# Exercise 12 Project Management

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```					                            Universität Stuttgart
Institute of Industrial Automation and Software Engineering
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h. c. P. Göhner

Exercise 12                  " Project Management "

Question 12.1 Cost Estimation with COCOMO

One of the methods for calculating the costs of a software project is the COnstructive COst
MOdel (COCOMO). The costs are calculated based the number of source code lines (in
KLOC, i.e. Kilo Lines Of Code). In addition the kind of the software is considered which can
be “console” (e.g. command line utility running in a MS-DOS box), ”GUI-based” (e.g. usual
windows application), or “real-time” (e.g. motor control software of a road vehicle).

At the beginning of the project the number of source code lines has to be estimated. This can
be achieved by using experiences made in former projects, e.g.:

Simple Systems:              up to 25 000 LOC
Complex Systems:             25 000 to 100 000 LOC
Very complex Systems:        more than 100 000 LOC

The COCOMO equations, also being the result of experiences from preceding projects, are:

Console systems:             PM = 2.4 * (KLOC)1.05
GUI-bases systems:           PM = 3.0 * (KLOC)1.12
Real-time systems:           PM = 3.6 * (KLOC)1.20

The expected number of source code lines for a given complex software system is 75,000
LOC. The system is GUI-based. The costs per man-month can be assumed as follows:

System Analyst        10,000 €/PM    ("analyze requirements")
Programmer             6,000 €/PM    ("design product", "programming")
Tester                 9,000 €/PM    ("plan tests", "verification/validation")
Manager               12,000 €/PM    ("project Management")
Support-Team           7,000 €/PM    ("CM", "QA")

a) Calculate the total effort for the development in man-months based on the COCOMO
equations given above.
b) Calculate the distribution of the effort over the project phases “requirements analysis and
conception”, “design”, “implementation”, and “integration and test” using the cost matrix
shown in figure 1.
c) Calculate the effort and the costs for each activity within the above mentioned project
phases.
d) What are the total costs of the project?
Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems                      Exercise 12: Project Management

Phase            Requirements        Design        Implementation   Integration and Test
analysis and
Conception
8%               18%               48%                26%

analyze requirements              42%              10%               3%                  2%
desgin product                    16%              42%               6%                  4%
programming                       10%              14%               55%                48%
plan tests                        6%               8%                8%                  5%
verification und validation       10%              10%               12%                20%
project management                8%               7%                5%                  6%
configuration management          3%               2%                6%                  8%
quality assurance                 5%               7%                5%                  7%
100%             100%              100%                100%

Figure 1: Cost matrix

Question 12.2 Net Plan Technique

A net plan is a clear graphical representation of a complex project structure. It is created in
two steps. At first a structure analysis is performed where all activities the projects consists of
and their temporal dependencies are outlined. In a subsequent time analysis the minimum
project duration (the so-called critical path) is determined and the begin and end dates of
every activity are calculated.

For the development of an automated warehouse a net plan is to be created. The following
table shows the set of activities to be carried out throughout the project.

Activities                                                    Duration Previous activities
No. Profile                                                      (estimated)
A Preparation                                                         2         none
B Design of the automated warehouse                                   4          A
C Construction of the warehouse building                             14          A
D Development of the control system                                   9          B
E Provision of the mechanical devices                                 3          B
F Component test of control system parts affecting the                7         C, D
warehouse building
G Component test of control system parts affecting the              4              C, D, E
mechanical devices and installation of both into the
warehouse building
H Installation of control system parts affecting the                4                C, D
warehouse building
I Integration test, system test and introduction                    4              F, G, H
Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems                Exercise 12: Project Management

a) Create a net plan representing the dependencies between the given activities using the
Critical Path Method (CPM). Calculate the earliest and latest time for each activity and
determine the critical path.
b) Create an alternative net plan using the Metra Potential Method (MPM).
c) Draw a third project diagram in the form of a bar plan.

Question 12.3 Net Plan and Gantt Diagram

Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems                       Exercise 12: Project Management

Appendix A Solution Form for Question 12.1 a) .. d)

a) Total effort in PM =

c) With the cost matrix from the lecture the effort will be distributed as follows:

"Requirements Analysis and Conception":

"Design":

"Implementation":

"Integration and Test":

c) Efforts and costs for activities in the project phase "Requirements Analysis and Conception":

Activity               Effort                         Costs

Requirements
Analysis

Product Design

Programming

Test Planning

Verification and
Validation

Project
Management

Configuration
Management

Quality Assurance

Costs of the project phase
Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems                        Exercise 12: Project Management

Efforts and costs for activities in the project phase "Design":

Analysis activities:           6.8 PM        68,000 €
Design activities:             28.56 PM      171,360 €
Programming activities:        9.52 PM       57,120 €
Test planning:          5.44 PM       48,960 €
Verification:                  6.8 PM        61,200 €
Project management:            4.76 PM       57,120 €
Configuration management:      1.36 PM       9,520 €
Quality assurance:             4.76 PM       33,320 €
Sum of costs                                 506,600 €

Efforts and costs for activities in the project phase "Implementation":

Analysis activities:           5.46 PM       54,600
Design activities:             10.92 PM      65,520 €
Programming activities:        100.1 PM      600,600 €
Test planning:          14.56 PM      131,040 €
Verification:                  21.84 PM      196,560 €
Project management:            9.1 PM        109,200 €
Configuration management:      10.92 PM      76,440 €
Quality assurance:             9.1 PM        63,700 €
Sum of costs:                                1297,660 €

Efforts and costs for activities in the project phase "Integration and Test":

Analysis activities:           1.96 PM       19,600 €
Design activities:             3.92 PM       23,520 €
Programming activities:        47.04 PM      282,240 €
Test planning:          4.9 PM        44,100 €
Verification:                  19.6 PM       176,400 €
Project management:            5.88 PM       70,560 €
Configuration management:      7.84 PM       54,880 €
Quality assurance:             6.86 PM       48,020 €
Sum of costs                                 719,320 €

d) The project costs are equal to

Project phase                       Costs
Requirements Analysis and
Conception

Design

Implementation

Integration and Test

Total costs of the project
Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems        Exercise 12: Project Management

Appendix B Solution Form for Question 12.2 a)

A
2
M1
Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems      Exercise 12: Project Management

Appendix C Solution Form for Question 12.2 b)
Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems                                                                       Exercise 12: Project Management

Appendix D Solution Form for Question 12.2 c)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

G
C

D

H
A

B

E

F

I

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