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									Business Services - Best Practices for Project
Compilation from Business Services Projects

This is a work in process document. As post implementation reviews are
conducted for Business Services projects and more is learned on how to
effectively manage projects, this document should continue to be updated. The
scope of this document is primarily geared towards the management of small
technology projects and not those that are enterprise wide, although some of the
same concepts do apply. ITAP will be developing a Project Office and when it is
implemented, a methodology and processes will be developed. This document
will need to be updated to ensure that it aligns with ITAP’s methodology and

Templates of several outputs of a technology project can be found at:

The triple constraint involves making tradeoffs between scope, time and cost for a
project. It is inevitable in a project life cycle that there will be changes to the
scope, time or cost of the project. However where most projects fail is that when
one of the areas changes and appropriate adjustments are not made to the other
areas. For example, if a deadline is moved up, what actions are needed with
regards to cost or scope to ensure the deadline is met without compromising the
quality of the product.
                         Business Services - Best Practices for Project Management


Successful project management requires that all knowledge areas (scope, time,
cost, quality, human resource, communications, risk, procurement, project
integration) be managed effectively. Some of the items that came out of the
reviews are directly related to the above knowledge areas, areas of which there
needs to be improvement.

Core Functions

Scope Management
Defining and managing all the work required to successfully complete the project.

 Charters should be developed for each project.

 A formal process should be developed for change management including the
  estimate in cost of making the change.

 Scope of the project needs to be clearly defined in the project charter. To
  avoid scope creep, any changes to scope must be documented and a formal
  approval must be obtained before changing the scope of the project.

 Need to determine who can make decisions and differentiate based on
  magnitude of decision. Not every project decision should go to the Steering

Time Management
Estimating how long it will take to complete work, develop project schedule, and
ensure completion.

 Project Schedule – for each project a project schedule should be defined early
  on. Tasks should be identified down to the task/person level. Project

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                                 Business Services - Best Practices for Project Management

     schedule templates (plans for software upgrades, software development etc…)
     should be developed so that project managers have a “pool” to pull from.
                All projects that have more than 5 resources and have duration
                  of longer than 1 month should utilize Microsoft Project to
                  develop a project schedule.

                        Requirements should be done prior to development work.

                        In areas where business changes are needed, significant time
                         should be allotted to do this.

                        Include entire project team in planning. This will help minimize
                         tasks being overlooked in the plan.

                        Break the project into small pieces. Not all functionality has to
                         be delivered with one release.

                        Time needed for the project by the various resources needs to be
                         better identified. Often the time is underestimated.

Cost Management
Preparing and managing a budget

 Budget guidelines need to be established prior to project

 Need to determine who has the authority to make certain budget decisions

 A budget identifying the total cost of ownership of an application should be
  developed. Some costs that need to be identified and budgeted for are:
      Consultants – as we continue to purchase more applications. Our
        dependency on consultants will continue. This needs to be budgeted as
        a recurring cost with each upgrade.

                 Maintenance agreements will be a recurring cost of owning purchased

                 Travel and professional development – the skills needed to support
                  these new applications requires staff to learn new technology as well as
                  develop partnerships with other institutions utilizing the same
                  software. This is a recurring cost and should be budgeted for

Quality Management
Ensures the project will satisfy stated or implied needs

 A formal customer sign-off process is needed.

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                          Business Services - Best Practices for Project Management

 Ensure the scope statement has specific measures of success so that it is easier
  to determine if a project has been successful at meeting the objectives.

Facilitating Functions
Human Resource Management
Making effective use of people.

 Knowledgeable resources should be identified for the project team and
  involved as soon as possible. If staff are unable to devote time necessary, then
  tasks should be prioritized.

 End users should be involved early in the project and updated throughout.

 If a project requires some special skills (i.e. knowledge of SQL etc..), staff need
  to have the training made available at the right time. This may be something
  that should be included in the project plan – training assessments of project

 Staff should be given release time for participating in projects spanning a long
  time or requiring significant staff effort.

 Clearly define staff roles and responsibilities.

Communications Management
Generating, collecting, disseminating, storing project information.

 A communication plan should be developed to outline what gets
  communicated to whom and who is responsible for the communication. For
  example, what information gets communicated to the Steering Committee?

 Sponsor Meetings - regular meetings should be established with sponsor to
  ensure they are aware of project status. Frequency should be based on project
  size and turnaround time. The larger the project, the more infrequent
  (monthly) the meetings should be. Format of agenda should be consistent.

 Team Meetings - regular meetings should be established with project team to
  ensure tasks completed, that they are aware of important deadlines
  etc…Agendas should be developed and minutes should be completed with
  action items.

 Point of Contacts – POCs should be identified for major groups (i.e. IT,
  testers, business areas etc…). Sometimes it is difficult to ensure if people read
  email regarding important dates etc…The POC is responsible for ensuring
  their area is aware of information relating to them.

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                                Business Services - Best Practices for Project Management

 Majordomo - mail lists may also be developed so that the project team can
  communicate freely with each other.

Risk Management
Identifying, analyzing, and responding to risks

 Risks need to be identified prior to project. In addition, procedures on how to
  handle these risks if they arise need to be documented.

 Staff turnover will most likely occur on projects spanning a long time. A
  management plan needs to be devised on how new staff will be brought up to

Acquiring or procuring goods and services that are needed from outside the

 It may be necessary to hire outside consultants for larger projects. This may
  allow implementations to run smoother as the consultants can alert us to

Project Integration Management
Overarching function that affects and is affected by all other knowledge areas.

 Close interaction with vendor is needed to understand changes with new
  versions (i.e. what current functionality won’t exist in new version)

 Project Plan should be developed and include:
      Overview of the project - description, sponsors, stakeholders,

                 Organizational structure of the project – authority of project manager
                  and steering committee, responsibilities and communication for the
                  project, reporting structure of project

                 Management and technical approaches – management objectives,
                  project controls (status reports, how to handle changes), risk
                  management, project staffing plan, technology methodologies

                 Scope management plan – WBS (work break-down structure) or high
                  level task list, key deliverables

                 Project schedule – summary and detailed

                 Budget – summary and detailed, assumptions

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                                  Business Services - Best Practices for Project Management

                 A project should be broken down into small manageable pieces rather
                  than implementing everything at once.

 Periodic reviews should occur to determine if the project should continue.

 Testing
       Should be detailed – scripts should be developed for minimal testing.
          This doesn’t mean that other testing is not also needed.

                 Parallel testing – when at all possible, it is best to be able to test the old
                  version in conjunction w/ the new version. This helps identify gaps.

                 Issue list should be maintained throughout project to ensure issues are
                  resolved before implementation or at least be aware that those issues

                 Instances (QA/DEV/Production) – when testing, instances need to be
                  compatible to ensure the needed functionality is transferred from one
                  version to the next.

                 Issues found after testing should be included in test scripts to detect in
                  future upgrades/enhancements to the system.

 Training

                 Evaluations may be needed to determine if there is additional training
                  that is needed. Be careful in assumptions regarding knowledge level of
                  the users.

                 Adequate time should be allowed for training. A common theme in all
                  feedback was that there wasn’t enough time for testing. Need to
                  identify a “rule of thumb” for project managers to use as a guide.

                 QA instance needs to be “frozen” when training material development

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