BERKS CAREER & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Developing an Informational Essay From a Set of Instructions Developing an Informational Essay from a Set of Instructions 1. Have students brainstorm the steps for a procedure and number them in order. Write in complete sentences and begin each sentence with an action verb. 2. Tell them to add safety precautions before the appropriate step. 3. Ask students to include necessary explanations after the appropriate steps. 4. Divide the steps into logical paragraph segments. (They should be able to identify a logical topic for each segment.) This will be the material for the body of the essay. All that is needed now is to add instruction and conclude paragraphs and tie them all together with transitions. 5. Instruct students to brainstorm for the introduction paragraph that includes a lead in, background information or the purpose of the procedure and an essay map. (The essay map will include the topic of each body paragraph.) 6. Instruct students to brainstorm for the concluding paragraph that begins with a transition word and describes the finished product or the result of a job well done. Remind them to refer back to information in the introduction paragraph to bring the essay full circle and provide unity. 7. The students can then put the essay together; instruction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. The numbers for the directions will be replaced with transition words. The body paragraphs will begin with a topic sentence that starts with a transition word. 8. Tell students to give the essay a title. 9. Students should proofread the essay and hand it in. Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Informational Essay Assignment 14.11 B Write complex informational pieces (e.g., research papers, analyses, evolutions, essays). 1.5.11A Write with a sharp, distinct focus Identify topic, task and audience. Establish and maintain a single point of view 1.5.11B Write using well-developed content appropriate of the topic. Gather, determine validity and reliability of, analyze and organize information. Employ the most effective format for purpose and audience Write fully developed paragraphs that have details and information specific to the topic and relevant to the focus. 1.5.11C Write with controlled and/or subtle organization. Sustain a logical order throughout the piece. Include an effective introduction and conclusion 1.5.11D Write with a command of the stylistic aspects of composition. Use different types and lengths of sentences. Use precise language. 1.5.11E Revise writing to improve style, word choice, sentence variety and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how questions of purpose, audience and genre have been addressed. 1.5.11F Edit writing using the conventions of language. Spell all words correctly. Use capital letters correctly. Punctuate correctly. Use nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions and interjections properly. Use complete sentences DIRECTIONS You will have 60 minutes to plan, write, and proofread your response, making any necessary corrections. Planning: Writing: • Think about what you want to write. • Write your essay on the paper your Teacher gives you • Reread the prompt to make sure you are writing about the topic. • Proof read your essay and make necessary corrections. • Make notes. Use your previewing skills, such as mapping or outlining. • Carefully read the five statements below the prompt. Each statement refers to one of the score able domains: focus, content, organization, style and conventions. Read the Entire Prompt Carefully. Prompt (sample) We have spent this year learning about troubleshooting techniques, computer components, and research skills. Many times an increased level of knowledge and experience in a particular subject area can change your approach to doing things. How has this class made an impact on the way you use computer technology? Write to inform your teacher how this class has changed your use of computers today and how it will effect your future. Follow these guidelines as your draft and write: Tell what things you learned in this class that have changed the way you use computer technology today, and how it will impact your future. Include enough information, details and examples so that your instructor will understand what prompted those changes. Present your ideas in a clear and logical order, including an introduction, body, and conclusion. Use a variety of words and well-constructed sentences. Correct any errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and usage. Proofread your essay and make necessary corrections. Graphic Organizer Introduction Body Conclusion States the thesis or main idea grabs attention - question, story, startling fact, etc. Sets the scene or provides background information describes the problem or conflict. Introduction States the issue Should be a separate paragraph for each example, reason, event, etc. Paragraphs should be linked with transitions Body Each paragraph should include details to support each example, reason, event, etc. Restates the theses or main idea in other words Resolves the conflict. Draws a conclusion. Includes a personal reflection or observation. Conclusion Includes a call to action. Sums up earlier arguments or points. Sample Graphic Organizer for an INFORMATION PAPER Lead in Background information or purpose/advantage of the procedure Introduction Essay map (How the procedure is broken up into 3 topics or phrases) Transition and topic sentence #1 steps for this topic with appropriate explanations and safety precautions Transition and top sentence #2 Steps for this topic with appropriate explanations and safety precautions Body Transition and topic sentence # 3 Steps for this topic with appropriate explanations and safety precautions. Describe the results of a job well done. Give additional suggestions refer again to information in the introduction Conclusion 5-Paragraph Informational Essay Power and Transportation Replacing Disc Pads Lead in Background information - Tell when to replace brake pads. Thesis or essay map – (The procedure for replacing disc Introduction brake pads involves prep work, removing the worn pads and installing new ones.) Transition Provide instructions for prep work. Transition Provide instructions for removing the old pads. Body Transition Provide instructions for installing the new pads. Wrap it up and take the vehicle for a test drive. Describe the results of a job well done. Make a reference to information I the introduction. Conclusion Replacing Disc Brake Pads Even though your brakes are professionally inspected yearly, it doesn’t mean that they will make it through to the next inspection. Your brakes may be worn if you hear a squealing noise. This noise may possibly be coming from a device on the disc brake called the wear indicator or may be coming from the backing plate. If the noise is coming from these you will need to put new brakes on your vehicle. Also you may need a new rotor. You are going to need some tools to complete the job such as the ones listed below: Twin Post Lift/Jack and Jack Stands Impact Gun Impact Sockets Torque sticks Wire Brake Micrometer Dial indicator Pad spreader/’C’ clamps Aspirator Torque wrench You are now ready to pull the vehicle on to the lift. Before you lift the car open the hood and use the aspirator to suck out half of the brake fluid from the master cylinder, so when you compress the piston in the brake caliper there won’t be any overflow from the master cylinder. Now lift the vehicle into the air to the height of your preference. Then take off the wheels using the impact gun and the proper impact socket. Use a ratchet and the proper socket to remove the caliper mounting bolts. Remove the caliper from the rotor and take out the brake pads. Then hang up the caliper with some wire. Check the brake lines for dry rot, cracks, or any kind of leaks in the brake lines and caliper. Also check for torn dust boots and worn out seals on the caliper. Using the dial indicator check the rotor for run-out. Also check the rotors thickness and grooves using the brake micrometer. After that, compress the pistons using the brake pad spreader or “C” clamp. Now you are ready to install your brake pads on the caliper. Before you put the caliper back on the rotor you must clean the rotor with brake cleaner. After that you will need to torque the caliper mounting bolts to its specifications with the torque wrench. Then replace the wheels using the impact gun and the proper torque stick. Now lower the vehicle and add brake fluid if needed. Pump the brake pedal to seat the pads on the rotor. Just to be safe, check the brake fluid again after pumping the brakes. Finally pull out the vehicle and take it for a test drive. Check for vibrations and good stopping ability. Listen for squealing or grinding noises. If the test drive goes well your brake job is finished. The Five Characteristics of Effective Writing Focus 1. Is the thesis or purpose clear? 2. Did the writer answer the prompt? 3. Did the writer stay with a single point or idea? 4. Are the ideas expressed clearly? Content 1. Do the information and supporting details concern the topic in the prompt? 2. Are the writer’s ideas fully developed? Organization 1. Are the ideas written in logical order, or sequence? 2. Are there smooth transitions between paragraphs? 3. Does the writing have an obvious introduction, body, and conclusion? Style 1. Is the wording precise? 2. Is the writer’s style, voice and tone original? 3. Is there variety in sentence structure, sentence type, and sentence length? Conventions 1. Are there major errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation? 2. Are there major errors in grammar? 3. Are thoughts and sentences complete? 4. Is the tense (past, present, and future) consistent? Transitions Words that can be used to SHOW LOCATION: Above behind down on top of Across below in back of onto Against beneath in front of outside Along beside inside over Among between into throughout Around beyond near to the right Away from by off under Words that can be used to SHOW TIME: About during next till After finally next week today Afterward first second tomorrow As soon as immediately soon until At later then when Before meanwhile third yesterday As a last step now last meanwhile In a little while later that day the next day on Saturday Words that can be used to COMPARE THINGS (show similarities): Also in the same way likewise in addition Furthermore similarly moreover other More equally Words that can be used to CONTRAST THINGS (show difference): Although even though on the other hand still But however otherwise yet conversely Words that can be used to EMPHASIZE A POINT: Again in fact to repeat For this reason to emphasize truly Mainly in the first place in the second place More important most important Words that can be used to CONCLUDE OR SUMMARIZE: All in all finally in summary therefore As a result in conclusion last to sum up Words that can be used to ADD INFORMATION: Additionally and equally important in addition Again another finally likewise Along with as well for example moreover Also besides for instance next Furthermore other more too Larger even larger the largest equally important more important most important Words that can be used to CLARIFY: For instance in other words putt another way that is Prompt (sample) We have spent this year learning about troubleshooting techniques, computer components, and research skills. Many times an increased level of knowledge and experience in a particular subject area can change your approach to doing things. How has this class made an impact on the way you use computer technology? Write to inform your teacher how this class has changed your use of computers today and how it will effect your future. Focus 4-Sharp,distinct controlling point made about a single topic with evident awareness of task. 3-Apparent point made about a single topic with sufficient awareness of task. 2-No apparent point but evidence of a specific topic or task. 1-Minimal evidence of a topic. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Content 4-Substantial, specific and/or illustrative content demonstrating strong development and sophisticated ideas. 3-Sufficiently developed content with adequate elaboration or explanation. 2-Limited content with inadequate elaboration or explanation. 1-Superficial and/or minimal content. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Organization 4-Sophisticated arrangement of content with evident and/or subtle transitions. 3-Functional arrangement of content that sustains a logical order with some evidence of transititios. 2-Confused or inconsistent arrangement of content with or without attempts at transition. 1-Minimal control of content arrangement. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Style 4- Precise, illustrative use of a variety of words and sentence structures to create consistent writer’s voice and tone appropriate to the audience. 3-Generic use of a variety and sentence structures that may or may not create writer’s voice or tone appropriate to audience. 2-Limited word choice and control of sentence structures that inhibit voice and tone. 1-Minimal variety in word choice and minimal control of sentence structures. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Conventions 4-Evident control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. 3-Sufficient control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. 2-Limited control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. 1-Minimal control grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ NON-SCORABLE OFF-PROMPT Is illegible; i.e., included so many Is readable but did not respond to prompt indecipherable words that no sense can be made of the response 0 Is incoherent; i.e., words are legible but syntax is so garbled that response makes no sense Is insufficient; i.e., does not include enough to assess domain adequately Is blank paper FOCUS CONTENT ORGANIZATION STYLE CONVENTIONS The single The presence of The order developed The choice, use and The use of controlling ideas developed and sustained within arrangement of grammar, point made with through facts, and across words and sentence mechanics, an awareness of examples, paragraphs using structures that create spelling, usage and task(mode) anecdotes, details, transitional devices tone and voice. sentence about a specific opinions, statistics, including formations. topic. reasons and/or introduction and explanations. conclusions. Sharp, distinct Substantial, Sophisticated Precise, illustrative Evident control of controlling specific and/or arrangement of use of a variety of grammar, 4 point made illustrative content content with evident words and sentence mechanics, about a single demonstrating and/or subtle structures to create spelling, usage, and topic with strong development transitions. consistent writer’s sentence formation. evident and sophisticated voice and tone awareness of ideas. appropriate to task (mode). audience. Apparent point Sufficiently Functional Generic use of a Sufficient control made about a developed content arrangement of variety of words and of grammar, 3 single topic with with adequate content that sustains a sentence structures mechanics, sufficient elaboration or logical order with that may or may not spelling, usage, and awareness of explanation. some evidence of create writer’s voice sentence formation. task (mode). transitions. and tone appropriate to audience. No apparent Limited content Confused or Limited word choice Limited control of point but with inadequate inconsistent and control of grammar, 2 evidence of a elaboration or arrangement of sentence structures mechanics, specific topic. explanation. content with or that inhibit voice and spelling, usage, and without attempts at tone. sentence formation. transitions. Minimal Superficial and/or Minimal control of Minimal variety in Minimal control of evidence of a minimal content. content arrangement. word choice and grammar, 1 topic. minimal control of mechanics, sentence structures. spelling, usage, and sentence formation.
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