The International wellbeing Index A psychometric progress report by zux20538

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									The International wellbeing Index: A
  psychometric progress report
                       Robert A. CUMMINS
                    Deakin University, Australia
                           Beatriz ARITA
           Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Mexico
                       Sergiu BALTATESCU
                  University of Oradea, Romania
                           Jozef DZUKA
                  Presov University, SLOVAKIA
                           Ferran CASAS
                     University of Girona, Spain
                             Anna LAU
       The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
                      Linda Luz GUERRERO
               Social Weather Stations,Philippines
                          Gerard O'NEILL
                    Amárach Consulting, Ireland
                         Habib TILIOUINE
                     University of Oran, Algeria
                         Graciela TONON
     Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Argentina
                          Annapia VERRI
   Neurologic Institute C. Mondino and University of Pavia,Italy.
                          Joar VITTERSO
                   University of Tromso, Norway
  This is an initiative of the
International Wellbeing Group.
             AIM-1
To examine the relative psychometric
performance of a standard SWB Index
  in different cultural and language
                groups.
                AIM-2

To get beyond simplistic (and misleading)
 between-country comparisons of SWB

To build understanding of WHY countries
           differ in their SWB
        Sample Demographics and Method
  Country        N    Males   Females     Age Range         Mean Age
Algeria       1,417   708     709       18 up         29

Argentina     476     160     316       18 up         82% < age group 48+

Australia     1897    931     966       18 up         49

Hong Kong     179     68      111       18 up         44



Italy         172     100     72        18-30         22

Ireland       994     491     503       15 up         37

Norway        427     184     243       18 up         48

Mexico        1170    556     614       18 up         *

Philippines   888     444     444       18 up         41

Romania       351     157     194       18 up         48
          Sample Demographics and Method
                                                                                Response
 Country                  Sample Demographics                      Method
                                                                                  Rate
Algeria      Recruited around colleges, Universities and        Questionnaire     n/a
             institutions                                       and interview
Argentina    Randomly selected from general population          Interview         n/a
             (approx. 30% small cities and rural areas)         public places
Australia    Randomly selected from general population          Telephone         n/a
                                                                interview
Hong         Recruited to age quota                             Telephone         n/a
Kong                                                            interview
Italy        College students                                   Interview         n/a
Ireland      Random/quota-controls                              Interview         n/a
Norway       Randomly selected from general population          Postal survey     35%
Mexico       Randomly selected from electoral role zones in the Interview         n/a
             urban zone of Culiacan
Philippine   Random/general population                          Interview         64%
   s
Romania      Random/general population                          Interview         70%
The theoretical conception of the
             Index

  It represents the First Level
  Deconstruction of two global
           constructs.
                       Two global constructs

Satisfaction with Life as a Whole        Satisfaction with Life in [country]
Personal Wellbeing Index                 National Wellbeing Index
“How satisfied are you with -------”
                                         “How satisfied are you with -------”
1. your standard of living?            1. the economic situation in Algeria?
2. your health?                        2. the state of the natural
                                          environment in Italy?
3. what you achieve in life?
                                       3. the social conditions in Spain?
4. your personal relationships?
                                       4. Government in Romania?
5. how safe you feel?
                                       5. business in Australia?
6. feeling part of your community?
                                       6. national security in Argentina?
7. your future security?
                       Response Scale

    0         1   2    3   4    5      6   7   8     9     10
   Very                                                    Very
Disatisfied                                              satisfied




                      Standardized Scale
                               0-100


              Normative population range for
                   Western countries
                  Personal Wellbeing Index = 70-80
                       Factor Analysis
                                            AUSTRALIA
                                 Factor 1                   Factor 2
                          S2       S5        S6      S2        S5      S6
Government                .75      .81       .79
Business                  .75      .77       .77
Social                    .70      .76       .67
Environment               .69      .73       .69
Economic                  .72      .73       .68
Nat. Security             .63      .61       .70
Achievements                                         .69       .70     .67
Fut. Security                                         .68     .69      .62
Standard                                              .74     .67      .67
Relations                                             .67     .60      .62
Safety                                                .52     .58      .50
Community                                             .60     .57      .58
Health                                                .57     .48      .56
Eigen Values             3.21      3.48      4.53    3.03     2.92     1.60
% variance explained     24.69       -         -    23.30       -        -
Reliability                         .82                       .78
                   Factor Analysis
1. All countries tested produce two clean factors (using an item-loading
   cut-off score of .4
2. BUT, the factors emerge in different orders

                           First Factor            Second Factor
                                   % of                     % of
                       Factor    variance        Factor   variance
                        PWI        37.5          NWI       15.6
                        PWI        42.0          NWI       14.1
                        PWI        41.8          NWI       14.7

                        NWI        43.9           PWI      15.1
                        NWI        35.8           PWI      12.7
                        NWI        32.5           PWI      17.3
                        NWI        39.9           PWI      14.9
                        NWI        42.0           PWI      14.1
    What causes one factor to be
     stronger than the other?

The strongest factor will be the one with the largest variance




                                        Factor 2

                         Factor 1
    0                        50                       100
                   Satisfaction scale
        SWB Homeostasis
   Our SWB is actively managed by a
   system that strives to maintain our
     level of happiness close to its
    genetically determined set-point.

Set-points lie within the positive sector of
              the 0 – 100 range
           ie. between 50 - 100
      Proximal – Distal Dimension of
              homeostasis
  Control
                   Homeostasis                         Cognition
 mechanism
              HI



Strength of
Homeostatic
  Control




          LO
                Proximal                                    Distal
               (about me)                           (not at all about me)
              “My integrity”                         “The Government”
                      “How satisfied are you with your -------”
 Why does the National Wellbeing
Index normally emerge first as the
        strongest factor?
National wellbeing normally has the largest variance



                               Personal wellbeing: Factor 2

                National wellbeing: Factor 1
    0                       50                         100
                  Satisfaction scale
                   BUT
  This will only apply if homeostasis it
                  effective.
In situations of homeostatic defeat, the
          pattern will be reversed

              Personal wellbeing: Factor 1

            National wellbeing: Factor 2
   0                   50                    100
             Satisfaction scale
                  Prediction


                          Variance       Factor order
              Benign   NWI > PWI         NWI : PWI
Environment
              Hostile PWI > NWI          PWI : NWI


       Theory: The factor order can be diagnostic
       of a hostile environment
Factor Analysis

     First Factor       Second Factor
             % of                % of
 Factor    variance   Factor   variance
  PWI        37.5     NWI       15.6
  PWI        42.0     NWI       14.1
  PWI        41.8     NWI       14.7

  NWI        43.9      PWI      15.1
  NWI        35.8      PWI      12.7
  NWI        32.5      PWI      17.3
  NWI        39.9      PWI      14.9
  NWI        42.0      PWI      14.1
  Factor Analysis

    First Factor       Second Factor     Index
            % of                % of
Factor    variance   Factor   variance    SD
 PWI        37.5     NWI       15.6      P>N
 PWI        42.0     NWI       14.1      P>N
 PWI        41.8     NWI       14.7      P>N

NWI         43.9      PWI      15.1      N>P
NWI         35.8      PWI      12.7      N>P
NWI         32.5      PWI      17.3      N>P
NWI         39.9      PWI      14.9      N>P
NWI         42.0      PWI      14.1      N>P
         Factor Analysis

    First Factor       Second Factor     Index   GDP/
            % of                % of              CAP
Factor    variance   Factor   variance    SD     >$20K
 PWI        37.5     NWI       15.6      P>N      No
 PWI        42.0     NWI       14.1      P>N      No
 PWI        41.8     NWI       14.7      P>N      No

NWI         43.9      PWI      15.1      N>P      Yes
NWI         35.8      PWI      12.7      N>P      Yes
NWI         32.5      PWI      17.3      N>P      Yes
NWI         39.9      PWI      14.9      N>P      Yes
NWI         42.0      PWI      14.1      N>P      No
                    Personal Wellbeing Index
               80
                     77.4


               75
                               73.0       72.8
                                                   71.1    71.0
                                                                    69.6
               70

 Strength                                                                      65.6
     of        65
satisfaction


               60



               55
                                                                                          52.3

               50
                    Mexico   Australia   Ireland   Spain   Italy   Romania   Argentina   Algeria
                  Personal Wellbeing Index
            90            PWI               GDP/CAP                                                           35


            80     77.4                          30.4
                                 73.0                                                                         30
                                             72.8
                                                        71.1      71.0
                                                                              69.6
            70
                                     27.8                                               65.6
                                                                      24.6                                    25
            60
                                                                                                   52.3
                                                           20.9                                               20
             50
 Strength                                                                                                      GDP/CAP
     of                                                                                                             $
satisfaction 40                                                                                                 (x 1,000)
                                                                                                              15


            30
                                                                                                              10
                                                                                            8.1
                                                                                 7.4
            20     8.8
                                                                                                        5.6
                                                                                                              5
            10


             0                                                                                                0
                  Mexico        Australia    Ireland    Spain     Italy      Romania   Argentina   Algeria
      Steel, P. & Ones, D.S. (2000). Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83, 767-81.




         Compared SWB and Personality

Source of SWB: Veenhoven’s World Database of Happiness
Number of countries:                              Mean sample size per country:
• EPQ (39), NEO-PI-R (24)                         • Affect (hedonic balance) = 2,901
                                                  • Happiness = 25,300
                                                  • Satisfaction = 28,654

Number of people involved in the overall data = 2,100,000
Using population mean scores as
               data
 NEO-PI-R: Extraversion & Neuroticism
 • Predicting affect R² = .79
 • Predicting SWB (happiness and
   satisfaction) R² = .64
      Hierarchical Regression

Step 1:   GDP
Step 2:   SWB    R² = .76   R² = .41

ie. Personality explains MORE of the variance
  in between-nation SWB than does GDP !!
                           Neuroticism
                               vs.
                     Personal Wellbeing Index
            17                              79.3                                16.7       80


                                                                                           78
            16
                                                                      15.5
                     75.6                                                                  76
            15
                                                          14.6
                                                                       75.3                74
                                         14.2
            14
                                                                                           72
                              13.3                                                  71.0
Neuroticism 13                                                                             70   PWI
                                 69.4

                                                                                           68
            12

                                                                                           66
            11                                               65.1

                  10.3                                                                     64

            10
                                                                                           62


             9                                                                             60
                 Norway     Romania     Mexico       Hong Kong      Australia   Italty



                                                Country
                            Extraversion
                                 vs.
                       Personal Wellbeing Index
                       79.3
               21

                    20.6                                                                         79



               20                                                                                77
                                      75.3
                                                 75.6
                               19.3                                                              75

               19
                                              18.7
                                                                 18.5                            73
Extraversion                                                              18.4                        PWI

                                                                              71.0
               18                                                                                71

                                                                   69.4

                                                                                                 69

               17
                                                                                       16.7
                                                                                                 67


                                                                                          65.1
               16                                                                                65
                      Mexico    Australia    Norway             Romania   Italty     Hong Kong


                                                      Country
                 Conclusions
1.   These results are consistent with predictions
     based on Homeostasis Theory

2.   In trying to understand why countries differ in their
     level of SWB, the variance is at least as informative
     as the mean scores.

3.   Extraversion may be a good measure of cultural
     response bias

								
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