Employment report for INRIA's PhDs

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					HUMAN RESOURCES DIRECTION




Employment report
for INRIA's PhDs
Class of 2006




January 2009
                                                    CONTENTS

1!      Survey Summary ............................................................................................................3!

2!      Survey Context ...............................................................................................................3!

3!      Very High Levels of Employment..................................................................................4!

     3.1!   Professions and Industries .......................................................................................4!
     3.2!   PhDs' Job Title/Status ..............................................................................................5!
     3.3!   Breakdown Between Public and Private Sector .......................................................5!
     3.4!   Type of Contract .......................................................................................................6!
       3.4.1.! Type of Contract and Public or Private Sector..................................................... 6!
       3.4.2.! Type of Contract and Academic Career ............................................................... 6!
       3.4.3.! Type of Contract and Country of Work ............................................................... 7!
     3.5!   Academic path and employment ..............................................................................8!
        3.5.1.The degree prior to the PhD ...................................................................................... 8
        3.5.2.Effect of discipline on employment .......................................................................... 8
     3.6!   Employer Companies and Entities............................................................................9!
       3.6.1.! Assignments in France ......................................................................................... 9!
       3.6.2.! Assignments Abroad .......................................................................................... 10!
     3.7!   Equality ...................................................................................................................11!

4!      Job Access and Level of Satisfaction ........................................................................12!

     4.1.!     Job Access .............................................................................................................12!
     4.2.!     Level of Job Satisfaction.........................................................................................12!
     4.3.!     Changing Professional Plans..................................................................................13!

5!      INRIA and the PhDs Today ..........................................................................................13!

     5.1.!     Keeping in Touch....................................................................................................13!
     5.2.!     INRIA's Image Among the PhDs ............................................................................14!

Appendix 1: List of Host Institutions..................................................................................16!

     1.1.!     List of Host Institutions in France............................................................................16!
     1.2.!     List of Host Entities Abroad ....................................................................................18!

Appendix 2: Representativeness of the Survey ................................................................19!

     2.1.!     Employment Data ...................................................................................................19!
     2.2.!     Qualitative Data ......................................................................................................19

Appendix 3: Questionnaire..................................................................................................20

     3.1.      Questionnaire French version ...............................................................................20
     3.2.      Questionnaire English version ...............................................................................24



                                                                  -2-
1 Survey Summary

A few key figures:

           •   99% of the PhDs held a position at the time of the survey

           •   87% of respondents were satisfied with their position

           •   100% of respondents have a positive image of INRIA

           •   96% would recommend that a friend earn a doctorate with INRIA

           •   The employment varies with the academic path:

                     -   More fixed-term contracts among the PhD with a degree in engineering.

                     -   Different positions with the thesis’ field.



In comparison with the survey given to the class of 2005, we note:

           •   More PhDs leaving to go abroad: 33% versus 28% for the class of 2005

           •   Substantially more assignments in the private sector: 30% versus 25%

           •   Slightly more stable contracts: 57% CDIs (permanent contracts) versus 55% for the
               class of 2005




2 Survey Context

       The employment survey on INRIA PhDs is the result of a joint effort between the HR
departments, the network of education through research and the project managers.

         This 2nd edition covers the 280 PhDs who defended a thesis during the 2006 year. During the
first phase of the survey, 77 of them were successfully contacted and answered the survey, for a 28%
rate of return out of the entire group of PhDs. To expand upon this feedback, the project managers
stepped in, helping us to determine the professional situation of 78% of the INRIA PhDs.

         The PhDs were surveyed during the month of February 2008, an average of 18 months after
their thesis defense.




                                                    -3-
3 Very High Levels of Employment

          As we saw with the previous survey, the INRIA PhDs have achieved excellent employment
rates: 99% of them held a position at the time of the survey, meaning that only 2 of the PhDs were
unemployed, one of whom was a stay-at-home mother.
          In comparison, the CEREQ survey entitled "Génération 2004," published in June 20081,
shows that 8% of the PhDs (across all disciplines) and 10% of those in mathematics, the sciences
and technical fields were unemployed 3 years after their thesis.
          The average length of the job search is 2.3 months. Private sector jobs are somewhat quicker
to find: 1.8 months on average, versus 2.5 months in the public sector.


           3.1     Professions and Industries

        A majority of the PhDs are working in schools and universities. This proportion, however, is
down 10 points, having dropped from 50% for 2005 PhDs to 40% for 2006 PhDs. Conversely, the
proportion of positions in private companies is up 7 points, having risen from 22% to 29%. Finally, an
increasing number of PhDs are working in research institutions2: 23% versus 19% for the class of
2005 PhDs.

                                           Researchers         Engineers               Others            N/A*   Total
            Research institution               22                 12                     14                      48     23%
             School / University               38                  3                     41                      82     40%
      Other educational establishment                                                     5                       5      2%
             Other public entity                 3                    6                   3                      12     6%
              Private company                    1                   45                  13                      59     29%
                    N/A*                                              1                   7               2      10
                    Total                        64                  67                  83               2     216

                                                30%              31%                   39%
                                                * N/A: data not available

        Note: as used here, the word 'researcher' includes research specialists and research
professors. The "Others" column includes post-doctoral researchers, teaching and research
assistants (ATER), secondary school teachers and other activities.

                     Comparison of professions between the 2005 and 2006 classes

                                40%                                              39%
                                                                           37%
                                         35%
                                35%
                                                               31%
                                               30%
                                30%                      28%                                 PhDs 2005
                                                                                             PhDs 2006

                                25%


                                20%


                                15%
                                        Researchers      Engineers          Others




1
    See the following links: http://www.cereq.fr/pdf/b248.pdf and http://www.cereq.fr/pdf/b253.pdf.
2
    Public scientific and technological establishment (EPST) or foreign research institution.


                                                            -4-
        3.2    PhDs' Job Title/Status

        31% of the PhDs are practicing the profession of engineer, which represents a 3 point
increase over the class of 2005 PhDs. There has also been a marked increase in the proportion of
research specialists: 13% versus 9% for the class of 2005.

        Inversely, the number of doctors employed as associate professors has fallen from 26% to
17% . This situation does not correspond to a reduction in the total number of research professors, if
we are to believe the memorandum on "teaching staff in higher education 2006-2007" published by
the Ministry of National Education in December 20073. Nonetheless, the number of positions created
dropped between 2006 and 2007. For example, 832 positions for research professors in mathematics
and computer science were created during the period from 2003-2006, for an average of 140
positions per year. In those same disciplines, fewer than 80 positions were created between 2006 and
2007.

        The number of ATERs is also falling among the class of 2006 INRIA PhDs: their proportion
has dropped from 10% to 4% since the previous class. The memorandum from the Ministry of
National Education (see above) does show a reduction in temporary staff for higher education
between 2006 and 2007. However, the number of post-doctoral researchers has increased
substantially between the two classes, up from 23% for the class of 2005 to 28% for the class of
2006.

                             Position/status                 PhDs 2005   PhDs 2006
                               Engineer                        28%          31%
                           Research specialist                  9%         13%
                           Associate professor                 26%         17%
                   ATER (teaching and research assistant)      10%          4%
                       Post-doctoral researcher                23%         28%
                      Secondary-school instructor               4%          3%
                                  Other                                      4%
                                  Total                        100%        100%


        Among the "other" activities listed above, we counted 2 company start-ups, 3 financial
analysts, 2 consultants and 1 CEO (Keeneo), among others.


        3.3 Breakdown Between Public and Private Sector

        30% of the class of 2006 PhDs is working in the private sector. That proportion is higher than
the previous class, of which only 25% work in the private sector.

                                               public         private      N/A*           Total
           Research institution                 47               1                         48
            School / university                 81               1                         82
     Other educational establishment             5                                          5
            Other public entity                 12                                         12
            Private company                                     59                         59
                  N/A*                                                         10          10
                  Total                          145            61             10         216

                                                70%            30%


3
 Memorandum published by the Ministry of National Education in December 2007
See link: http://media.education.gouv.fr/file/2007/55/1/ni0746_21551.pdf.


                                                       -5-
                                                         *N/A: data not available
               3.4 Type of Contract

          57% of the PhDs have a permanent contract (CDI) or are employed as civil servants, which is
2 points higher than the proportion for the class of 2005 PhDs. This rate is relatively high since, for
comparison, the CEREQ survey on the class of 2004 showed that 55% of PhDs in mathematics,
scientific and technical fields had permanent contracts 3 years after their thesis (recall that INRIA
PhDs are surveyed an average of 18 months after their thesis). Once again, it is the private sector
that offers the largest number of stable contracts: 83% of INRIA PhDs working in the private sector
were offered a permanent contract, versus only 50% of those working in the public sector.



                   3.4.1. Type of Contract and Public or Private Sector
         As confirmed by the figures from the Association Bernard Gregory, it is easier to find a stable
job in the private sector4. The 809 respondents to the ABG survey (PhDs who found a stable job
between January 1, 2006 and September 15, 2008) took an average of 12 months to obtain a
permanent contract or position as a civil servant. 59% of the respondents working in the public sector
found a stable job directly without first accepting a temporary contract, in comparison with 70% of the
PhDs working in the private sector. It is worth noting, as the author of the article emphasizes, that
career paths in the public sector are marked by more defined phases: PhD, post-doctoral period,
ATER, etc.
                       Breakdown of PhDs by type of contract and by sector

                      Position                cdi           cdd        Other *      N/A **   Total
                 Research specialist          24              1                               25
                 Associate professor          30              4                       2       36           Public
                      Engineer                 9             9                        3       21     CDI         CDD
                   Post-doctorant                            48                               48     50%          50%
    public




                       ATER                                   7                       1        8
              Secondary-school instructor     6                                               6
                        Other                  1                                               1         private
                    Total public              70             69                       6      145     CDI        CDD
                 Research specialist           2                                               2     83%        17%
                 Associate professor           1                                               1
    private




                      Engineer                34             2                        9       45
                   Post-doctorant                            6                                 6           Total
                        Other                 3                           2          2        7      CDI           CDD
                    Total private             40              8           2          11       61     57%           43%
N/A**                                                         6                       4       10
                         Total                110            83           2          21      216

                                            ** other contract: company founders
                                                    ** N/A: data not available


                   3.4.2. Type of Contract and Academic Career
        PhDs in engineering, however, are no safer from precarious employment. We know the initial
education for approximately 2/3 of INRIA PhDs; among those holding an engineering degree, 53%
were hired with a permanent contract, versus 57% of PhDs without an engineering degree.



4
 Docteur&Co No. 20 / December 2008. "Dossier emploi: l’ABG sort ses chiffres." Evelyne Jardin.
http://www.abg.asso.fr/fichiers/4562/DC20.pdf


                                                              -6-
                                                       With              Without
                                                    engineering        engineering
                                                      degree             degree
                                     CDI               53%                57%
                                     CDD               47%                43%
                               Part of population      35%                65%


         The situation seems somewhat abnormal: in fact, among the panel of PhDs tracked by the
ABG, those with engineering degrees did find a stable contract more quickly than the others. This
situation can be partially explained by another surprising fact:: INRIA PhDs with engineering degrees
are slightly more likely to work in the public sector: 74% versus 72% of PhDs with no engineering
degree.

                                                          public            Private           Total
                     With engineering degree               74%               26%              100%
                    Without engineering degree             72%               28%              100%
                        Unknown degrees                    66%               34%              100%
                              Total                        70%               30%              100%



              3.4.3. Type of Contract and Country of Work
        France is the country where PhDs find it easiest to obtain a permanent contract: as with the
previous class, two thirds of PhDs working in France have a CDI. Conversely, only 38% of those
PhDs working abroad have a permanent contract. Although this proportion is substantially lower than
the observed rate in France, it is much higher than the proportion observed among class of 2005
PhDs (24%). This differential is due in part to the country of work and therefore to local practices.
During the previous study, we observed that 44% of PhDs who left to work abroad were working in
Anglo-Saxon countries, where temporary contracts are particularly common. Only 29% of the class of
2006 is working in that group of countries.

          Breakdown of PhDs by type of contract according to country and business sector

                   Sector                cdi        cdd        Other       N/A*       Total
                   public                56          36                     3          95
 France




                   private               29           5            2         9         45                France
                Total France             85          41            2        12        140             CDI      CDD
                   public                14          33                     3          50             67%      33%
 Abroad




                   private               11           3                     1          15
                    N/A*                              4                                 4
                Total abroad              25         40                     4          69                Abroad
N/A*                                                 2                      5          7              CDI     CDD
                   Total                 110         83            2        21        216             38%      62%
                                           *N/A: data not available




                                                      -7-
         3.5 Academic path and employment

              3.5.1. The degree prior to the PhD

       Doctors with an engineering degree work proportionally more abroad than others. 23% go
abroad versus 37% for the others.
                                    Degree and workplace

                                                         With engineering
                                                                                 Without
                                                              degree
                                          in France            77%                  63%
                                           Abroad               23%                 37%
                                            Total               100%                100%


       The doctors with an engineering degree work more often as research specialist. They are
fewer among the associate professor and fewer among the engineer too.

                                                  Degree and position held

              Position held               Research         Associate        Research       Post-doctoral                     Secondary-
                                                                                                                 ATER
  Doctors                                 specialist       professor        engineer        researcher                     school instructor

   With engineering degree                  16%                14%            27%                32%               7%            5%
  Without engineering degree                10%                22%            31%                31%               2%            3%



        Thus, they work more often in the EPST or abroad research institutions, while the others
doctors work more in the schools and universities.

                                                    Degree and assignment

                                                                              With engineering
                                                                                                       Without
                                                                                   degree
                               EPST / abroad research institutions                  36%                 18%
                                    Schools and universities                        30%                 47%
                                     Private companies                               23%                29%
                          Others (EPIC, other pub. Inst., 2dary sch.)                11%                6%
                                                                                    100%               100%


              3.5.2. Effect of Discipline on Employment

        The industry chosen differs slightly depending on which discipline the thesis was in. PhDs
who were registered in mathematics (section 25 of the CNU), for example, went into research
professor positions 50% of the time (associate professor, ATER or secondary-school instructor). Only
33% of those who completed a thesis in applied mathematics and mathematical applications (section
26 of the CNU) and 23% of those in computer science (section 27) did likewise; these groups opted
mainly for post-doctoral research.

                                                                                                                        Secondary-
                    Position held          Research       Associate     Research Post-doctoral
                                                                                                            ATER           school
Thesis discipline                          specialist     professor     engineer  researcher
                                                                                                                         instructor
        Computer science                      12%              17%          32%             33%               4%            2%
     Applied mathematics and                  8%               25%          33%             25%                             8%
           Mathematics                        8%               23%          31%             15%               23%



                                                                -8-
        3.6 Employer Companies and Entities

       33% of the INRIA PhDs are working abroad. This is a higher proportion than for the class of
2005, where only 28% are working abroad. 40% of PhDs with foreign nationality have a job in France,
and nearly half of them have a stable contract.

                                 Breakdown of PhDs by type of entity in France and abroad

                                                 Type of entity                         No. People % of total % in region
                                EPST (public scientific and technical establishment)        40       19%         29%
                                 EPIC (public industrial establishment)                      8        4%          6%
                                      Other French public entity                             3        1%          2%
                France




                                          School/university                                 39       18%         28%
                                          Private company                                   45       21%         32%
                                  Secondary education establishment                          5        2%          4%
                                             Total France                                  140       67%        100%
                                         Research institution                                8        4%         12%
                                      Other public entity abroad                             1      0,5%          2%
                étranger




                                          Private company                                   13        6%         20%
                                       School/university abroad                             43       20%         66%
                                                 N/A*                                        4        2%           -
                                             Total abroad                                   69       33%        100%
                nd*                                                                          7         -           -
                                                      Total                                216      100%           -



         The majority of the PhDs are working in large-scale entities (more than 1000 employees). The
smallest entities (fewer than 50 employees) are, in ¾ of cases, private start-up type companies
offering computing solutions.



       public 3% 11%                        16%                              48%

                                                                                                          Fewer than 50 employees
                                                                                                          50-100
      private                   23%          3%5%                           56%                           100-1000
                                                                                                          More than 1000


       Total               9%      9%        13%                             50%



                0%                    20%             40%             60%              80%       100%



                3.6.1. Assignments in France

        40 PhDs are working in EPSTs. Of those, 30 have a position at INRIA and 10 with the CNRS.
Of those working in EPICs, we counted 6 PhDs at the CEA, 1 at EDF and 1 at ANDRA.

        Among the assignments at French schools and universities, 71% are at universities and 29%
at engineering schools.

         Geographically, the largest number of INRIA PhDs is in the Parisian region, representing 44%
of all assignments in France. That figure is also 9 points higher than for the class of 2005 PhDs.


                                                                           -9-
            3.6.2. Assignments Abroad

        Most of the PhDs who went abroad looked to Europe, for a total of 41%. America drew 30%
of the PhDs, Asia attracted 16% and finally Africa and the Middle East attracted 13%. The most
popular destination chosen was the United States, for 17% of all assignments abroad.

          66% of the PhDs working abroad work in institutions of higher education, which is very stable
in comparison with the previous class. 22% of them work in companies, and 11% in research
institutions.
                              Destinations of PhDs working abroad

                           Assignment country        No of people     Proportion
                             United States                12             17%
                            United Kingdom                 4             6%
                                 Japan                     4             6%
                                Belgium                    4             6%
                                 Tunisia                   3             4%
                              Netherlands                  3             4%
                                Canada                     3             4%
                                   Chile                   3             4%
                                  Brazil                   3             4%
                                    Italy                  3             4%
                                Vietnam                    2             3%
                                  Spain                    2             3%
                                   Syria                   2             3%
                                   India                   2             3%
                               Switzerland                 2             3%
                                Portugal                   2             3%
                                Norway                     2             3%
                              Luxembourg                   2             3%
                                Germany                    1             1%
                                 Congo                     1             1%
                                  Korea                    1             1%
                                  China                    1             1%
                                  Israel                   1             1%
                                 Austria                   1             1%
                                 Russia                    1             1%
                               Singapore                   1             1%
                                 Ireland                   1             1%
                                   Iran                    1             1%
                               Cameroon                    1             1%
                                   Total                  69            100%



                                                - 10 -
        3.7 Equality

        Women have a slightly easier time than men obtaining a permanent contract. Larger numbers
of them work in France, and they are more likely to hold a position in the public sector.

                              PhDs by gender and type of contract

                        Gender          cdi                cdd           Total
                         Men            57%                43%           100%
                        Women           59%                41%           100%
                         Total          57%                43%           100%


                            PhDs by gender and assignment country

                        Gender         France             Abroad         Total
                         Men            65%                35%           100%
                        Women           76%                24%           100%
                         Total          67%                33%           100%


                              PhDs by gender and business sector

                        Genre           public            private        Total
                         Men             67%               33%           100%
                        Women            88%               12%           100%
                         Total           70%               30%           100%



        Men are far more likely to hold engineering positions: 37% chose this path, versus 12% of the
women. Conversely, women are clearly more attracted to research professor positions: 35% of
women work as associate professors, in comparison with only 15% of the men. Contrary to the
observations made for the previous class, more of the women in the class of 2006 are also obtaining
positions as research specialists.

                                     PhDs' position by gender

                                                  Hommes            Femmes       Total
                     Chargé de recherche            13%               18%         13%
                     Maître de conférences          15%               35%         18%
                           Ingénieur                37%               12%         33%
                        Post-doctorant              30%               26%         29%
                             ATER                    4%                6%          4%
                    Enseignant du 2d degré           3%                3%          3%
                             Total                 100%              100%        100%




                                                 - 11 -
    4. Job Access and Level of Satisfaction

        4.1. Job Access

        The average job search lasts 2.3 months. In response to the question, "During your PhD
work, what helped you in your job search?" nearly two thirds of the PhDs answered, "Acquiring
advanced scientific expertise." 41% believe that they acquired professional experience that added
value to their career path. 30% were helped by the INRIA network, whether through direct or indirect
contacts. Only 1 PhD received assistance with the job search.



         Acquiring advanced
                                                                                               66%
         scientific expertise

     Acquiring professional
     experience that added                                              41%
    value to your career path


         The INRIA network                                      30%


      Assistance with the job
                                     1%
              search


                       Other                    16%


                                0%        10%    20%        30%       40%     50%     60%        70%


         16% of respondents mentioned other items, including support from associations, access to
training, experience abroad and personal contacts, among others.



        4.2. Level of Job Satisfaction

         87% of respondents say that they are satisfied with their position. The most common reason
given for this level of satisfaction is the dimension of applied research (one third of those who are
satisfied) in their position, followed by an interesting field of research or interesting assignments.
Many believe that they have the right background for the position they hold (either through their
training or because they are working in the same field of research as they did for their thesis). Others
cite the scientific level of their host organization. Some mention the salary level they receive for their
new position. Others particularly appreciate the freedom they have in their research and, finally, some
simply say that they are practicing the profession they had coveted. Some of the more individual
comments mentioned include opportunities for growth, academic contacts, the context of a company
start-up and professional experience abroad.

         Conversely, 10 PhDs (13% of the respondents) are not satisfied with their job. In 7 out of the
10 cases, these PhDs explain that they not involved in research, either sufficiently or at all. This group
is working almost exclusively in companies or in schools/universities. The remaining 3 PhDs mention
their precarious status (position as a post-doctoral researcher or ATER), and finally 2 PhDs are simply
unhappy not to be working as researchers.




                                                       - 12 -
          In response to the question, "Is there anything you would have liked INRIA to offer to help you
fulfill your career plans?" 15 respondents did have a request. The most frequent request was for
better support moving into employment, followed by more contacts with companies, specifically to
understand what practical applications their research has, but also to facilitate the integration of PhDs
into the private sector. And finally, in no particular order: subject-specific days for PhDs to unify the
young researchers and offer an opportunity to present their research work, better awareness raising
about starting a company, better handling of teaching hours, assistance for PhDs going abroad, etc.

          4.3. Changing Professional Plans

         84% of the PhDs wish to continue working in research. 48% of them are leaning toward public
research, while 16% would prefer to work in the private sector instead, and 36% stated no preference.
         Other professional plans include 2 PhDs who would like to start a company, 3 hoping to go
into another industry (humanities, ecology, financial mathematics and even project management), and
finally some who say they have already abandoned research in favor of putting their results to use or
teaching in secondary schools.


5 INRIA and the PhDs Today

          5.1. Keeping in Touch

        95% of the PhDs believe that it is important to stay in contact with INRIA. 62% of respondents
wished to keep up with information about scientific life at INRIA (colloquia, software provided, etc.)

  Information about scientific life
                                                                                                       62%
             at INRIA


  Information about professional
                                                                                                   59%
      opportunities at INRIA



  Information about life at INRIA                                            41%



        Information about former
                                                               26%
              colleagues



                            Other          4%


                                      0%        10%   20%       30%       40%         50%        60%




        59% are interested in information on professional opportunities at INRIA. 41% would like to
have a network of former colleagues. 26% are interested in information about life at INRIA (a
subscription to Inédit, for example). 4% would simply like to keep in touch with their original project-
team.




                                                      - 13 -
        5.2. INRIA's Image Among the PhDs

        100% of the respondents have a positive image of INRIA. 53 PhDs offered reasons:
           • INRIA is appreciated for its scientific excellence above all: 42% of the respondents
               spontaneously mentioned the scientific level at INRIA.

            •   The second most common remark was how dynamic the Institute is: 25% of
                responses.

            •   Next is international recognition of INRIA: 21%

            •   The working environment and conditions were mentioned by 19% of the respondents.

            •   15% cited the material and human resources available to them.

            •   13% mentioned ties with industry and company start-ups.

            •   9% particularly appreciated the quality of PhD training and supervision.

          Other comments included the large network of researchers at INRIA and its partner
institutions, the organization into project-teams, the interesting fields of research and the
administrative support.



       96% of the PhDs would recommend that a friend choose INRIA for PhD studies. The
reasons for this included:

            •   The working environment and conditions, for 36%

            •   The scientific excellence of the Institute, for 32%

            •   The human and material resources, for 26%

            •   INRIA's position in international research, for 17%

            •   The experience of a PhD at INRIA serving as an effective springboard to
                employment, for 11%

            •   INRIA's ties with industry and innovation, for 11%

            •   The Institute's dynamism, for 8%

          The negative responses and reservations that were mentioned included the following: 3 PhDs
felt that everything depended on the host team; 2 explained that in general, PhDs are not very highly
regarded in France, 1 mentioned the low compensation PhDs generally receive and, finally, 1 foreign
PhD felt that it is technically difficult to finish a thesis in 3 years while also settling into another
country.




                                                 - 14 -
Selected comments about INRIA by the PhDs:

-   "INRIA has international visibility, which grants all those who represent it a real degree of
    recognition. INRIA is known for its reliability and scientific influence, which it must of
    course continually work on and improve."

-   "I particularly appreciate INRIA's effectiveness in supporting its PhD students, both within
    the scientific teams and through the administrative departments. This excellent
    professionalism with a human side is the image of INRIA I still have."

-   "INRIA's international reputation is excellence... it is a true excellence cluster that
    absolutely must be protected and encouraged to progress as much as possible."

-   "The conditions I wrote my thesis under were very good. A very positive memory for me."

-   "The infrastructures and technological tools in place for PhDs students are unparalleled."

-   "I believe that INRIA is one of those establishments that have truly contributed to scientific
    development in France."

-   "INRIA is a research institution that is highly respected outside of France, and what goes
    on within the Institute is at the heart of global research areas."

-   "Very high level research, lots of contacts, very good supervision for PhD students."

-   "A flexible research area and comfortable working place, active collaboration with
    companies and other institutes, very good access to and ease of discussion with other
    researchers"

-   "This is a prestigious scientific institution."

-   "INRIA is one of the best scientific environments in France. Teams get a very valuable
    administrative support which let research staff (including PhD) focus on research. The
    international network is very wide and INRIA has good consideration."

-   "Because of the range of fascinating people and personalities I met there."

-   "High level of research and technology. Open to the whole world."

-   "It's probably the best environment in France to do a PhD."

-   "You meet incredibly brilliant people there. They're clearly people who love their work,
    form international-level teams, and build real ties with companies."

-   "Very good working conditions, in competitive teams."

-   "INRIA offers ideal conditions for PhD students (human, material and financial resources).
    Few institutions in France offer similar conditions."

-   "international visibility, environment is practically one of a kind."

-   "INRIA offers young PhDs all the right conditions to progress quickly in their work."

-   "It's a great springboard, no matter what your career plans, research or industry..."




                                            - 15 -
                    Appendix 1: List of Host Institutions


                       1.1.     List of Host Institutions in France



                                          Institution                     No. PhDs
                                     Université Paris 11                     2
                          Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6         2
                            Université de Nice - Sophia-Antipolis            2
                                Université de Franche Comté                  2
                                        INSA Rennes                          2
                                         ENS Cachan                          2
                             Université Claude Bernard - Lyon 1              1
                                       ENST Bretagne                         1
                                             GET                             1
                                          ENS Lyon                           1
                                       IUT de Lannion                        1
                                         IUT d'Orsay                         1
                                  IUT Nancy Charlemagne                      1
                                  Université de Bourgogne                    1
School/university




                                 Université de Bretagne Sud                  1
                                     Université de Caen                      1
                                            ENPC                             1
                                    Université de Nantes                     1
                                    Ecole Polytechnique                      1
                                   Université de Rennes 2                    1
                            Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1              1
                      Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1 - IUT Brabois      1
                           Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1            1
                           Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg 1             1
                                 Université Lumière - Lyon 2                 1
                          Université Paris 1 - Panthéon-Sorbonne             1
                                     Université Paris 13                     1
                                  Université Paris Daupine                   1
                            Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Metz             1
                          Université Technologique de Compiègne              1
                           Université Victor Segalen - Bordeaux 2            1
                                 Ecole des Mines de Nantes                   1
                                             N/A*                            1


                                   N/A: data not available

                          See continuation on the following page.




                                            - 16 -
                    1.1.   List of Host Institutions in France (cont'd)

                                           Institution             No PhDs
                                             INRIA                    29



  EPST
                                             CNRS                     10
                                 INRIA-MicroSoft Research             1
  EPIC                                        CEA                      6
                                              EDF                      1
                                            ANDRA                      1
 Other                     Préfecture de Région Haute-Normandie       1
 pub.                                       CEREA                      1
 inst.                           Institut Français du Pétrole          1
                                            HiLabs                     2
                                    France Télécom R&D                 2
                                           Amadeus                    2
                                       France Télécom                 2
                                            Coframi                    2
                                             Wallix                    1
                                             Calyon                   1
                                         Camptocamp                    1
                                           CDC-IXIS                   1
                                       Barclays Capital               1
                                     Dassault Systèmes                1
                                             EADS                      1
                                   Earth Decision Science              1
                                            Expway                     1
                                            Banque                     1
                                        Atos Worldline                1
                                            Gemalto                    1
                                         Glaizer Group                1
  Private company




                                             ALTEN                     1
                                            ILANDE                     1
                                            Keeneo                     1
                                      MGE UPS System                   1
                                    Motorola Lab France               1
                                              nd*                      1
                                  Oasic Design Automation             1
                                           Paradigm                   1
                                             Philips                  1
                                           Probayes                    1
                                     Protectic Ingénierie              1
                                    PSA Peugeot Citroen                1
                                   Safege ( groupe Suez)              1
                                           Seanodes                    1
                             société de services en informatique      1
                                       Société Générale               1
                                     ST Microelectronics              1
                                    Thales Alenia Space               1
                                           Thomson                    1
                                         Thomson Lab                  1
                                             Unilog                   1
                                       Valtech-Axelboss               1
                            Preparation for Grandes Ecoles exam        2
instruct
 2dary




                                          High school                 2
   or




                                              N/A*                    1
                                       Total French inst.            140

                                  N/A: data not available


                                           - 17 -
                          1.2.           List of Host Entities Abroad
                                          Etablissement                                                  Effectif
                              Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Spain                                       2
                          Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor - Luxembourg                               1




Research
institution
                                National Institute of Informatics - Japan                                   1
                                           SINTEF - Norway                                                  1
                       BioSS (SCRI Plant Bioinformatics Group) - United Kingdom                             1
                                               Intel - United States                                        1
                      The Institute of Informatics Problems of the Russian Academy of Science - Russia      1
                                Université de Twente - Netherlands                                          2
                             University of Tennessee - United States                                        2
                            Université Catholique de Louvain - Belgium                                      2
                                  Université du Québec - Canada                                             1
                                     ETH Zurich - Switzerland                                               1
                                    Université d'Oslo - Norway                                              1
                              Isfahan University of Technology - Iran                                       1
                         Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Sousse - Tunisia                                   1
                               University of Michigan - United States                                       1
                                     Università di verona - Italy                                           1
                                    Universidad de Chile - Chile                                            1
                        Institut d'informatique de l'université d'Innsbrück - Austria                       1
                           Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology - Korea                       1
                              Université Nouvelle de Lisbonne - Portugal                                    1
                                  Université Marien Ngouabi - Congo                                         1
                                National University of Ireland - Ireland                                    1
                                    Université de Waseda - Japan                                            1
  School/university




                                Vietnam National University - Vietnam                                       1
                                   Harvard University - United States                                       1
                                Université de Princeton - United States                                     1
                                     Münster University - Germany                                           1
                                     University of Tsukuba - Japan                                          1
                                     Université de Gabès - Tunisie                                          1
                               Université du Luxembourg - Luxembourg                                        1
                                      Univresité de Damas - Syria                                           1
                                 Iowa State Univeristy - United States                                      1
                                Université libre de Bruxelles - Belgium                                     1
                                 Université d'Amsterdam - Netherland                                        1
                                  Universidad Diego Portales - Chile                                        1
                              Hanoi University of Technology - Vietnam                                      1
                                 Instituto Superior Técnico - Portugal                                      1
                                            Technion - Israel                                               1
                                    Université de Kairouan - Tunisia                                        1
                              University of Nottingham - United Kingdom                                     1
                                  Université de Yaoundé - Cameroon                                          1
                                Wuhan University of technology - China                                      1
                          Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil                              1
                              Queen's university - United Kingdom                                           1
                                 Universidad del Bío-Bío - Chile                                            1
                                    Université d'Alep - Syria                                               1
                                        Petrobras - Brazil                                                  1
                                   Aisin AW Europe - Belgium                                                1
                                  Yoonew Inc. - United States                                               1
                                  Dunin Technologie - Canada                                                1
  Private company




                                   Microsoft Research - India                                               1
                        CREATE-NET International Research Center - Italy                                    1
                               Cisco Systems Inc. - United States                                           1
                         The Boston Consulting Group - United Kingdom                                       1
                               Company LIKE Inc. - United States                                            1
                                         Siemens - India                                                    1
                                      Google - Switzerland                                                  1
                         AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) - United States                                       1
                                 XID Technologies - Singapore                                               1
Other                            European Commission - Italy                                                1
                                        Total foreign inst.                                                65




                                                       - 18 -
               Appendix 2: Representativeness of the Survey

       2.1.    Employment Data

        The data on employment are based on a very high rate of return (78%), having been filled out
by the project managers. More specifically, the rates of return vary between 65% and 96% depending
on the research center.

                                Rate of return by research center:

                                                                       Rate of return
                                          Futurs                           78%
                                    Nancy - Grand Est                      86%
                               Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique                62%
                                 Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes                    65%
                                  Paris - Rocquencourt                     96%
                              Sophia Antipolis - Mediterranée              79%
                                         Average                           78%


       2.2.    Qualitative Data

         The rate of return on qualitative data (feedback from the PhDs exclusively) was 28%. Once
again, this rate varied widely between centers. It was particularly high for the INRIA Futurs center,
with a response rate of 43%.

                                Rate of return by research center:

                                                                       Rate of return
                                          Futurs                           43%
                                    Nancy - Grand Est                      19%
                               Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique                19%
                                 Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes                    27%
                                  Paris - Rocquencourt                     33%
                              Sophia Antipolis - Mediterranée              21%
                                         Average                           28%


         The foreign-nationality PhDs are quite well represented. They represent 37% of the entire
class of 2006, and 35% of the respondents.

                                Rate of return by PhDs' nationality:

                                       Foreign-nationality PhDs   French-nationality PhDs
                        2006 PhDs               37%                        63%
                       Respondents              35%                        65%


       Women are in fact better represented than men. They make up only 17% of the total class,
but 29% of the respondents.

                                     Rate of return by PhDs gender:

                                                     Men              Women
                               2006 PhDs             83%               17%
                              Respondents            71%               29%




                                                    - 19 -
                                    Appendix 3 : Questionnaire

                         3.1. Questionnaire French version



                                    FIN D’ACTIVITE DES DOCTORANTS INRIA
                                               Questionnaire 2008

                                                            -

                                                 PROMOTION 2006



FICHE SIGNALITIQUE


                 Nom :                                           Prénom :

                 Équipe-projet d’origine :


APRES LE DOCTORAT A L’INRIA


   A l’issue de ce doctorat, avez-vous trouvé un emploi ?

                 ! Oui                                           ! Non

        Si « Non » allez directement à la question 9.


   1.   Indiquez votre poste actuel :

                 ! Enseignant du premier et second degré

                 ! Enseignant de l’enseignement supérieur

                 ! Chercheur

                 ! Ingénieur d’études et de recherche

                 ! ATER

                 ! Post-doctorant

                 ! Autre activité


   2.   Indiquez l’intitulé de votre poste : ……………………………………


   3.   Combien de temps votre recherche d’emploi a-t-elle approximativement duré ? _____ mois


   4.   Indiquez le type de votre contrat :

                 ! CDI (ou fonctionnaire)

                 ! CDD Durée du contrat : _____ mois




                                                        - 20 -
                ! Autre (précisez) : ……………………………………


  5.   Indiquez votre secteur d’activité :

                ! Public ! Privé ! Autre (précisez) : …………………….

                Votre entreprise / institut : ………………………………………………..

                Effectif approximatif de l’entreprise : ! <50
                                                        ! 50 à 500
                                                        ! 500 à 1 000
                                                        ! > 1 000

                Mission principale de l’entreprise :………………………………………


  6.   Indiquez votre lieu de travail :

       Ville : ……………………………………Pays : ………………………………….


  7.   Êtes-vous satisfait du poste que vous occupez ?

                ! Oui                                            ! Non

                En quoi ? ……………………………………


  8.   Qu’est-ce qui, durant votre doctorat, vous a aidé dans votre recherche d’emploi ? plusieurs réponses possibles

                ! L’acquisition d’une expérience professionnelle apportant une plus-value à votre parcours.

                ! L’acquisition d’une expertise scientifique pointue.

                ! Le réseau INRIA (contacts directs et indirects).

                ! Un accompagnement à la recherche d’emploi.

                ! Autre (précisez) : ……………………………………………..




  9.   Quel est votre projet professionnel aujourd’hui ?

                ! Continuer à travailler dans la recherche

                     "    Si oui, dans quel domaine ?

                                   ! Public ! Privé ! Public ou privé

                     "    Sinon, comptez-vous …

                                   ! Intégrer l’industrie                 ! Créer une entreprise

                                   ! Vous orienter vers une autre filière (précisez) : ……………...

                                   ! Autre (précisez) : ……………………………………………..


 10. Y a-t-il des choses que vous auriez aimé que l’INRIA vous apporte pour réaliser au mieux votre projet ?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………




                                                        - 21 -
VOUS ET L’INRIA AUJOURD’HUI


   11. Pensez-vous qu’il est important de rester en contact avec l’INRIA ?

                ! Oui                                          ! Non


       # Si « Oui », quel(s) type(s) d’informations vous parait-il important de garder ?
         Plusieurs réponses possibles

                         ! Des informations sur la vie scientifique à l’INRIA (colloques, logiciels mis à disposition,
                         distinctions/prix décernés…)

                         ! Des informations sur les opportunités professionnelles à l’INRIA (recrutements, concours,
                         postes ouverts au détachement, délégation…)

                         ! Des informations sur les anciens (annuaire des anciens, réseau)

                         ! Des informations sur la vie de l’INRIA (abonnement « Inédit » : lettre d’information INRIA)

                         ! Autres (précisez) :
                         …………………………………………………………………………


   12. Aujourd’hui, diriez-vous que vous avez une image positive de l’INRIA ?

                ! Oui                                          ! Non


            # Quelle que soit votre réponse, dites pourquoi :
            ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
            ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
            ……………………………


   13. Seriez-vous prêt à recommander à un ami de venir faire un doctorat à l’INRIA ?

                ! Oui                                          ! Non


            # Quelle que soit votre réponse, dites pourquoi :
            ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
            ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
            ……………………………




                                        Merci pour votre participation




                                                      - 22 -
                            3.2.      Questionnaire English version


                                        PH.D: END OF CONTRACT SURVEY
                                              QUESTIONNAIRE 2008

                                                              -

                                                     CLASS 2006




IDENTIFICATION

        Family name:                           First name:

        Original Project-Team:


AFTER YOUR PH.D AT INRIA

   After your PhD, have you found a new post?

                 ! Yes                                            ! No


        If « No » please go to question n° 9 and following.

   1.   Indicate your current current post :

                 ! Primary/secondary schoolteacher

                 ! Higher education teacher

                 ! Research scientist

                 ! Research and development engineer

                 ! ATER (special French lecturer status)

                 ! Post-doc

                 ! Other occupation


   2.   Please indicate your job title: ……………………………………


   3.   How long did your job search last? ______ month


   4.   Indicate your contract’s type :

                 ! Permanent contract

                 ! Fixed-term contract         Duration of your contract: ____ Months

                 ! Other (please specify): ……………………………………




                                                        - 23 -
    5.   Indicate your sector :

                  ! Public ! Private           ! Other (please specify): ………………………

                  Name of your firm / institution: ……………………………………………….

                  Approximate staff number: ! <50
                                            ! 50 à 500
                                            ! 500 à 1 000
                                            ! > 1 000


                  The main missions of your firm: …


    6.   Please specify your workplace :

         City: ………………………………                        Country: ……………………………


    7.   Are you satisfied with your position?

                  ! Yes                                             ! No

                  And why? ……………………………………


    8.   According to you, during your PhD which elements contributed to the success of your job search?
         Several possible answers

                  ! The professional experience

                  ! The scientific expertise

                  ! INRIA’s network (direct or indirect contacts)

                  ! Job search assistance

                  ! Other (please give details): ……………………………………………..



    9.   What is your professional plan today?

                  ! To continue working in the Research area

                       "    If yes, in which sector?

                                     ! Public ! Private             ! Public or private

                       "    Otherwise, do you wish to …

                                     ! Work in the industry         ! Set up your own business

                                     ! Change profession (to which one?): …………………..

                                     ! Others (Please give details): …………………………..


  10. Are there any things you feel INRIA would have provided you in order to achieve you career aims more
      effectively?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………




                                                          - 24 -
YOU AND INRIA TODAY


   11. Do you think that it is important to keep contacts with INRIA?

                ! Yes                                          ! No


           # If yes, what kind of information do you wish to keep?
             Several possible answers

                         ! Information about the INRIA scientific life (colloquiums, software programs at disposal,
                         prizes awarded…)

                         ! Information about the job opportunities at INRIA (recruitments, competitive entry
                         examinations, secondment…)

                         ! Information about former pupil (yearbook, network)

                         ! Information about INRIA’s life (subscription to “Inédit”: INRIA’s information letter)

                         ! Others (give details):
                         ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
                         ………………………………………………


   12. Do you think in positive terms of INRIA today?

                ! Yes                                          ! No


           # Please describe reasons:
           ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
           ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
           ……………………………


   13. Would you advice a friend to apply for a PhD at INRIA?

                ! Yes                                          ! No


           # And why?
           ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
           ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
           ……………………………


                                        Thanks for your participation




                                                      - 25 -
                              View other available surveys:
                 http://www.inria.fr/interne/drh/etudes/etudedoc.html
       http://www.inria.fr/travailler/opportunites/doc/insertion_doctorants.fr.pdf




                       Survey contact: lucile.meunier@inria.fr




INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE
                  DIRECTION DES RESSOURCES HUMAINES
Domaine de Voluceau – Rocquencourt – B.P.105 – 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, FRANCE
                          Phone: +33 (0)1 39 63 52 42
                              http://www.inria.fr




                                         - 26 -