include necessary explanations after the appropriate steps.

4. Divide the steps into logical paragraph segments. (They should be able to identify
   a logical topic for each segment.) This will be the material for the body of the
   essay. All that is needed now is to add instruction and conclude paragraphs and
   tie them all together with transitions.

5. Instruct students to brainstorm for the introduction paragraph that includes a lead
   in, background information or the purpose of the procedure and an essay map.
   (The essay map will include the topic of each body paragraph.)

6. Instruct students to brainstorm for the concluding paragraph that begins with a
   transition word and describes the finished product or the result of a job well done.
   Remind them to refer back to information in the introduction paragraph to bring
   the essay full circle and provide unity.

7. The students can then put the essay together; instruction, body paragraphs, and
   conclusion. The numbers for the directions will be replaced with transition
   words. The body paragraphs will begin with a topic sentence that starts with a
   transition word.

8.   Tell students to give the essay a title.

9. Students should proofread the essay and hand it in.
          Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Informational Essay Assignment




14.11 B        Write complex informational pieces (e.g., research papers, analyses,
               evolutions, essays).

1.5.11A        Write with a sharp, distinct focus
                   Identify topic, task and audience.
                   Establish and maintain a single point of view

1.5.11B        Write using well-developed content appropriate of the topic.
                   Gather, determine validity and reliability of, analyze and organize
                      information.
                   Employ the most effective format for purpose and audience
                   Write fully developed paragraphs that have details and information
                      specific to the topic and relevant to the focus.

1.5.11C        Write with controlled and/or subtle organization.
                   Sustain a logical order throughout the piece.
                   Include an effective introduction and conclusion

1.5.11D        Write with a command of the stylistic aspects of composition.
                   Use different types and lengths of sentences.
                   Use precise language.

1.5.11E        Revise writing to improve style, word choice, sentence variety and
               subtlety of meaning after rethinking how questions of purpose, audience
               and genre have been addressed.

1.5.11F        Edit writing using the conventions of language.
                   Spell all words correctly.
                   Use capital letters correctly.
                   Punctuate correctly.
                   Use nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions,
                      prepositions and interjections properly.
                   Use complete sentences
                              DIRECTIONS
 You will have 60 minutes to plan, write, and proofread your response, making any
 necessary corrections.

 Planning:                                          Writing:
 • Think about what you want to write.              • Write your essay on the paper your
                                                       Teacher gives you
 •   Reread the prompt to make sure you are
     writing about the topic.                       •   Proof read your essay and make
                                                        necessary corrections.
 •   Make notes. Use your previewing skills,
     such as mapping or outlining.

 •   Carefully read the five statements below the
     prompt. Each statement refers to one of the
     score able domains: focus, content,
     organization, style and conventions.

                    Read the Entire Prompt Carefully.

                                     Prompt (sample)

We have spent this year learning about troubleshooting techniques, computer components,
and research skills. Many times an increased level of knowledge and experience in a
particular subject area can change your approach to doing things. How has this class made
an impact on the way you use computer technology? Write to inform your teacher how this
class has changed your use of computers today and how it will effect your future.


Follow these guidelines as your draft and write:
    Tell what things you learned in this class that have changed the way you use
      computer technology today, and how it will impact your future.
    Include enough information, details and examples so that your instructor will
      understand what prompted those changes.
    Present your ideas in a clear and logical order, including an introduction, body, and
      conclusion.
    Use a variety of words and well-constructed sentences.
    Correct any errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and usage.


Proofread your essay and make necessary corrections.
               Graphic Organizer




Introduction




Body




Conclusion
               States the thesis or main idea grabs attention - question,
               story, startling fact, etc. Sets the scene or provides
               background information describes the problem or conflict.
Introduction
               States the issue




               Should be a separate paragraph for each example, reason,
               event, etc.




               Paragraphs should be linked with transitions

Body




               Each paragraph should include details to support each
               example, reason, event, etc.




               Restates the theses or main idea in other words
               Resolves the conflict. Draws a conclusion.
               Includes a personal reflection or observation.
Conclusion
               Includes a call to action.
               Sums up earlier arguments or points.
               Sample Graphic Organizer for an
                  INFORMATION PAPER


                   Lead in
                   Background information or purpose/advantage of the
                   procedure
Introduction
                   Essay map (How the procedure is broken up into 3 topics
                   or phrases)




                   Transition and topic sentence #1 steps for this topic with
                   appropriate explanations and safety precautions




                   Transition and top sentence #2 Steps for this topic with
                   appropriate explanations and safety precautions
Body




                   Transition and topic sentence # 3 Steps for this topic with
                   appropriate explanations and safety precautions.




                   Describe the results of a job well done. Give additional
                   suggestions refer again to information in the introduction
Conclusion
               5-Paragraph Informational Essay
                  Power and Transportation
                     Replacing Disc Pads


                   Lead in
                   Background information - Tell when to replace brake pads.
                   Thesis or essay map – (The procedure for replacing disc
Introduction
                   brake pads involves prep work, removing the worn pads
                   and installing new ones.)




                   Transition
                   Provide instructions for prep work.




                   Transition
                   Provide instructions for removing the old pads.
Body




                   Transition
                   Provide instructions for installing the new pads.




                   Wrap it up and take the vehicle for a test drive. Describe
                   the results of a job well done. Make a reference to
                   information I the introduction.
Conclusion
                                Replacing Disc Brake Pads

        Even though your brakes are professionally inspected yearly, it doesn’t mean that
they will make it through to the next inspection. Your brakes may be worn if you hear a
squealing noise. This noise may possibly be coming from a device on the disc brake
called the wear indicator or may be coming from the backing plate. If the noise is coming
from these you will need to put new brakes on your vehicle. Also you may need a new
rotor.

       You are going to need some tools to complete the job such as the ones listed
below:
Twin Post Lift/Jack and Jack Stands
Impact Gun
Impact Sockets
Torque sticks
Wire
Brake Micrometer
Dial indicator
Pad spreader/’C’ clamps
Aspirator
Torque wrench

       You are now ready to pull the vehicle on to the lift. Before you lift the car open
the hood and use the aspirator to suck out half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder,
so when you compress the piston in the brake caliper there won’t be any overflow from
the master cylinder. Now lift the vehicle into the air to the height of your preference.
Then take off the wheels using the impact gun and the proper impact socket.

        Use a ratchet and the proper socket to remove the caliper mounting bolts. Remove
the caliper from the rotor and take out the brake pads. Then hang up the caliper with
some wire. Check the brake lines for dry rot, cracks, or any kind of leaks in the brake
lines and caliper. Also check for torn dust boots and worn out seals on the caliper. Using
the dial indicator check the rotor for run-out. Also check the rotors thickness and grooves
using the brake micrometer. After that, compress the pistons using the brake pad spreader
or “C” clamp.

        Now you are ready to install your brake pads on the caliper. Before you put the
caliper back on the rotor you must clean the rotor with brake cleaner. After that you will
need to torque the caliper mounting bolts to its specifications with the torque wrench.
Then replace the wheels using the impact gun and the proper torque stick.

        Now lower the vehicle and add brake fluid if needed. Pump the brake pedal to
seat the pads on the rotor. Just to be safe, check the brake fluid again after pumping the
brakes. Finally pull out the vehicle and take it for a test drive. Check for vibrations and
good stopping ability. Listen for squealing or grinding noises. If the test drive goes well
your brake job is finished.
                 The Five Characteristics of Effective Writing

Focus
   1.   Is the thesis or purpose clear?
   2.   Did the writer answer the prompt?
   3.   Did the writer stay with a single point or idea?
   4.   Are the ideas expressed clearly?

Content
  1. Do the information and supporting details concern the topic in the prompt?
  2. Are the writer’s ideas fully developed?

Organization
   1. Are the ideas written in logical order, or sequence?
   2. Are there smooth transitions between paragraphs?
   3. Does the writing have an obvious introduction, body, and conclusion?

Style
   1. Is the wording precise?
   2. Is the writer’s style, voice and tone original?
   3. Is there variety in sentence structure, sentence type, and sentence length?

Conventions
  1. Are there major errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation?
  2. Are there major errors in grammar?
  3. Are thoughts and sentences complete?
  4. Is the tense (past, present, and future) consistent?
                                 Transitions

Words that can be used to SHOW LOCATION:
Above              behind          down                     on top of
Across             below           in back of               onto
Against            beneath         in front of              outside
Along              beside          inside                   over
Among              between         into                     throughout
Around             beyond          near        to the right
Away from          by              off                      under

Words that can be used to SHOW TIME:
About              during          next                    till
After              finally         next week               today
Afterward          first           second                  tomorrow
As soon as         immediately     soon                    until
At                 later           then                    when
Before             meanwhile       third                   yesterday
As a last step     now             last                    meanwhile
In a little while  later that day  the next day            on Saturday

Words that can be used to COMPARE THINGS (show similarities):
Also               in the same way likewise           in addition
Furthermore        similarly       moreover           other
More               equally

Words that can be used to CONTRAST THINGS (show difference):
Although           even though     on the other hand   still
But                however         otherwise           yet
conversely
Words that can be used to EMPHASIZE A POINT:
Again              in fact            to repeat
For this reason    to emphasize       truly
Mainly             in the first place in the second place
More important most important

Words that can be used to CONCLUDE OR SUMMARIZE:
All in all         finally         in summary    therefore
As a result        in conclusion   last          to sum up

Words that can be used to ADD INFORMATION:
Additionally      and              equally important        in addition
Again             another          finally                  likewise
Along with        as well          for example              moreover
Also              besides          for instance             next
Furthermore       other            more                     too
Larger            even larger      the largest              equally important
more important most important

Words that can be used to CLARIFY:
For instance      in other words       putt another way     that is
                                         Prompt (sample)
We have spent this year learning about troubleshooting techniques, computer components, and
research skills. Many times an increased level of knowledge and experience in a particular subject
area can change your approach to doing things. How has this class made an impact on the way
you use computer technology? Write to inform your teacher how this class has changed your use
of computers today and how it will effect your future.

Focus
4-Sharp,distinct controlling point made about a single topic with evident awareness of task.
3-Apparent point made about a single topic with sufficient awareness of task.
2-No apparent point but evidence of a specific topic or task.
1-Minimal evidence of a topic.
       __________________________________________________________________
       __________________________________________________________________

Content
4-Substantial, specific and/or illustrative content demonstrating strong development and
sophisticated ideas.
3-Sufficiently developed content with adequate elaboration or explanation.
2-Limited content with inadequate elaboration or explanation.
1-Superficial and/or minimal content.
        __________________________________________________________________
        __________________________________________________________________

Organization
4-Sophisticated arrangement of content with evident and/or subtle transitions.
3-Functional arrangement of content that sustains a logical order with some evidence of
transititios.
2-Confused or inconsistent arrangement of content with or without attempts at transition.
1-Minimal control of content arrangement.
          __________________________________________________________________
          __________________________________________________________________

Style
4- Precise, illustrative use of a variety of words and sentence structures to create consistent
writer’s voice and tone appropriate to the audience.
3-Generic use of a variety and sentence structures that may or may not create writer’s voice or
tone appropriate to audience.
2-Limited word choice and control of sentence structures that inhibit voice and tone.
1-Minimal variety in word choice and minimal control of sentence structures.
         __________________________________________________________________
         __________________________________________________________________

Conventions
4-Evident control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation.
3-Sufficient control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation.
2-Limited control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation.
1-Minimal control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation.
        ________________________________________________________________________
        ________________________________________________________________________
           NON-SCORABLE                                             OFF-PROMPT
       Is illegible; i.e., included so many                Is readable but did not respond to prompt
        indecipherable words that no sense can be
        made of the response
0      Is incoherent; i.e., words are legible but
        syntax is so garbled that response makes no
        sense
       Is insufficient; i.e., does not include enough
        to assess domain adequately
       Is blank paper
        FOCUS               CONTENT              ORGANIZATION                    STYLE             CONVENTIONS

    The single          The presence of         The order developed       The choice, use and      The use of
    controlling         ideas developed         and sustained within      arrangement of           grammar,
    point made with     through facts,          and across                words and sentence       mechanics,
    an awareness of     examples,               paragraphs using          structures that create   spelling, usage and
    task(mode)          anecdotes, details,     transitional devices      tone and voice.          sentence
    about a specific    opinions, statistics,   including                                          formations.
    topic.              reasons and/or          introduction and
                        explanations.           conclusions.
    Sharp, distinct     Substantial,            Sophisticated             Precise, illustrative    Evident control of
    controlling         specific and/or         arrangement of            use of a variety of      grammar,

4
    point made          illustrative content    content with evident      words and sentence       mechanics,
    about a single      demonstrating           and/or subtle             structures to create     spelling, usage, and
    topic with          strong development      transitions.              consistent writer’s      sentence formation.
    evident             and sophisticated                                 voice and tone
    awareness of        ideas.                                            appropriate to
    task (mode).                                                          audience.
    Apparent point      Sufficiently            Functional                Generic use of a         Sufficient control
    made about a        developed content       arrangement of            variety of words and     of grammar,

3
    single topic with   with adequate           content that sustains a   sentence structures      mechanics,
    sufficient          elaboration or          logical order with        that may or may not      spelling, usage, and
    awareness of        explanation.            some evidence of          create writer’s voice    sentence formation.
    task (mode).                                transitions.              and tone appropriate
                                                                          to audience.
    No apparent         Limited content         Confused or               Limited word choice      Limited control of
    point but           with inadequate         inconsistent              and control of           grammar,

2
    evidence of a       elaboration or          arrangement of            sentence structures      mechanics,
    specific topic.     explanation.            content with or           that inhibit voice and   spelling, usage, and
                                                without attempts at       tone.                    sentence formation.
                                                transitions.
    Minimal             Superficial and/or      Minimal control of        Minimal variety in       Minimal control of
    evidence of a       minimal content.        content arrangement.      word choice and          grammar,

1
    topic.                                                                minimal control of       mechanics,
                                                                          sentence structures.     spelling, usage, and
                                                                                                   sentence formation.

								
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