VOL. 32, No.4 UNL WATER CENTER AUGUST 2000
New Method For Detecting Trace Amounts of MTBE
and Ethanol at Heart ofUNL Contamination Research
by Steve Ress with ethanol, which also reduces harmful vehicle emis-
sions, are considered small.
Gasoline additives that help keep our air clean can "Although ethanol is the same alcohol consumed in
contaminate the water we drink. But they can be diffi- alcoholic beverages, the effect of alcohol spills on bene-
cult to find when they get into our water supplies. ficial groundwater bacteria is unknown. There is con-
University of Nebraska-Lincoln researchers have cern that ethanol could negatively impact the ability of
developed a method for detecting minute traces of these these unseen microbes to degrade toxic contaminants
additives, called oxygenates, in groundwater and sur- that are present in gasoline spills. .
face water. The method could pave the way to deter- "Most of the information available on oxygenates 10
mine the extent of their environmental impacts. drinking water is limited to ether-based com-
"There is a great deal of concern over pounds, primarily MTBE. This made it impor-
MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) in our tant to develop a reliable analytical method for
water supplies, but there has been very little detecting trace levels of ethanol even though it
in the way of funding to study the extent of is much more accepted in potable water,"
the problem and how to clean it up, and Spalding said . How ethanol travels through
measuring for trace levels of ethanol in the environment is largely unknown, due to
groundwater and surface water have been the lack of reliable and accurate analytical
virtually nonexistent," said Roy Spalding, methods to detect it in trace amounts.
Research Hydrochemist and head of The UNL laboratory has been research-
UNL's Water Sciences Laboratory. ing ways to reliably detect both ethanol
Ethanol and MTBE are the primary and MTBE in quantities of parts per
oxygenates petroleum refiners add to billion (ppb) or less, which would allow
gasoline to produce higher octane and Even trace amounts of the clean-air for assessing background groundwater
cleaner burning fuel. Many of the ga~oli.ne additive MTBE can make your levels and higher levels of the oxygen-
nation's largest cities now mandate drinking water taste and smell bad. ates in groundwater and surface water
their use to help curb growing prob- at spill sites.
lems with air pollution. MTBE is the most widely used. "No one has ever cleaned up a groundwater aquifer
Gasoline containing MTBE can reduce vehicle car- contaminated with MTBE. If we find more sensitive
bon monoxide emissions by as much as 20 percent, but methods to detect it in trace quantities, there is a higher
if it gets in your drinking water, even trace amounts can likelihood of stopping a spill or leak and developing
make it taste and smell like creosote or turpentine. It is techniques to clean up the contamination before it
also a suspected carcinogen. becomes widespread," Spalding said.
Maine and California already have banned MTBE's Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), an innovative
use and the Ll.S. Environmental Protection Agency is method that concentrates the compounds from water on
studying plans to phase down or phase out use nation- resin coated fibers, is the vehicle for detecting these
ally in the near future. Potential health risks associated (Continued on page 8)
3 ......Festival of Color is Sept. 16 6 .........Center-Pivot Map
4-5 .....2000 Summer Water Tour Visits NE/CO 7 Need to change your address?
PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH AND EDUCATION
New Director, New Directions, New Challenges
my research and teaching responsi- As I attempt to meet these chal-
bilities there as my academic home. lenges, it is my earnest goal to help
In my new responsibilities as identify both emerging needs in the
rom the Director of the Water Center, I want to
say that the transition and settling-in
process are going well. We owe a huge
water sciences and the funds to ad-
dress those needs from both na tionaI
and international sources. Times
IRECTOR debt of gratitude to Ed Vitzthum for
serving as the Water Center's Interim
Director over the past year and a half.
Ed provided a much needed steadying
influence during a difficult period of
have changed and we must change
with them to continue to flourish and
serve the needs of Nebraskans and
But we can't meet these goals alone.
transition and continues to be a first In the coming months I plan to form
class mentor. both internal and external advisory
You should also know that Bob committees, comprised of experts in
Kuzelka has stepped-down from his various aspects of water, to identify
ll-year post as the Water Center's new directions, goals and implemen-
Assistant to the Director. This is at tation strategies. This will require an
Bob's own request in order to give unprecedented level of collaboration
him more time for his primary loves and cooperation among NU faculty in
of teaching and working with The all areas of the water sciences, com-
Groundwater Foundation. He also mensurate with the myriad needs for
Kyle D. Hoagland becomes Director of the UNL Envi- water, its multiple uses and the prob-
ronmental Studies Program in Janu- lems that confront us.
Being the new Director of the ary, 2001. His energy, zeal and We also will introduce innova-
Water Center, many of you would knowledge have been legendary. tions in information transfer to help
probably like to know a bit about my Ed and Bob's dedication to the meet these goals, including changes
background . I came to UNL in 1990 Water Center and it's missions have in the appearance and content of our
as a limnologist (one who studies made a real difference and are sin- web site and this newsletter. Begin-
lakes and streams) in the former cerelyappreciated. ning in the next issue of the Water
Department of Forestry, Fisheries I feel extremely fortunate to have Current, you will see changes in
and Wildlife. This was after seven the opportunity to serve as Director. design and content that will include
years as a faculty member at Texas Many positive changes have occurred regular introductions to water-
Christian University (TCU) in Fort at UNL in the natural resources arena related faculty members and their
Worth. My charge, or appointment, over the past few years, including for- research and outreach programs. We
since then has largely been research mation of the SNRS. As an integral part welcome your suggestions and com-
and teaching in the area of surface of these changes I can say that these are ments on these changes.
water quality, including the ecology both exciting and challenging times at A total team effort will be needed
of a ttached algae in lakes and the Water Center. Exciting because of to solve the water quality and quan-
streams; ecotoxicology of agricultural the outstanding faculty and staff work- tity problems we face in this state
pesticides; reservoir aging; lake res- ing in water sciences across the entire and region . It will require the com-
toration; and the effects of global University of Nebraska system, and bined input of biologists, economists,
warming on aquatic ecosystems. challenging because of shrinking geologists, sociologists, hydrologists,
I was involved in planning and financial resources that help maintain chemists, engineers, agricultural pro-
forming the relatively new NU and develop the programs that sup- ducers, consumers and others to
School of Natural Resource Sciences port water research, teaching and address the complex issues before us.
(SNRS) and have retained portions of outreach. Let's get on with it.
Water Center Kyle D. Hoagland - Director This newsletter is published with
University of Nebraska-Lincoln Roy F. Spalding - Associate Director, partial financial supportfrom the
103 Natural Resources Hall Department of the Interior;
and Water Sciences Laboratory Director
Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 U.S. Geological Survey. The content
Phone: (402) 472-3305 Edward F. Vitzthum - Chemigation does not necessarily reflect the views
Fax: (402) 472-3574 Coordinator and policies of the Department of the
E-mail: sressl@unI.edu J. Michael Jess - Water Specialist Interior, nor does mention of trade
names or commercial products
Steven W. Ress - Editor
http://ianrwww.unI.edu/ianr/ constituteendorsement by the
waterctr/wchome.html Patricia A. Liedle - Editorial Assistant U.S. Government.
PAGE 2 WATER CURRENT AUGUST 2000
Lawn and Garden Drought and Climate
Tolerance Are Focusof Festivalof Color
bysteve Ress Faculty and staff from the UNL Department of
Agronomy and Horticulture will presentthe Fischer
HeIp nursing parched USA Flower Trials 2000,featuring 78 varietiesof gerani-
lawns and gardens ums,29 varietiesof impatiensand five varietiesof vinca
through the drought and (periwinkle).Retailers will alsooffer a large selectionof
preparing for next year's plant material,equipmentand other landscaping mate-
growing season be can rials for salethroughout the day. Food and beverages,
found at next month's including water, will be availableall day.
eighth annualFestivalof An expandedfamily fun centerwill have demonstra-
Color. tions on "All the Water In the World," "When It Rains
The turfgrass and on the Plains" and "Groundwater Resources" the in
landscape display and morning and "Pumpkin Circles,""Soil Matters,"and
open houseis Saturday,Sept.16 at the University of "Pollinators"in the afternoon.
Nebraska's ]ohn Seaton AndersonTurfgrassand Orna- Children'sflower and vegetable gardenswill have
mental Research Area, which is part of NU's Agricul- Asian and Latin American kitchen gardens,vertical gar-
tural Research and DevelopmentCenternear Mead. densand "Mr. and Mrs. McGregors Maze" to help entertain.
Demonstrations, displaysand how-to sessions will Representatives the NebraskaBeekeepers
be from 9 a.m.to 3 p.m., a shift from the 10 a.rn.to 4 tion will alsobe willing to show you how Honeybees
p.m. hours in past years. to
are among the most beneficialinsects man through
The festival'sfocusis on turfgrassmanagement; their pollination of fruit and vegetable cropsand pro-
trees,flowers and shrubs;landscape management and duction of wax and honey.
maintenance; and residentiallandscape designand Festivalof Color has grown to becomethe single
maintenance. largestannualpublic eventwithin NU's Instituteof
Within eachof theseprimary areasare a variety of Agriculture and Natural Resources (IANR).
half-hour talks, many of which will be given once in the the
You can access Festivalon the Internetat
morning and then repeatedin the aftemoon. http://hort.unl.edu/fallfest/. Volunteerdonationsof $5
v A samplingof this year'stopicsincludes:
. Mowing, fertilizing and other turfgrassmanage-
per family or $2 per personare encouraged help
ment practices reducewater and pesticide
to Festivalof Color is supportedby the U,S.Environ-
applications. mental ProtectionAgency,RegionVII through the
o Choosingthe right turfgrassfor your site. NebraskaDepartmentof EnvironmentalQuality;
r Choosingand caringfor trees,shrubs,wild- NebraskaNursery and Landscape Association;
flowers and native grassmixes. NebraskaTurfgrassFoundation;Earl May Seedand
. Mulch selectionand how they can influence plant Nursery, Limited Partnership;the Lower Platte North
health and weed control. Natural Resources District;Campbell'sNursery and
. Soil amendments and how to incorporatethem. GardenCenter;NebraskaStatewideArboretum; NU's
. Pond design,maintenance and plant selection. IANR, Agricultural Research and DevelopmentCenter,
. Designingand renovatingwindbreaks. Schoolof Natural Resource Sciences, Water Center,and
. Attracting wildlife to your landscape. Departments Agronomy and Horticulture, Plant
o Identifying and controllingweedsand diseases in Pathologyand Entomology.
"Tent Talks" featurea questionand answersession
with NU extensionhorticuiturist Don Steinegger,
turfgrassspecialist RochGaussoin, entomologistFred
Baxendaleand plant pathologist ]ohn Watkins, who are
the panel of NebraskaEducationalTelevision's Back-
Other demonstrations include a sustainable land-
scapemound featuringwater-conserving plants that
was renovatedin part with funds from last year'sdonor
contributions;a model train areaand how to incorpo-
rate one into your landscape and a mastergardenertent
that will be staffedthrough the day to answeryour
Water and Natu ral Resources
"Woter Tronsfersond Morketing
in Nebrasko ond Colorodo"
Hydrologist Forrest Leaf talks about
water augmentation plans in the
Central Colorado Water Conservancy
District near Greelev.
Alan Berryman,head of the engineering
servicesbranch of the Northern Colo-
rado Water Conservancy District,
discusses district's Flatiron Reser-
voir and Carter Lake projectsneat Water rushesthrough the Western
Loveland. Canal near the Nebraska-Colorado
border as tour participantslisten to a
rundown of current water projectsin
the South Platte Natural Resources
Kearney Daily Hub reporter Lori Potter (left) getsa steak at Lining-up for steakson the Big Thompson River, near
a chuckwagonbarbecueat Viestenz-SmithPark on the Big Loveland.
Thompson River. V
Getting a look at commercial sand-and-gravel operations General Manager Virgil Norton discusses groundwater
near Greeley. transfers in the Upper Republican NRD near Grant.
Jon Altenhofen of the Northern Colorado Water Conser- Blowout....thankfully the AIC kept working!!
vancy District explains Colorado's water recharge and
augmentation project at Tamarack Ranch near [ulesberg,
Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District's Tim Engineer Mike Glade gets into the details
Anderson and Angela Wood of Governor Mike Johann's of Coors' water operations and water
office catch-up on politics at Coors Brewing Co. in Golden. rights at the brewery in Golden.
(photos by Steve Ress and Mary Harding)
AUGUST 2000 WATER CURRENT PAGE 5
tion and Licensure, Nebraska Associa-
iiii-&fiiiiiii Water News Briefs tion of Resource Districts, Nebraska
Game and Parks Commission, UNL
I~ We'll be in the NU Institute of
Water Center, Nebraska Department
.~ Agriculture and Natural Resources
of Agriculture, League of Nebraska
Municipalities, Nebraska Department
(IANR) building. Just look for the
...l distinctive Husker Red steel building
of Natural Resources and the U.S.
., with the white roof.
Phase I of the study will assess
Husker Harvest Days is one of the
Nebraska's current water quality moni-
nation's premier agricultural shows. It
toring efforts and results are to be pre-
was first held in 1978and IANR faculty
Re-Cap ofWater Management and staff have been involved since year
sented to the Legislature by Dec. 1.
Issues Available Free Phase II will use the information
one! About 20 IANR units exhibit gathered in Phase I and will include a
Those attending this spring's 29th during the three-day show. This year's
detailed description of changes
Annual Nebraska Water Conference event is Tuesday through Thursday,
required in the current monitoring sys-
confirmed what many of us already Sept. 12-14. See you there! tem. This will be used to develop a
suspected .....that Nebraskans are comprehensive, integrated statewide
concerned about preventing and con- NDEQ Water Quality wa ter quality monitoring system. Phase
trolling pollution in the state's public Monitoring II is to be completed by June 30, 200l.
and private water sources. Balloting Surface water and groundwater
to develop a prioritized list of water Recent passage of LB1234 requires
questionnaires are part of the process
management issues at the conference the Nebraska Department of Environ-
and have been sent to both individu-
also confirmed that they are equally mental Quality (NDEQ) conduct a com-
als and appropriate entities. These
concerned about unifying systems to prehensive study of water quality
questionnaires must be completed
govern surface water and groundwa- monitoring in Nebraska. NDEQ is
and returned by Sept. 30. If you have
ter, state funding for water research, working with an advisory committee not seen the questionnaires, or have
developing a state water manage- to develop this study. questions about them, contact Steve
ment plan and protecting environ- The committee consists of repre- Walker at the NDEQ at (402)471-4227
mentally sensitive water resources. sentatives of American Consulting
or e-mail email@example.com.
These were the highest ranked of Engineers, Nebraska Department of
33 priority water management issues Health and Human Services Regula-
facing Nebraskans, according to
those attending the March 6-8 confer-
ence at Lincoln's Cornhusker Hotel. Center-Pivot Map Available
Complete polling results, which were
by Charlie Flowerday,
electronically prepared by the Ne-
braska Public Power District, with Editor, UNL Conservation and Survey Division
voting breakdowns and percentages, Center-pivot irrigation systems in percent, from 348 to 903; Hall: 145
are available free from the UNL Wa- Nebraska increased 59 percent from percent, from 240 to 588; Platte: 118
ter Center. Send your request for 1988 to 1997, according to a new Uni- percent, from 519 to 1,132; and York:
copies to Water Management Issues, versity of Nebraska-Lincoln report. 100 percent, from 609 to 1,220. Lind-
Water Center, P.O. Box 830844, Uni- Totals increased from 26,741 in say Manufacturing of Lindsay con-
versity of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 1988 to 42,444 in 1997, the last year tributed partial funding for the 1997
68583-0844, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or for which data is available from data, but future inventories will
phone (402)472-3305. UNL's Center for Advanced Land depend on more outside funding,
Management Information Technolo- explained Mark Kuzila, director of
gies (CALMIT). This is the first UNL's Conservation and Survey
See You At
CALMIT inventory and map of cen- Division, with which CALMIT is
Husker Harvest Days ter-pivot irrigation systems since affiliated.
Stop in and see the Water Center 1990. In addition to CALMIT, the
staff at next month's Husker Harvest "We got partial funding for the study was sponsored by two public
Days in Grand Island. We'll be there map through a cooperative project power districts and five natural re-
with displays and materials on water called the Platte River and Basin sources districts, as well as the state
quality and how to access agencies Cooperative Hydrology Study, but Department of Water Resources
and organizations dealing with water it's only for one year," said Marcus and its Natural Resources and
issues in Nebraska. Tooze, research coordinator with Game and Parks commissions.
We'll answer your questions and CALMIT and principal investigator The map is available from UNL's
have free gifts for everyone. There of the part of the study analyzing land Conservation and Survey Division
will be daily drawings for free NU use that contributed to the inventory. for $5 plus $3 shipping and handling
sweatshirts, presentation pens and Counties with more than 500 for a folded map, or $4 for an
free subscriptions to the Water Cur- pivots that had the highest percent- unfolded map in a tube. For more
rent newsletter. age increases were: Cuming: 313 per~ information, phone (402)472-7523or
cent, from 128 to 529; Merrick: 159 e-mail email@example.com.
PAGE 6 WATER CURRENT AUGUST 2000
28-31: American Wat er Resources
Association Annual Specialt y Conference,
"Riparian Ecology and Management in
Multi-Land Use Watershed," Doubletree
Hotel, Lloyd Center, Portland, OR. For
information, phone (540)687-8390 or e-mail
info@awra .org. .
29-31: "Carbon: Exploring the Benefits
to Farmers and Society," Des Moines , IA.
Registrations due Aug. 8. For information,
contact Alice Vinsand at (515)225-1051 or
2-8: Fourth International Conference on
Integrating Geographic Information Sys-
tems (GIS) and Environmental Modeling, 16-18: WEFTEC 2000, 73rd annual con- NOVEMBER
Banff Centre for Conferences, Banff, ference of the Water Environment Federa-
Alberta, Canada. For information, phone tion, Anaheim Convention Center, Los 6-9: Annual Water Resources Confer-
(303)497-6330 or e-mail Angeles, CA. Phone (703)684-2456 /2480 for ence presented by the American Water
firstname.lastname@example.org . information. Works Association, Miami, FL. For infor-
8-20: Fragmentation 2000 - A Confer- 17-21: Spanning Cultural and Ecological mation, contact Michael J. Kowalski,
ence on Sustaining Private Forests in the Diversity Through Environmental Educa- AWRA director of operations at (540)687-
21st Century, Annapolis, MD. Contact tion: The 29th Annual Conference of the 8390 or e-mail mike@awra .org.
Terri Bates at (703)538-1134 or e-mail North American Association for Environ-
13-15: "Asking the Right Questions:
Bates-Stasny@erois.com. mental Education, South Padre Island, TX. Evaluating the Impact of Groundwater
10-13: Water in the New Millennium: Information is on the internet at
Education," The Groundwater Foundation
"The Possible, the Probable and the Prefer - www.naaee.org .
fall conference and Groundwater Guardian
able, " 2000 RMSAWW A /RMWEA Joint 26-28: National Carbon Sequestrian designation, Lied Conference Center,
annual conference, Vail, CO. For informa- Conference, Missoula, MT. Contact Karen Nebraska City. For information, e-mail
tion, go to http:/ /www.rmsawwa.org or Reiter or Ted Dodge at (406)587-6965 or email@example.com or phone (800)858-
e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. e-mail email@example.com .gov. 4844 or (402)434-2740.
12-14: Husker Harvest Days, Grand 31-Nov. 4: Combined Conferences of 28-Dec. 1: National Water Resources
Island . 8 a.m . to 5 p .m. each day. See the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Association, Annual Conference, San
Nebraska Farmer magazine for details. Science Society of America and Soil Science Diego , CA.
17-22: International Conference on Society of America, Salt Lake City, UT.
Coastal Zone Management, Saint John, Information on the internet at www.asa-
New Brunswick, Canada . For information, cssa-sssa.org/ 0lr99 I .
phone (506)462-5961 or e-mail
22-24: Environmental Problem Solving
with GIS, Cincinnati, OH . Contact Lisa We're Updating!!
Enderle at (412)741-5462 or e-mail
lisa .firstname.lastname@example.org. We are updating our mailing list. If you have a change of address, title
24-27: Groundwater Protection Council and / or name, or would like to have your name added to or removed from
2000 Annual Forum, Ft. Walton Beach, FL. the Water Current mailing list, please let us know. Also, if you know of
Contact GWPC at (405)516-4977 or anyone who might be interested in receiving our publications, please give
http: / /gwpc.site.net/meetings.htm .
27-29: Alliance for Environmental Con-
us their names and we will be glad to add them to our mailing list.
servation: A Comprehensive Approach (to
Nutrient Management), St. Louis , MO .
Change my address 0 Delete me from your list 0 Add to your list 0
Contact Wanda Linker at (334)265-2732 or Name: _
8-11: The Natural Rural Water Associa- City , State, Zip: ~ _
tion Management and Technical Confer-
ence, Kansas City, MO . For further Send update to:
information, contact The National Rural
Water Association at (580)251-9081 or Water Center, University of Nebraska, 103 Natural Resources Hall,
e-mail email@example.com. P.O. Box 830844, Lincoln, NE 68583-0844
12-15: National Small Farm Conference, FAX (402)472-3574
St. Louis, MO . Contact Cyremple Marsh at L or e-mail changes to firstname.lastname@example.org ~
AUGUST 2000 WATER CURRENT .P A G E 7
New Method For Detecting Trace Amounts of MTBE (continued from page I)
trace quantities . Separations Chemist Dave Cassada, "Th is is the first major doctoral dissertation on the
Laboratory Manager Dan Snow and Graduate Student trace occurrence, fate, and transport of ethanol in sur-
Yi Zhang add simple salt to the SPME method to face and groundwater sources," Spalding said.
increase the detectability of both MTBE and ethanol. Both oxygenates can enter groundwater and surface
The method enables the UNL laboratory to accu- water from several sources, Spalding explained .
rately detect and quantify ethanol at the low ppb level Investigating the presence of ethanol in groundwater
and MTBE and similar ether-based oxygenates at the near leaking underground storage tanks (known to
low ppt (parts per trillion) level , Cassada explained. researchers as LUSTs) is an important aspect of the study.
Though a number of factors that can improve the Non-radioactive tagged compounds will be injected in the
method's accuracy and efficiency remain to be investi- LUSTs to make it possible for researchers to track ethanol.
gated, the California Partnership for MTBE is so confi - "These compounds will be intercepted in special
dent in the UNL-developed method that the y published groundwater samplers and the data will be used in the
it several months ago. It also was recently accepted for assessment of the fate of many of the previously
publication in The Journal of A nalytical Chemistry . observed oxygenates and gasoline additives. The data
The method forms the basis of application s that will then be modeled and used in de termining the trans-
could become a very ambitious multi-year assessment port of these compounds in sand and grav el ground-
of the occurrence of ethanol and MTBE in ground w ater water aquifers," said Research H ydrologist Xun-Hong
and surface water, as well as the fate and transport of Chen, who is involved in this portion of the study.
other contaminants present in gasoline that may be Before California fully accepts substituting ethanol
effected by ethanol. for MTBE, research results from this study ar e necessary
"Leaking underground storage tanks and spills from to evaluate the fate of toxic gasoline compounds such as
normal refueling opera tions and leak y vehicles are benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene in gasoho l
probably the most common sources (of contamination)," leaks from LUSTs.
Spalding said, though atmospheric deposits, urban run- "Now that we have a reliable means to detect these
off and powered watercraft also pla ya role inintroduc- contaminant compounds in trace quantities, this
ing them to water supplies. research holds the promise that the gasoline additives
In determ ining the extent of this on the Interstate 80 we count on to help keep our air clean will no longer
corridor in Nebraska and Colorado, Zhang's research pose an unsolvable risk to the water we drink since we
focuses on sampling shallow groundwater aquifers for will be able to locate the contamination and clean it up ,"
ethanol, MTBE and oth er oxygenates. He will investi- Spalding said.
gate how vehicle emissions impact shallow ground- The research is being sponsored by NU's Agricul-
water quality along 1-80between Grand Island and tural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and
Denver and study the natural levels of these oxygenates Natural Resources and Water Center. Additional coop-
in isolated rural areas. The rural control sites are near eration and potential support is coming from The
Shelton and Central City, locations where UNL National Water Research Institute, American Petroleum
researchers have ongoing agricultural and Association, The Association of California Water Agen-
environmental research projects. cies, Oxygenated Fuels Association, West ern States
A portion of this project is Zhang's doctoral degree Petroleum Association, Williams Energ y Co., Cargill,
research. Chief Ethanol Fuels and AGP.
WATER C EN TER/ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS Non Profit
103 N at ur al Resources Hall U.S. Postage
University of N ebraska PAID
P.O. Box 830844 Permit 46
Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 Lincoln NE
ADD RESS SERV IC E REQUESTED
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~d 15% post-consumer recycled paper
11 is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate basedongender, age, disability,
race, color, religion, marital status, veteran's status, national orethnicorigin, or sexual orientation.