4 Phase Model of Project Management
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4 Phase Model of a Project An interpretation of the Scottish Parliament & Welsh Assembly Four phases of a project • Conception • Development • Realisation • Termination Lockyer. K., Gordon. J Four phases of a project • Development – Detailed design and specification – Appoint project manager – Create project team – Project plan (outline) • Conception – Organisations capability – Costs – Required budget – Product specification – Capital outlay – Procurement – Contract conditions Four phases of a project • Realisation – Project progress – Expenditure – Costs – problems • Termination – Success of methods used – Performance of then team members – Reliability of the suppliers The purpose of project phases Projects are broken up into a number of project phases, each of which is a designated group of activities that normally result in a deliverable or a milestone. Project phases are defined to assist in control or management of the project. Original Model Lockyer & Gordon Conception Development Realisation Termination Only a slight overlap between the phases – normal situation Fast Track Construction Technique variation (design – build) interpreted by David Moulton Conception Development Realisation Termination Note overlap increased here. This is where the time is saved using a fast track approach. Realisation (in this case construction) can begin while development (in this case design) begins. Result time saved (in theory). The reality of the Scottish Parliament Interpreted by David Moulton Conception phase Development phase Termination Phase Termination Realisation phase Notice how the three phases overlap, the conception phase is still not fully complete even while the realisation phase is being undertaken. The many changes in the project required alterations to aspects of the concept and also changes to plans made in the development phase. The lack of clarity of the key objectives and which had priority (conception phase) increased risk and created uncertainty The Welsh Assembly Interpreted by David Moulton Method reviewed Conception Development Realisation Termination The Welsh Assembly also adopted a fast track method (construction method – design/build) similar to that used by the Scottish Parliament. However they found that this was difficult to control in terms of cost and time and decided to review the situation. The decision was to stop using the fast track approach (red line) and contract to a construction organisation on a fixed price basis. The result was a controlled budget and completion on time.