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									NUCLEAR DETECTORS 4.1 Objective: The objective is to develop the Industrial Production Technologies of Nuclear Radiation Detectors- Gas Filled Radiation Detectors, Scintillation Detectors, Semiconductor Detectors, Semiconductor Detector Material, and to build micro-electronics Instrumentation with embedded processors and these indigenously developed Detectors, ASIC’s, HMC’s. The instrumentation developed over the years and extensively used in various nuclear installations suffers from obsolescence and denial of components- detectors and IC’s. This has necessitated the new cycles of development incurring huge cost and time overrun. The proposed radiation measuring instrumentation based on a large number of indigenously developed components will have improved reliability, performance and reduced cost for various applications in the country. 4.2 Justification: Over last many decades, several groups in DAE Institutions have been developing and producing a large variety of Scintillation Detectors, Silicon Radiation Detectors, Ion chambers, proportional counters, large area MWPC etc for use in Nuclear Installations and industrial applications and for in-house use for physics experiments in country and for experiments at CERN, Fermi Lab etc. Their expertise in radiation detector development is well known nationally and internationally. However, this vast expertise has not been translated into commercial applications/developments for our nuclear program though it is always cited in the research proposals. One of the reason has been identified as no industrial support for this physics based industrial activity. Recently a large number of international quality gas detectors,(SINP,VECC), Scintillation Detectors (TIFR,BARC) and Semiconductor Detectors (BARC) have been developed by the experts with the help of Indian Industry support in its fabrication. Based on their expertise, a new generation of detectors both for radiation monitoring as seen in the products of international nuclear equipment suppliers and for imaging requirements which are not available to us, can be developed by using industrial production technologies. The mission of this project is to meet these objectives of enabling the mass production facilities for such radiation detectors required in volumes in the local industry and also to build instrumentation using these components. The instrumentation built using indigenously developed components will not only overcome the problems of obsolescence to a large extent but these capabilities developed , with newer technologies, will also make local nuclear industry competitive in the global market . 4.3 Scope: During the last decade several new designs of these detectors have been developed by the international industry with new structural materials and new manufacturing techniques being available but we have not kept pace in the country. A large number of scientists work on the development of detectors for their doctoral degree. Using their expertise, and with the industry support mass production methods for various radiation detector systems will be developed in the nuclear instrumentation industry e.g. public sector as well as private industry. Several Groups in BARC have been developing gas filled detectors for reactor applications and radiation monitoring applications. Some of these are being produced at ECIL on industrial scale but the variety of the radiation detectors produced in the country is very limited one, eventhough in early seventies and eighties a larger variety of nuclear radiation detectors ( e.g.gas filled and scintillation detectors, Si(Li) ) were produced at ECIL. Now a days , not only HPGe, NaI and even the GM tubes are being imported in large numbers. HSEC group has made a report on the variety of radiation monitoring equipment needed for the DAE nuclear program. NPCIL has a larger requirement these radiation detectors and instrumentation, will be participating in this development plan for many of these detectors and related counting systems etc. NPCIL and other

users from accelerator laboratories will be a part of this industrial production project as key drivers. The funding for the prototype development will be initially supported by this project and later on after some success , User demands will support this program. The scope of the project is to build very compact microelectronics instrumentation that is required in nuclear programme using indigenously developed detectors, MEMS, ASICs and hybrid microcircuits and incorporating features of computing power and connectivity. It is envisaged that the plan to strengthen the activity of Microelectronics Instrumentation will succeed only in collaboration with the industry and with the setting up of a dedicated Radiation Detectors and Sensors Laboratory at ECIL,Hyderabad and ECIL/BARC, Mumbai. RDSL Centres will be run on contractual basis by ECIL for all the DAE Institutions with its planned objective of developing a very large number of radiation detectors and MEMS and integrated SMART Sensors with participation of the Indian Industry. 4.4 Benefits/Deliverable: The Industrial Production Technologies of Nuclear Radiation Detectors- Gas Filled Radiation Detectors, Scintillation Detectors, Semiconductor Detectors for charged particles, X-rays, Gamma Rays, Neutrons, Scintillation Detectors coupled to photodiodes will be developed and established in the Indian Industry. Semiconductor Detector Material for the radiation detectors will be developed and used in producing the various radiation detectors. Further microelectronics Instrumentation with embedded processors and these indigenously developed and produced Detectors, and ASIC’s, HMC’s will be built under this project. In particular, industrial production will involve development and use of following types of radiation detectors: Si-PIN Diodes, Si-Photodiodes, Silicon Drift Detector and CCD-X-Ray Array Detectors; Plastic Scintillator/Photodiode, CsI Detectors with Photo diodes, ZnCdTe gamma detectors, Diamond Detectors, Gas Ionisation and proportional Counters, Pixel Detectors, X-ray Detector Arrays for tomography and imaging applications. Detector Electronics and Multi Chip Module (MCM) for nuclear electronics; embedded ARM/Intel Processor based instruments, Handheld Area Monitor/Survey Meter using detectors and HMCs developed in BARC will be developed and produced. 4.5 Type of Project: Development of Industrial Production Technology for Radiation Detectors and Sensors require very close collaboration between the Scientists/Engineers in DAE Institutes and Industry partners for periods ranging from few months to one-two years for a given activity/ product development. RDSL at Hyderabad and Mumbai setup under this project will provide this opportunity to work together and develop the industrial prototypes of what they have developed earlier in their Institutes. RDSL will also carry out the necessary field /user trials for these industrial products etc. To begin with RDSL will be setup till the end of XI-th plan period. Scientists and engineers will be part of the RDSL on deputation as per the requirements of the R&D activity. RDSL will employ technical manpower to work with the experienced scientists either at RDSL or at any DAE Center for the activities under this project. This approach will ensure adequate project manpower for efficient and timely and successful completion of the proposed activities. RDSL will be setup by ECIL in a suitable location in Mumbai in a leased or any other agreed location outside BARC Campus for a period of five years to begin with. RDSL at ECIL campus at Hyderabad will be used for Gas filled radiation detectors and Scintillation Detectors etc, whereas ECIL/BARC RDSL will be used for all other Radiation detector developments and compact instrumentation design studies etc. RDSL will make extensive use of local industry partners (used by DRDO Centres successfully for their radiation monitoring developments and supplies) so that these developments are completed in time and cost effective manner. The over all project aims at

development of technologies for very compact prototype devices and nuclear instruments in collaboration with the electronics components industry (SCL, BEL, SITAR) and nuclear industry (ECIL) and private enterprises in these fields. 5.Location of the Project: The RDSL facilities will be set up in Mumbai within BARC campus in the related Divisions of BARC and later on if needed will be shifted to BARC Training School Complex when the new building of the same is ready during the X-th plan period and also outside BARC Campus by ECIL in the leased premises so that the interaction with the industry is very convenient and effective. RDSL facilities at ECIL Campus, Hyderabad will be a complementary developmentcum production center for some of these radiation detector systems. SITAR, BEL, SCL will also have similar Lab/Cells to develop components for semiconductor detectors, CAT, TIFR, SINP will be centres of activity in Compound Semiconductor devices and optoelectronics systems etc. BARC and IGCAR Campus will be having the Nanomaterials based activities under the related task force groups. The development of Radiation Detectors, Sensors, ASICs, and MEMS will be done by scientists from various divisions of BARC in collaboration with and utilising consultancy and manpower from Academic Institutes. However, the packaging/assembly and system level testing will be carried out at RDSL using prototyping assistance from Indian Industry. 6. Salient Scientific / Technical features of the Project: Program on Gas Ionisation Detectors, Scintillator Detector and Silicon Detectors. Ionising radiation is present in most nuclear installations and needs to be closely and constantly monitored for reasons of personnel safety, process control instrumentation and a variety of other applications. To meet the increasing and recurrent demand for reliable radiation detectors and sensors several divisions in BARC are working on the development of various types gaseous radiation detectors to be produced by Indian Industry as an indigenous source for these devices. This would not only reduce the dependence on imports and consequently save foreign exchange but also improve the expertise and operating experience in detector development. Another advantage would be the development of devices with tailor-made specifications to meet the individual needs of users since such instruments are difficult to procure from commercial manufacturers as is the case with high temperature neutron detectors for PFBR project. Several hundreds of radiation detectors produced in the country are in regular use in nuclear research, industry and other applications that include research and power reactors, accelerators, fuel-handling facilities, radiation laboratories etc. Important types of deployment include reactor instrumentation and health physics instrumentation. Several groups in BARC e.g. Electronics Division, Radiation Safety Systems Division, Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Solid State Physics Division and others are developing a wide range of radiation detectors. ECIL is also actively involved in the development and production of several types of detectors and associated instrumentation. At present there no coordination agency for these activities and to promote the development of the innovative designs of these rugged radiation detectors. This centre could perform these activities to develop detectors and sensors that are capable of meeting new and special kinds of requirements in addition to upgrading the existing designs, using state-of-the-art technology.

Gas filled Detectors: Electronics Division BARC has been developing gas filled detectors for reactor applications and radiation monitoring applications and some of these are being produced at ECIL on industrial scale for use in neutron flux monitoing though the variety of their gas filled detectors is very limited. Earlier ECIL had been supplying GM Tubes during 1970-1990 based on the know how

from NPD/BARC Detector Group. As not much business or development work was further carried out at ECIL, GM tubes are no longer produced, whereas new models of gas filled counters are available in the international market. During the last decade with new structural material being available, several new designs of these detectors have been developed by the international industry but not by the local industry in the country. As number of scientists have been working on the detectors for their doctoral degree, we can start working on these detector fabrication technologies based on their expertise from pilot production point of view at the selected Vendor Companies. Several groups at TIFR,SINP,VECC and BARC have been developing and producing ion chamber, proportional counters, large area MWPC etc for high energy physics experiments at CERN, Fermi Lab etc. and their expertise is well known. However, this vast expertise has not been translated into applications for our nuclear program though it is always cited in the project proposals. One reason has been that there is no industrial support for this activity. The detector development and fabrication is not considered as frontline research activity. Only now there is realization that we should use the expertise of those who are making international quality gas detectors for developing the new generation of gas filled detectors both for radiation monitoring as seen in the products of international nuclear equipment suppliers and for imaging requirements which are not available to us etc. The mission of this initiative is to meet this objective of setting up the mass production facilities in the industrial sector for such radiation detectors required in volumes. Dr Sheikh, SSPD , BARC, Sh. Babu RSSD , BARC, Dr B. Biswas ,NPD, BARC, Sh.V.Balagi, ED,BARC; Prof Y.P.Viyogi , VECC, Prof R.K.Manchanda, TIFR, Prof N.K.Mondal, TIFR are some of the experts who will contribute to this program on making the action plan for a variety of GM counters, proportional counter and Gas flow type MWPC counters for radiation survey purposes and imaging applications. The following types of gas filled radiation detectors are required in large number which can be developed during the Xth plan period as given in the Table-1. BARC, Groups and ISD , CAD of ECIL will generate the specifications and the list of gas filled detectors to be developed under this program. Recently EAD has procured 550 GM counters at a cost of Rs 60 lakhs. These are not infrequent orders. NPCIL has larger requirement and Head, Instrumentation NPCIL will be approached for long term planning for their requirements. The inputs will also be taken from the DAE vision document where a large variety of the proposals of radiation sensors were made, and from a recent survey of BARC User’s and Xth plan projects of various DAE Institutes. Neutron Detectors:B-10 coated, BF3 , He3 proportional Counters, Fission Ionisation ChamberPrototype Production at ECIL. The enriched B-10 in elemental form and in the form of BF-3 compound from HWB is now firmly established. Recently, SSPD has also recently set up the BF-3 filling glass station at ECIL. Therefore, the fabrication of B/He3 counters can be made operational in production mode and bank of standard counters can be produced and kept for use under this project. SSPD/ECIL will look into new design using thin walled counter tubes with laser welding etc . Proportional Counters for alpha and beta particles, gas flow counters, Air Ionisation Chambers, Wire Plane Chambers for portal monitors and contamination monitoring. RSSD has been making such counters in limited numbers for contamination monitors. Such large area detectors are also produced for physics experiments as well. A survey will be made to select a few types of these proportional counters for industrial production etc. Position Sensitive Gas filled Counters for Accelerator /Physics Experiments

These detectors can be gainfully employed in many situations to localize the contamination now with the availability of ASIC’s and HMC’s for on chamber mounted electronics etc. All these detector now come with detector mounted electronics which has been developed for the high energy physics experiments being carried out at RHIC, ALICE experiments. These systems are being used in commercial portal monitors made abroad. This available technology at VECC, SINP and TIFR need to be developed for its application in the reactor programme. Similar techniques are planned to be used for Neutrino experiment by TIFR Group. ED is developing the associated analog electronics which can be mounted on the detector itself. Industrial production techniques of Gas filled Radiation detectors is a very promising industrial activity in view of the large nuclear power NPCIL /ECIL) and non power program (Accelerator programs at BARC, VECC, TIFR). As this project requires minimum development, the productionisation by private industry can yield immediate results if this activity is well supported/funded in the initial phases of productions at the proposed RDSL Centre. The funding for the prototype development will be initially supported by this program and later on, after successful development these will be available to Users on payment basisNPCIL/ECIL/Users by the RDSL Center.

Flow Chart of Gas filled detectors

Project Proposal No.: R&D/BARC/1.01/65.02 Title of the Project: Development of Industrial Production Technologies of Nuclear Radiation Detectors:

Gas Filled Radiation Detectors


BARC A.M. Shaikh D.A.R. Babu D.C. Biswas V. Balagi

ECIL S.P. Chaganty & nominee from CAD and ISD Section

BARC K. Mahajan (CDM) MDD,ED

Design, specifications, experimental needs. Detectors Materials selection Process selection Quality control

Production of Radiation Testing and Evaluation Quality Control Supply

Type of Detectors to be Produced: BF3 and 3He-filled Neutron Detectors : Monitor counters, Signal detectors, 1-D position sensitive detectors of various dimensions, efficiency and sensitivity. G.M. Counters: High and Low Sensitivity, metal body X-ray proportional counters, X-ray position sensitive detectors including microstrip type.

Modus-operandi for production of detectors in collaboration with ECIL: (Starting July 2005)

1. Setting/ Augmenting of evacuation and gas filling facility at ECIL/BARC. Revival of GM tube laboratory at ECIL. ( Next 6 months)

2. Studying design of detectors: engineering aspect, material selection, material processing and assembly. ( 6 months in parallel to 1.)

3. Making of detectors.

4. Testing and characterizing the detectors at ECIL & BARC and put in to applications. By March 2007, at least 10 detectors of each kind will be produced.

5. Regular Production of Radiation detectors as per user requirement commences after this date.


Scintillation Detectors: Since 1960, Inorganic Scintillation Detectors are being developed at TPPED/BARC for detection of high energy gamma rays e.g. NaI, CsI, BGO ,CdWO4. ECIL was also supplying the NaI detectors based on the know how from TPPED Group. The packaging of the NaI detector was problematic and there was degradation of the performance with time. With new packaging facilities with laser welding, this should not be any problem now. Therefore, one can revive the NaI Detector production and add CsI detector production facilities at ECIL with assured turnover economically. Charged Particle Detector Array Systems For high energy heavy ion experiments at Pelletron Accelerator at TIFR and also for at forthcoming Superconducting Cyclotron Accelerator at Calcutta, a number of charged particle array detectors are planned using the Silicon Detector Technology now available at BEL and the analog ASIC’s technology available at SCL, Chandigarh. These detector systems also use CsIphotodiode arrays for very high energy protons etc. A number groups have the expertise in this area from BARC,VECC and TIFR as a part of DAE program in high energy physics experiments at CERN and FNAL. Such systems are being developed at several national laboratories in Italy, USA and at CERN in their microfabrication centers. This RDSL center will be necessary for the assembly/testing of such arrays in its clean room environment etc which will be built by a dedicated team of scientists and engineers from DAE Institutes. A beginning has been made by the respective physics groups to assemble the systems by purchasing all inputs i.e. CsI detectors and the photodiodes. A meeting was organised to review the status of these activities being carried out at by BARC,SINP,TIFR . Dr Kailas AD/NPD has prepared the action plan for this program including the possibility of developing these scintillation detectors and photodiodes in the country. TPPED/BARC has earlier developed the

technology of CsI scintillators at their Crystal Growth laboratory using the CsI raw chemical compound developed and produced in CD/BARC. ED has made good progress in developing the photodiodes of proper specifications. The RDSL center facilities can be used to develop/produce the charged particle detector arrays with the help of physicists who want to use these systems, and the developers of CsI, photodiodes and ASIC’s required for this program. This technology will be also of use for the compact pocket gamma spectrometers required in large numbers for survey purposes etc. The vast expertise of making these systems developed in these DAE institutes and the universities for physics experiments can be used only if the industrial methods are used while doing this project. There may be a small delay in making the charged particle wall using the indigenous components but if we do not insist on this, we can never succeed in developing the industrial production of radiation detectors in the country. Before, the operation of Pelletron Accelerator at TIFR and NSC, there was very good activity in the area of these detectors at BARC,SINP etc. For high energy / nuclear physics experiments at these accelerators, there was large scale import of BGO, BaF2,NaI detectors and this import of scintillation detector systems killed the detector development activities in all the DAE Institutes. These Groups engaged in the detector development activities were not given the chance to produce the large requirements with support from Industry. The proposed approach is to take help of industry as has been done for India-CMS Collaboration under in a joint BARC-BEL project for Silicon Radiation Detector Development and Production. Under this collaboration a Detector Testing and assembly Laboratory has been setup at BEL, Banglore and it will be used for developing and assembly of a large variety of Silicon based radiation detector systems. It is proposed to have such cells for different detector development activities at participating vendor sites if required. CdWO4 Scintillators are required for the x-ray and gamma rays imaging applications. These are also coupled to the photodiodes but with smaller pitch. Saint-Gobain-India has setup the facility to grow CdWO4 detectors and are willing to supply these. This company is approved vendors for the X-Ray Scanner Array Detectors being used at ECIL in their X-ray baggage scanners etc. NMSCD, and TPPED from BARC will work out roadmap for the production of large number of Inorganic Scintillators (e.g. NaI,CsI,CdWO4) required for radiation monitoring needs, and also for the imaging applications. Chemical Engg. Group (Cesium/Europium based phosphor - which can be further developed to develop high density scintillating glass. CAT has installed glass fiber fabrication setup which can be used to develop neutron / gamma sensitive optical fibres. CAT will be carrying out the feasibility study of these new promising detectors for radiation monitoring. As the manpower to work on these projects is limited, the project staff will be provided to these DAE Centers through the RDSL forum. Plastic Scintillators Earlier BARC had developed the knowhow for making the plastic scintillators and now TIFR has developed the expertise to produce in large volumes the plastic scintillators. These Scintilators are being used in large numbers for high energy physics experiments at Ooty and CERN etc. These plastic scintillators are required in large number for portal monitor, SNM monitors, which are needed in larger number with increasing size of nuclear program. At present, the nuclear facilities are scantly equipped with these equipment. The development of inorganic and plastic scintiillators in the DAE centers is in advanced state and ready of commercial exploitation. Before it is transferred to ECIL, it will be necessary to develop few prototypes of both the

scintillator based systems required for our nuclear program, by the Scientists and Engineers at TIFR and BARC working in high energy physics experiments but with involvement of manpower from RDSL at ECIL. This activity will be taken up at ECIL with inputs from DAE centers as a part of this Initiative for Radiation Sensors with financial support from this program. Dr.N.K.Mondal, Plastic Scintillator Systems, Dr S.K.Gupta, TIFR Plastic Scinttilators Dr.S.Kailas,AD/PG, Dr.D.N.Sharma, Head, RSSD, S P Chaganty, ECIL will give the requirements needed for the nuclear power program, R&D Manager NPCIL. Semiconductor Detectors at BARC. In early seventies, a large no of groups at BARC,TIFR and VECC were working in the area of surface barrier and diffused junction Silicon Radiation Detectors for charged particle detectors. BARC, TIFR and VECC also developed Ge(Li) and Si(Li) detector technology in the DAE fraternity. A variety of this range of Surface Barrier Silicon detectors are still being produced for in house use. In the last decade an Ion implanter was obtained to make PIPS Silcon detectors at BARC. However, no other facilities e.g. diffusion furnaces were installed for producing the large no of Semiconductor Detector required in the country and therefore for the Silicon Strip Detector Development and fabrication BARC went for collaboration mode of working with CEERI and BEL. In the last decade, as a part of India-CERN collaboration, IC fabrication facility at BEL has been used to develop large area PIPS detectors with much improved characteristics with respect to leakage current, high voltage breakdown etc. These detectors are now being commercially produced by BEL in wafer for. An ambitious program has been launched to develop a large variety of Si based radiation detectors at BEL , SCL and SITAR for meeting the large needs of radiation monitoring equipment as well as for high energy / nuclear physics experiments. The integral assembly of Si-detectors with dies of front end circuits require special consideration of bonding. It will be required to optimize the integration for optimum performance for specific applications. The center will be best utilized for carrying out these prototype integration before it could be taken up for final production at suitable foundry set-up. The center will also package at prototype scale the integral assemblies for various special applications like hermetical or leak tight or water proof assemblies for under water or under ground applications. At present it is not possible to get this type packaging done from the facilities available within the country, due to large set-up costs involved and the possible varieties required to be tried before optimum packing performance is achieved. At present there are two semiconductor laboratories (BARC and VECC) for making surface barrier Silicon detectors for inhouse use. With the availability of Passivated Ion Implanted Silicon detectors, the activities of these detector groups should be reorganized to develop the new multielement detectors required in the very high energy physics experiments such as charged particle spheres etc or work with new detector material GaAs or ZnCdTe etc. and make use of the Silicon Detector Development work carried out under BARC-BEL Collaboration. Gamma Ray Detectors HPGe Detectors: Earlier in Nineties, TPPED had developed Ge(Li) and small volume HPGe detectors using the Detector Grade Germanium Crystals from foreign suppliers. Similarly, TIFR Detector group had also developed high resolution Ge(Li) detectors and made gamma ray spectrometers. ECIL also started making liquid nitrogen cooled X-Ray and Gamma Ray Detectors. These activities died natural death as free import became a reality and no efforts were made to carry R&D in this area by the physics and instrumentation community in DAE. As the high resolution Gamma Ray

detectors are used in large numbers and these have limited life time, in a special meeting Director BARC asked Dr Sahoo of TPPED to restart the work on making these HPGe detectors and Head, ED to supply the electronics required. Accordingly Dr. Sahoo has started the procurement action for obtaining the detector grade HPGe and at the same time start the devlopment work with the old stock of HPGe crystals available with TPPED. Dr.Trilok Singh, Head, Cryogenics Division is being requested to look into the necessary cryogenics even using the portable cryocoolers for assembly of such detector systems. Further it is planned to setup a crystal puller facilty for Silicon and Germanium Crystals as well. Dr S C Sabharwal , TPPED has the necessary experience for setting such crystal puller facilities for Silicon and Germanium crystals. This facility will also be useful for growing Silicon Crystals using the detector grade silicon which will be produced under a separate Xth plan project by HWD/BARC. Dr S.K.Kulshreshtha is looking into developing the hyper pure Germanium suitable for HPGe detectors while import is being resorted to kick start the HPGe detector development. Dr Sahoo and Dr S.K.Gupta under the guidance of the Dr Kailas who had attended the meeting with Director, BARC are being requested to make the road map for this development. This team will also look into the ‘Gap’ areas for converting the detector grade silicon ingots into single crystals etc and also characterization and polishing of these crystals etc with the industrial help and other R&D center’s help. For dicing and polishing of 4 inch Silicon wafers, necessary machinery and equipment will be procured under this project proposal. However, these equipments will be installed and housed in a suitable clean room environment within BARC/RDSL Complex. The setting of these facilities will go a long way to develop the semiconductor detector laboratory of international standard. CdZnTe: TPPED had been working in the area of developing the CdZnTe for use as room temperature, high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. All the portable systems for detection of U/Pu use ZnCdTe detectors. The required pure materials can be made available from NMSCD/BARC etc. SSPL and CMET also have plans for these pure elements. A feasibility study will be carried out in one of the two semiconductor laboratories at VECC or BARC for developing ZnCdTe gamma Ray detectors. This will become a reality if basic infrastructure as mentioned in this project is ready. Even before this, detector groups can develop these detectors provided the manpower is provided for this project by RDSL. These detectors are required in large numbers for detection of pilferage of U/Pu purposes etc and recommended by IAEA. NMSCD has been working in the area of developing Diamond films using LPCVD for alpha radiation detection. SINP has also been working in the area of DLC and excellent facilities exist at SINP to characterize these films etc. GaAs Diodes have also been developed as radiation hard detectors internationally. All these developments will greatly benefit with infrastructure being setup at RDSL center. X-ray/Gamma Rays Detector Arrays: Digital Radiography is being widely used to inspect Waste Drums, Metal Shells etc. HPPD, BARC has developed expertise in X-ray imaging systems for medical and industrial tomography applications using the Phosphor screen and intensified-CCD Camera system using the imported components. HPPD team has developed all the necessary algorithms and techniques of digital xray imaging systems including 3-D Tomography. Further, Linear Diode Array (LDA) based XRay/Gamma Ray Imaging Systems has been setup in IAD for industrial tomography applications again using the imported Linear Diode Arrays Systems etc.

Recently, X-ray dffractometers have started using position sensitive Silicon strip/pixel detectors in place of proportional counters for detection of x-rays. With this approach, data acquisition times become less by a factor of 100 as one simulatenously counts in 100/1000 channels at the same time. The Silicon Strip detectors developed at BEL can be suitably designed for this application. Si-diodes have been used side ways to increase the counting efficiency to 70% for 100 kev. For X-Ray diffractometry studies of very small samples, a variety of CCD based imaging systems are being developed in the last decade and first commercial products are becoming available in the international market. The basic ingredients of these systems is the development of linear and 2-D CCD Arrays. SCL has developed similar CCD arrays for DRDO and ISRO for visible and infra red photons. Under the X-plan it is proposed to develop the PIN-CCD X-rays arrays. As is the case with charged particle arrays, to develop the complete systems system, the dedicated team of SSPD scientists and RDSL engineers should be constituted to carryout the feasibility studies. Meeting will be organized with ISRO Teams who have ongoing major program in the area of imaging in the thermal, Visible ,X-ray imaging systems. BARC will be able to develop similar systems as basic technology of CsI scintillation detectors. CdWO4 and photodiodes has been developed in the country and can be used to develop these LDA. With the involvement of Users as the key drivers for these instrumentation , all the above mentioned systems for X-ray and Gamma Ray Imaging for medical and industrial applications can be designed and developed. ECIL has taken up the development of Electron Accelerators for Container Scanning applications. The following LDA systems have been indentified to be taken up for devlopment under this project. 1) Linear Diode Array System ( ~500 kev)- Scintillators CsI/CdWO4 will be developed and organized by TPPED/BARC/ECIL and Photodiodes will be developed by ED and BEL and the packaging and testing by MDD and Assembly and Testing at System Level by HPPD and ED at RDSL/BARC. (2) Silicon Diode Arrays ( ~< 100 kev) will be developed by ED at RSDL/BARC these will be used both for imaging purposes and with appropriate electronics with x-ray spectrometers as used in the new X-ray Diffractometers. Users and Developers team will be made to define the specifications and the design of these products to be developed. There many applications of imaging arrays and a meeting with the following objectives will be essential (1) to know the requirements in detail so as to develop the prototypes for as many users as possible. (2) to know the expertise in all the relevant areas and finally to form Special Interest Group of users to develop the highly compact and high resolution x-ray imaging systems. As the needs of these equipments are urgent in nature by many groups in the DAE, ED has taken the first step in this area by starting the development of the photodiodes. This program has to be pursued at highest priority at the new RDSL center. Semiconductor Technologies: materials The new generation of nuclear instrumentation needs of DAE program in energy, basic research and other allied projects emphatically envisage strong development and support in Silicon and/or silicon based technologies from the industry in the country. The existing facilities BEL(Bipolar), SCL(CMOS), SITAR (CMOS), GAETEC(GaAs) in its present processes will not be able to meet

the development requirements in terms sensors integrated with low noise and high speed electronics for use in harsh (high temperature and radiation ) environments. By updating these facilities by additional process equipment to form SiC films or Si-Ge thin films on the Silicon wafers etc, at these foundries, we can hope develop the complete technology to fabricate new semiconductor based instrumentation. i.e.GaAs , GaN, and SiC based sensors/electronics as well as high speed and low noise operating at higher temperatures. Si-Ge ASIC’s are needed for high speed applications and these are finding wide ranging applications in the electronics industry also. Silicon Crystals and Wafers for Detectors and VLSI Circuits: HWD has taken up the Development of Detector Grade Silicon at BARC to produce high resistivity silicon material for detectors and also standard IC grade Silicon crystal material upto 4inch diameter wafers. This development will meet the requirement of various Labs in the country which use 2",3" and 4" wafers. As the expertise does not exist in HWD, the complete characterization of 4-inch wafers developed using the proposed procedure is to be carried in various labs in BARC and elsewhere. CMET/Hyderabad, has shown interest to collaborate in this area. BHEL/BEL may have the facility to convert the 4-inch diameter Si-crystals into ready to use silicon wafers. A silicon wafers user group will be formed to help in carrying out the necessary tests on the silicon produced by HWD, and to convert Si-ingots to wafers. Dr.S.C.Sabharwal’s group at TPPED and Dr V.K.Tangri’s group are collaborating to setup the facilities for making crystals of Silicon and Germanium semiconductors. The proposed RDSL/ BARC could house these infrastructure facilities for semiconductor technologies e.g. cutting, lapping machines, and material characterization instrumentation not available presently at DAE Institutes. Ga and As – Development Activities at BARC: BARC has developed the ultra pure Ga andAs of five 9 purity which can be used to make GaAs wafers for use at GAETEC foundry. This work needs to be followed up. SSPL has developed the basic technology of processing GaAs wafers into high speed devices and and rad hard circuits at GAETEC. GaAs is being used as radiation detectors for nuclear radiations which are radiation hard. Even first stage amplifiers could be made with HEMT etc. SiC and GaN Materials The Silicon Carbide, wide band gap semiconductor, has given encouraging results as radiation sensors in harsh environments of high temperatures and high gamma radiations. The array based SiC neutron detectors integrated with the pulse processing circuits are being studied for use in reactors to measure axial, azimuthal and radial flux profiles using ex-core positions at Westinghouse. Elecric Co, USA. This configuration will provide inherent capability of redundancy and can be made self calibrating. Similarly, the present developments in SiC detector have the potential to replace all the gas-filled type radiation detectors because of the capability to withstand very harsh environments. Moreover, SiC material is the present choice of high voltage, high frequency, high power, high temperature and high tolerance to chemical & radiation environments. Therefore, in a long run, development of circuits/components based on SiC technology will yield high power handling, high speed, efficient (noise) and rugged instrumentation. GaN material technology has been developed at TIFR and is very suitable for rad hard and fast electronics. These also can be used in the same way as GaAS or SiC active devices. TIFR is planning to make LED and other devices with GaN. This has been proposed in the DAE Vision by TIFR and should be pursued. The work in the compound semiconductor materials is being carried out at TIFR, CAT, SINP and IOP. This small group will be strengthened to take up preparation of the feasibility studies of the

development of the device based on compound semiconductor using international facilities for fabrication using the international MPW program, for the design and fabrication of these devices, and also to formulate the plans for their development in the country using the forthcoming facilities in the country at IIT’s and IISc and at CAT, Indore. CAT, Indore has a major program to develop optoelectronics materials, devices and systems. A Compound Semiconductor Process Facilities have been setup during the last plan period. TIFR has a very strong presence in the basic semiconductor materials and nanostructured devices which can be used as sensors etc. A nano technology laboratory has been proposed at TIFR to work in the area basic sciences etc.SINP has also setup a good characterization laboratory and dedicated team of young scientists in the area of nanotechnology based devices etc. The SG-NMP will formulate the plans to convert the basic developments at these Institutes into devices and systems. CAT Indore is well placed to organize this activity as per their proposal with SG-NMP. BARC is proposing to develop Silicon Single Crystals/ Wafers technology in the Xth plan which can be used at national foundries in the country for making radiation detectors MEMS, and ASIC’s. The characterization facilities at RDSL/BARC will be able to qualify these Silicon wafers for its usage in the different devices, with the facilities at CMEMS it is possible to develop detectors and MEMS using BARC Si-wafers in house, package them as per the user requirement. In other words, BARC multidiscipline activities will play a big role in developing all the underlying technology for the development of Silicon based systems for its future nuclear program which depends strongly on remotisation of many of the activities in reactor related operation as given in the following. ISRO has set up a similar center LEOS for developing and fabrication of all the CCD Camera abroad satellite for infra red, visible and UV spectral range etc. The center designs, qualifies after thorough testing and produce the required number with the help of Industry similar to RDSL being proposed here. Facilities proposed to be set-up at RDSL/BARC: The development of the state of the art radiation detectors and related systems will be centered around various divisions in BARC which have been carrying out research in this area for decades e.g. TPPED, NPD,SSPD, RSSD and ED. The infrastructure proposed to be setup during this project will be in respective sections/divisions in BARC. However, for industrial production techniques, some of these facilities and equipment will be common and there is a need for very large interaction with the industry. Therefore, it is proposed to have a RDSL/ECIL Laboratory in Mumbai in leased premises of about 2000-2500 Sq.ft. area for a period of five years. This new Laboratory is essential for assembly, packaging and testing of Radiation Detectors and Systems and for field trials. The following laboratories / rooms are planned for carrying out all the activities to build systems with micro instrumentation technologies. The facilities at this center can be broadly categorized into four categories as following:     Basic Infrastructure Process Equipment Test and Measurement Packaging Basic Infrastructure:

Semi-clean rooms (Class 1000/10000) of area 80m2 for Packaging / Characterisation /Test Facilities. Lab Rooms for are required for the assembly and testing of the devices with in associated electronics. 1. Test & measurement equipment for testing of sensors/detectors 2 Automatic/semiautomatic bonding machines 3. Die bonder/flip chip bonder for making smart radiation sensors and MEMS. In addition to the laboratories dedicated to the packaging one needs a number of general semiclean laboratories( 2 rooms) for system level testing etc and associated office space (2-3 rooms) with a total area of 200 Sq.Meters. Some of the proposed equipments are available with various divisions of BARC as listed in the following tables. The equipments listed in M&E table should be installed in RDSL/BARC and RDSL/ECIL Mumbai. As a part of central DAE facility, it will be open to all the research workers in this area. In case some of the listed equipment is not made available for this center, additional funds may be required. This list is also subject to the revision by all the participating Groups in this project – E&I, MSG, Ch.T.G and PG etc. at the end of Xth plan.

The RDSL facility will also be useful for several groups in BARC which are working in the areas of nanotechnology, and also other researchers working on novel devices, materials and sensors. Several groups in BARC have dedicated sections working in the fields such as Chemical Sensors (TPPED, Physics Group), Radiation Detector (Diamond Detectors for alpha particles-Chemistry Group and Organic Semiconductor-TPPED), Micro machining and chemical milling in Chemical Engineering Groups, flow sensors (RCnD), etc. All these groups will also benefit with the setting up of this facility of Silicon device packaging and testing. Although the development of the integrated micro-electronics ASIC’s and HMC’s has been started at ED during the IX th plan period, it is time now for a wider coordinated RD3 program within BARC and DAE institutions in this rich area radiation detectors, sensors with integrated electronics etc at RDSL,Mumbai. 7. Mode of Execution: Development of radiation detectors and systems with integrated microelectronics and microelectrical mechanical sensors is a multidisciplinary activity and is to be carried out with the involvement of Industry in prototype development. The RDSL center will provide a unique facility where developers from R&D Institutions, Product Designers from Industry will work together to develop industrial production techniques for the radiation detectors and related systems. A DAE-BRNS symposium was held recently at Defense Laboratory Jodhpur, where there was a large participation from all the research workers in DAE,DRDO and ISRO Laboratories working in the area of radiation detectors and related measuring systems. At the end of the symposium, it was recommended that there is a large demand of radiation monitoring instruments for the emergency preparedness program in the country and all the Laboratories should work together along with the industry to industrially produce these instruments etc. RDSL will be forum to integrate various technology-based developments being done at the three departments and also to associate other academic/R&D institutes including foundries and industries. The mission of RDSL will be to develop the synergy between the researchers, design engineers, system engineers and Users so that success is achieved in the Research, Design, Development and Deployment (RD3) program in Radiation Detector and Sensors and in Microelectronics Instrumentation.

The detailed Design Basis Reports and Work plans for each of the radiation detector and related activities mentioned in this report will be prepared by the respective spokespersons with the help of team as mentioned in this report. ECIL will provide technical services for making these work plans and also to see what projects can be taken up at RDSL/ECIL Hyderabad and which are to be carried out at with the help of private industry. Most of the proposed activities will be started before the RDSL/Mumbai is setup as the equipment required can be setup within BARC temporarily and some of these has to be installed at RDSL/ECIL Hyderabad. However, the issue of technical services support by project staff hired by RDSL is a must as indicated by all the Scientists who are working on the detector development. The site and the details of the facilities of RDSL/Mumbai will be decided after discussions on all the activities as given in this report. RDSL will have research and design engineers on deputation from BARC and other DAE Centers for a period ranging from three months to two years and the facilities at this center will be run by the manpower recruited on fixed term basis, or job contract basis by ECIL. The premises for the RDSL will be leased/arranged by ECIL and the center operated by ECIL technical staff and other support staff. The terms and conditions of this MOU for providing technical services by ECIL will be finalized by Director, BARC and CMD, ECIL within three months of approval of this project.

8.0 Major works 8.1 Civil works
SR. No. 1. 2. 3. Total ITEMS Total (lakhs) Total(Rs) 100 25 25 150

Room space of approx. 200 sq.meter Leased Premises Air-conditioning and ventilation Misc. fixtures

8.2 Machinery & Equipments:

Sr. No. 1.

Item Process Equipments Wet chemistry benches for processes such as etching of metal, non-metal, anisotroic etching of silicon etc. (Four Stations) Dicing/Polishing/CMP Si/Ge Crystal Puller Packaging Thin and Thick Film Coating on ceramic substrates Laser Welding System Flip chip bonder Test Equipments Low level electrical measurements of

Cost (Rs. In lakhs) Local FE 110 335 60

50 30 30


70 300 80 30 30 20



20 10

current, voltage, capacitance resistance etc. Sr. No.
1. 2. 3 4 5 6 7 6

Chemicals for growing CsI, NaI, HPGe, ZnCdTe crystals Enriched Boron and He3 gases for neutron Detectors Single Crystals of HPGe and ZnCdTe and GaAs and other semiconductors for device development. Fabrication Costs of gas filled radiation detectors Fabrication Cost of Prototype Scintillation Detectors for User Trials Consummable components IC’s and HMC’s and ASIC’s Design and Development Cost of Semiconductor Detectors and Detector Arrays for Different Applications mentioned in the report. Test equipment accessories and components Sub-Total

Cost (Rs. In lakhs) Local FE



Programmable Voltage /Current Sources, function generators, oscilloscopes, DMM etc. 4. Material characterization High magnification Microscope with CCD camera & image processing software Ellipsometer for thickness measurement Four probe equipment Surface Profilometer Stress measurement system
Sub-Total 8.3 Material & Supplies:



25 15


5 185

15 20 20 490

8.4 Consultancy: Consultancy and out sourcing

: Rs. 50 lakh

9.0 Financial outlay S.No. PLAN i) 05-06 F T 06-07 R F T 07-08 R F T Grand Total R F T

ii) iii) iv)

vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi)

R Machinery & Equipment 25* (Details : Next 0 Page) Supplies & 50 Materials Land Major Works a) Civil*** b) Electrical c) AC & 50 ventilation Motor vehicle Other capital Expenditure Consultancy Charges and ut 25 sourcing Salaries Travel Expenditure a) Domestic b) Foreign Office Expenditure Contingency TOTAL

50* 75* 25* 250* 275* 0+ 0 0 60 90 150 75 50 100 28 150 178

0+ 0+ 50* 300* 350* 100 175 135 190 325 78 200 278

100 50





25 22

25 22 25 25

50 47

50 47

150 100 250 260 490 750 100 100 200 510 690


Notes Year-wise cost projection for each category does not include correction for general inflation as the rate is uncertain. Rate of exchange assumed for imported items is Rupees 46 for a US dollar.

10. Manpower (1) Scientific -4 (2) Technical -8

(3) Administrative-0

(4) Auxiliary-0

Sr. No.

____ Post _______ Design. No. Pay scale Year-wise induction (Rs.) & cost (Rs.lakh) Yr.I Yr.II Yr.III No. No. No. Cost Cost Cost 9 8 5 12 9 4 Whether for execution or Total O&M No. Cost

(a) SO(C) (b) SA(B) (c) T(C) (d) Helper

4 4 4 0


(e) Administrative 0

Total 22 25 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.Project Schedule Commencement Completion

: December 2005 : March 2008

12. Any other special features Nil

13.Name and Designation of the Project coordinator Dr.S.K.Kataria Associate Director(E) and Dr.V.K.Suri, Head, Precision Engineering Section, MDD

Further, each component of the proposal will have a coordinator as indicated in the following:
Project No: B Sub-Project Name DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES OF NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS Gas Filled Detectors Semiconductor Technologies Scintillator Detectors Co-ordinators

Dr. A.M.Shaik, SO(F), SSPD Dr. Anita Topkar

Dr.S.C.Sabharwal SO(H), TPPED

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