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									Heroes of the Philippine Revolution of 1896 - 1898
Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado
     Philippine National Hero author of Noli Me Tangere and La Solidaridad founder of the La Liga Filipina born June 19, 1861 in Calamba, Laguna. Seventh child of Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro, and Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda y Quintos died December 30, 1896 at Bagumbayan (now Luneta); execution by musketry

The young Rizal studied in Biñan under G. Justiniano Aquino Cruz, and then later at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. Jose Rizal received his Bachelor of Arts on March 14, 1877 with a grade of "sobresaliente" with highest honor. Rizal studied Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas and Agriculture at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. He left for Europe on May 5, 1882. He studied Medicine and Philosophy and Letters in Madrid, and finished these courses in 1884 and 1885. Rizal began writing his Noli me Tangere ( The Social Cancer ) in 1884. He printed 2,000 copies in Berlin, Germany in 1886 but released it in March 1887. El Filibusterismo, sequel to Noli, was printed in Gante, Belgium in 1891. Rizal organized La Liga Filipina, a secret organization, on July 3 1892. It aimed to change the way the government was run in a peaceful way. In July 7, 1892, less than a week after the La Liga was organized, Captain General Despujol ordered Rizal's exile to Dapitan, on suspicion of his involvement in rebellion. In Dapitan, he opened a school with fourteen(14) pupils. On December 29, 1896, he wrote the Last Farewell, and was executed in Bagumbayan (now Luneta) the next day.

Emilio Aguinaldo
   
Declared Philippine Independence in Kawit on June 12, 1898 First President of the Philippines born March 30, 1869 in Kawit, Cavite died February 6, 1964 in Kawit. Cavite

Emilio Aguinaldo first studied in San Juan de Letran. He joined the revolution in 1896 as a lieutenant under Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo and rose to the rank of general in a few months. Conducted campaign against Spain until Pact of Biac-na-Bato was signed in December 1897. Among the provisions of the Pact were:  Aguinaldo and his men would leave the Philippines

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the Spanish government would give them an indemnity of P800,000. Spain sent only P400,000, which was used by the General Committee of Hongkong to finance second revolution. Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898, in his residence in Kawit, Cavite.
When Manila surrendered to the United States on August 13, 1898, Aguinaldo organized his provincial government in Bacoor. He later transferred government to Malolos, where he was later proclaimed President of the first Philippine Republic. The Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States was signed on December 10 1898, ceding the Philippines to the United States. Thus, in February 1899, when the Philippine American War broke out, Aguinaldo broke relations with the United States.

Marcelo H. del Pilar
popularly known as Plaridel leading propagandist for reforms in the Philippines editor and co-publisher of La Solidaridad born August 30, 1850 in Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan to Julian del Pilar and Blasa Gatmaytan  died July 4, 1896 of tuberculosis, in Barcelona, Spain Marcelo H. del Pilar's reputation as a propagandist was already established before an order for his arrest forced him to flee the country in 1880. Gifted with the common touch, he found ready audiences in the cockpits, the plazas, and the corner tiendas of his native Bulacan. Unlike Rizal who wrote his novels in Spanish, a fact which cut him off from most Filipinos who did not know the language, del Pilar wrote his propaganda pamphlets in simple Tagalog -- lucid, direct and forceful. His parodies of the Our Father, the Hail Mary, the Apostle's Creed, the Ten Commandments and the catechism published in pamphlets which simulated the format and size of the novenas were highly effective propaganda. *    

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Apolinario MabinI
      Conscience and Brains of the Philippine Revolution the Sublime Paralytic key adviser of Emilio Aguinaldo proposed t he first constitution of the Philippine Republic born July 22, 1864 Barrio Talaga, Tanawan Batangas to Inocencio Mabini, Dionisia Maranan died May 13, 1903

Born of a poor family, Apolinario Mabini was always studious. He was always sad and silent and liked to sit alone to meditate. Mabini studied at San Juan de Letran where he got his Bachelor of Arts degree and Professor of Latin. He also finished Law. He was a spokesman of the Congress, and a notary public. In early 1896, he contracted a severe fever which paralyzed him for the rest of his life. He was later called the Sublime Paralytic. Mabini was most active in the revolution in 1898, when he became the chief adviser of Gen. Aguinaldo during the revolution. He drafted decrees and proposed a constitution for the Philippine Republic. He made the plans for the revolutionary government. In 1899, he was captured by the Americans but was later set free. In 1901, he was exiled to Guam but returned to the Philippines in 1903 after agreeing to take an oath of allegiance to the US. He took his oath on February 26, 1903 before the Collector of Customs. On May 13, 1903, he died of cholera in Manila.

Andres Bonifacio
     
Father of the Katipunan Father of the Revolution and Philippine Democracy the "Supremo" the Great Plebeian born November 30, 1863 in Tundo, Manila died May 10 1897, in Mt. Buntis, by execution

The Great Plebeian, Andres Bonifacio, completed only what we call grade four. But Bonifacio was far from being uneducated. In the bodega of the foreign firm where he worked as a storekeeper, Bonifacio put up a small library along with Emilio Jacinto and Pio Valenzuela. Jacinto owned all the law books while Valenzuela, a physician, owned all the medical books. The Supremo's collection, however, were more impressive --Noli Me Tangere. El Filibusterismo, Religion Within the Reach of All, The Bible, Les Miserables, Wandering Jew, Lives of the Presidents of the United States, Two Volumes of the History of the French Revolution, International Law, Civil Code, Penal Code,several volumes of La Solidaridad, and novels and works of other noted authors. Bonifacio, who got insulted during the Tejeros Convention for his lack of diploma, was fluent enough in Spanish to translate Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios in Tagalog. He also wrote the head-stirring poem,Pagibig sa Tinubuang Lupa, and most probably, was well-versed in French and English.

Gregoria de Jesus
    
known as Lakambini wife of Andres Bonifacio Mother of the Philippine Revolution born May 9, 1875 in Kalookan died March 15, 1943

Gregoria de Jesus began her revolutionary work very young, at the age of 18. As the wife of Andres Bonifacio, the Katipunan leader, she suffered countless privations in the performance of the dangerous tasks which only women could do undetected by the police. The revolutionary generals spoke admiringly of her extraordinary courage and daring and of her alertness which saved her from capture. When the revolution was suppressed by the Americans, Gregoria de Jesus returned to peaceful life. She married another patriot, Julio Nakpil. She became a devoted wife and mother, but still loyal to the ideals of the revolution which she instilled in the minds of her children. In her last years, when her children were already grown up, she particularly enjoyed sojourning at the home of her only son Juan, of whom she was very fond. Her son was aware of her tender devotion to him and he reciprocated it. He was deeply grieved by her passing on 15 March 1943 during the dark days of the Japanese occupation.*

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Gen. Miguel Malvar
     last Filipino to surrender to the Americans President after Aguinaldo was cap tured by the Americans undertook the siege of San Pablo, Laguna born September 27, 1865 Barrio San Miguel, Sto Tomas Batangas to Maximo Malvar and Tiburcia Carpio died October 13, 1911

In 1892, Miguel Malvar was the Gobernadorcillo of his town. He was appointed by Gen. Aguinaldo as Lieutenant General on March 31, 1897. Malvar undertook the siege of San Pablo, Laguna and attacked cazadores of Batallion 11 in Barrio Sta. Clara in Sto. Tomas on November 19, and encountered the enemy in Barrio Bilog-bilog in Tanauan. Designated division general and chief of the second zone of operations (Southern Tagalog) on June 15, 1898, he liberated Tayabas after two months of battle. Despite the capture of Gen. Aguinaldo on March 23, 1901, Malvar continued the war against the Americans and setup his own government of the Philippine Republic, with him as supreme head and Commander-in-Chief. He mounted offensives against the Americans, but faced with overwhelming military superiority, he resorted to guerilla warfare, and later surrendered.

Gen Gregorio del Pilar
    hero of Tirad Pass commander of last Army of Gen. Aguinaldo born November 14, 1875 died December 2, 1899 fighting the Americans at Tirad pass

Gen Gregorio del Pilar was the nephew of the great propagandist Marcelo H. del Pilar. At an early age, he received booklets from his uncle in Madrid, written by reformists like Rizal, Lopez Jaena. On December 2, 1899, he died fighting the Americans at Tirad Pass.

Emilio Jacinto
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Brains of the Katipunan wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan born December 15, 1875 in Trozo, Manila died April 16, 1899 in Mahayhay, Laguna

The Filipino people have always proved themselves bigger than their leaders... Filipino leaders may come and Filipino leaders may go, but not the Filipino people who will continue treading on towards the one destiny the God of Nation has designated for them. -Emilio Jacinto

Graciano Lopez Jaena
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one of the leading propagandist in Spain, for reforms in the Philippines leading orator of the Propaganda movement editor of La Solidaridad born December 29, 1856 died January 22, 1896 in Barcelona, Spain

Neither gratitude nor appreciation has anything to do with rejecting what is wrong, censuring what is bad, exposing the ills that afflict society in order to remedy them. When our parents are wrong, we say they are wrong; when past generations committed mistakes, we say they had made mistakes. For saying this, neither are we ungrateful to them nor disrespectful to their memory.

-Graciano Lopez-Jaena*
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Melchora Aquino
     
known as Tandang Sora the Mother of Katipunan aided ailing Katipuneros before and during the revolution born January 6, 1812 in Banilad, Caloocan died March 2, 1919

Not much is known of Melchora Aquino. When the war broke out in 1896, she was already old, hence she was called "Tandang Sora." Tandang Sora helped all who approached her for help, giving the soldiers who fled to the forests of Balintawak food, rest and medical help in her little store in Balintawak. She was exiled in Marianas. Later she returned to the Philippines under the Americans. She lived poor and died poor.

Teodora Alonzo
   
mother of Jose Rizal first teacher of the young Rizal born November 9, 1827 in Meisek, Tondo died 1911

Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda y Quintos married Francisco Rizal Mercado and bore the Philippine National Hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal as their seventh child. As mother and teacher of the young Rizal, she molded the spirit and thoughts of Rizal. When Jose Rizal grew up, he stood for the principles and lessons learned from his mother. Teodora Alonzo was persecuted by the Spanish authorities for being the mother of the reformist Jose P. Rizal. When offered pension by the US government, she said "The Rizals offer their lives to their mother country because of their inherent patriotism and not because of money"

Juan Luna
 renowned painter  persecuted on suspicion of supporting the Katipunan  born October 23, 1857 in Badoc, Ilocos Norte to Joaquin Luna and Laurena Novicio.  died December 23, 1899
Juan Luna was a renowned painter, famous for his masterpieces The Death of Cleopatra The Blood Compact The Spoliarium The young Luna studied at the Ateneo de Manila, and studied designing at the Academia de Dibujo Y Pintura in Manila In 1875, he obtained his certificate as a pilot or seaman at age 17. He traveled to Spain in 1877, and enteredEscuela de Bella Artes in Madrid In 1881, Juan Luna won the gold medal for Death of Cleopatra ( later sold for 5000 pesetas). In 1884, he painted his best known work, the "Spoliarium". Other notable works included:  Ang Espana sa Pilipinas  Ang Aliping Bulag  Ang Tagumpay ni Lapu-lapu  Ang Labanan sa Lepanto  Ang Mestisa He returned to the Philippines in 1891. In 1896 he was captured and imprisoned at Fort Santiago on suspicion of being with the Katipuneros. Later he went back to Spain where he joined Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and Graciano Lopez-Jaena. He died of sickness on December 7, 1899.*

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Gen. Antonio Luna
 brilliant general under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine revolution  born October 29, 1869 in Urbiztondo, Manila to Joaquin Luna de San Pedro and Laurena Novicio.  died June 5, 1899 in Cabanatuan
Antonio Luna was the fiery-tempered but brilliant military strategist of Gen Aguinaldo. He was the brother of the famous painter Juan Luna. Antonio Luna studied Bachelor of Arts at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, studied ph armacy at the Univerity of Santo Tomas, but finished it in Barcelona, Spain. He obtained his Doctor of Medicine at the Central University of Madrid, and studied further in France and Belgium. He wrote in La Solidaridad under the Nom de Plume "Taga-Ilog" He also managed the paper La Independencia. In 1897, he was deported to Spain and imprisoned in Carcel Modelo de Madrid. When he was released, he studied military tactics. During the Phil-Am war, he was made a general by Aguinaldo. Because of his bravery, he was made director of War on September 26, 1898. General Luna became famous for bravery, unusual style of fighting, and strict discipline. ( strict and dictator-like ) At the age of 31, he was shot dead in Cabanatuan in a treacherous attack led by a disgruntled Filipino Sergeant.

GOMBURZA
In February 17, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (Gomburza), all Filipino priest, was executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. The charges against Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora was their alleged complicity in the uprising of workers at the Cavite Naval Yard. The death of Gomburza awakened strong feelings of anger and resentment among the Filipinos. They questioned Spanish authorities and demanded reforms. The martyrdom of the three priests apparently helped to inspire the organization of the Propaganda Movement, which aimed to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial government. Mariano Gómez y Guard was a Filipino secular priest, part of the Gomburza trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two other clergymen. Gómez was born on August 2, 1799 in the suburb of Santa Cruz, Manila of Chinese and Spanish ancestries. His parents were Francisco Gomez and Martina Guard. After studying in the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán, he took theology in the University of Santo Tomás. He was a student preparing for the priesthood in the Seminary of Manila. On June 2, 1824, he was designated the head priest of Bacoor, Cavite. Aside from taking care of the spiritual necessities of the town and the church, he also taught agriculture and cottage industries. Gómez also helped in maintaining a harmonious relationship among his other priests. He fought for equal rights of native priests against the abuses of the Spanish friars. José Apolonio Burgos y García was a Filipino meztizo secular priest, accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two other clergymen. Burgos was born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur on February 9, 1837 to a Spanish officer, Don José Tiburcio Burgos, and a mestiza mother named Florencia García. He obtained three undergraduate degrees with honors, two masters degrees and two doctorate degrees from the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and from theUniversity of Santo Tomas. He conducted his first mass in the Intramuros. Burgos' liberal views, codified in editorial essays, championing political and ecclesiastic reforms in favor of empowering more native clergymen, made him a target of opposition by Roman Catholic authorities. In 1864, an anonymous pamphlet was published in Manila, criticizing the prejudice in the Church, and providing rebuttals against several canards against the native clergy. Although the document was unsigned, historians believe the author to be Burgos, based on its style and content. Burgos also penned several signed articles later in his life, in response to a series of anonymous written attacks on the Filipino clergy. Though Burgos offered few new ideas, his name caught the attention of Spanish authorities, who would report that the native clergy was becoming liberal and separatist. *In 1869, Felipe Buencamino, a young student and an acquaintance of Burgos, was charged with spreading nationalist propaganda in the form of leaflets scattered throughout his school's campus, demanding academic freedom. This accusation was given credence by a protest he staged several months prior, against being required to speak Latin in the classroom. Consequently, Buencamino and some of his associates were sent to jail. With the aid of Burgos, Buencamino was freed four months later, only to be told that having missed school for four

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months, he would have to find a tutor who would help him make up for the classes he missed. Buencamino chose Burgos.* By this time, Burgos had established a reputation as a defender of the native clergy. His debates over the rights of native priests had extended to include questions of race and nationalism. This reputation would eventually cause him to be implicated in a mutiny in Cavite. Jacinto Zamora y del Rosario (14 August 1835 - 17 February 1872) was a Filipino friar, part of the Gomburza trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two other clergymen. Born on August 14, 1835 to Venancio Zamora and Hilaria del Rosario, he began his early education in Pandacan and later at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He was classified as an insular under the Spanish caste system prevailing at that time.[1] He later transferred to the University of Santo Tomas after finishing his Bachiller en Artes. Zamora graduated on March 16, 1858 with the degree of Bachelor of Canon and Civil Laws. He became a student preparing for the priesthood in the Seminary of Manila. After being ordained, Zamora handled parishes in Marikina, Pasig, and Batangas. He was also assigned to manage the Manila Cathedral on 3 December 1864. In league with Fathers Mariano Gómez and José Burgos, he continued the mission that Padre Pedro Pelaez began, the secularization of Filipino priests.

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The Philippine Revolution
The Katipunan*
The failure of the reform movement was already evident in 1892 when Rizal was arrested and banished to Dapitan. Yet the more hopeful among the middle class still hung on to the conviction that they could soften the heart of mother Spain into granting the reforms demanded. It is for this reason that the reform movement continued for four more years or until 1896 when the masses, led by Andres Bonifacio, were forced to take to the field against the Spaniards. Andres Bonifacio, a man of scanty education but nevertheless highly intelligent, founded the Katipunan on the very night that the news of Rizal's deportation to Dapitan leaked out. Unlike the members of the middle class, Bonifacio and his plebeian associates did not dream of mere reforms. They were interested in liberating the country from the tyranny of the Spaniards, and the only way, to their minds, to accomplish their end was to prepare the people for an armed conflict. Thus the Katipunan was founded on a radical platform, namely, to secure the independence and freedom of the Philippines by force of arms. The Founding of the Katipunan The news of Rizal's deportation shocked and surprised the people, for Rizal to them was the symbol of freedom. That night of July 7, 1892, Andres Bonifacio, Valentin Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arellano and a few others, met secretly at a house on Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue), near Elcano Street, Tondo, and decided to form a new association called Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalang na Katipunan nang manga Anak ng Bayan or Katipunan for short. The men gathered around a flickering table lamp, performed the ancient blood compact, and signed their membership papers with their own blood. It was agreed to win more members to the society by means of the triangle method in which an original member would take in two new members who did not know each other, but knew only the original member who took them in. Thus, original member A, for instance, would take in new members B and C. Both B and C knew A, but B and C did not know each other. Also agreed upon during the meeting was the payment of an entrance fee of one real fuerte(twenty-five centavos) and a monthly due of a media real (about twelve centavos). The Katipunan Objectives Under the leadership of Bonifacio, the Katipunan laid down three fundamental objectives or aims: political, moral and civic. The political objectives consisted in working for the separation of the Philippines from Spain. The moral objective revolved about around the teaching of good manners, hygiene, good morals, and attacking obscurantism, religious fanaticism, and weakness of character. The civic aim revolved around the principle of self-help and the defense of the poor and the oppressed. All members were urged to come to the aid of the sick comrades and their families, and in case of death the society itself was to pay for the funeral expenses. For the purpose of economy however, the society saw to it that the funeral was of the simplest kind, avoiding unnecessary expenses so common under the rule of the friars.

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First Shots of the Revolution*
August 23, 1896 Cry of Pugadlawin August 30, 1896 Battle of San Juan Battle of Pinaglabanan The revolution began with Bonifacio and his men tearing up their cedulas. A valiant Katipunero, Simplicio Acabe, became the first casualty of the revolution. Bonifacio, leading his ragtag army of poorly armed and untrained Katipuneros, attacked thepolverin(powder depot) of San Juan which was defended by 100 well-armed and trained artillerists and infantrymen. More than 200 Katipuneros were taken prisoner and 153 died. Almost simultaneously, the people of Santa Mesa, Pandacan, Pateros, Taguig, San Pedo, Makati, Caloocan, Balik-balik, and San Juan del Monte in Manila, and San Francisco de Malabon, Kawit and Noveleta in Cavite rose up in arms. August 30, 1896 Martial Law proclaimed August 31, 1896 Kawit Revolt Liberation of Noveleta September 2, 1896 Cry of Nueva Ecija In the afternoon of August 30, afternoon of the morning battle at San Juan, Governor General Blanco issued a proclamation declaring a state of war on eight Luzon provinces -- Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija and Tarlac. In Cavite, the uprisings were more successful, because they had able military commanders like Emilio Aguinaldo who led the revolt in Kawit on August 31, and Mariano Alvarez who liberated Noveleta on the same day. Other military leaders rose to prominence, notably Artemio Ricarte, Tomas Mascardo, Juan Cailles, Vito Belarmino, Mariano Trias and Marcelino Aure. In Nueva Ecija, two thousand revolucionarios under General Mariano Llanera, municipal captain of Cabiao, attacked the Spanish Garrison in San Isidro on September 2. The assault was carried out in a flamboyant manner. Wearing red ribbons, the revolutionaries first paraded down the principal streets to the music of the Cabiao Musikong Bumbong band. Their leader cut dashing figures on horseback. Then, armed only withbolos and pointed sticks, the revolutionary soldiers attacked. The Filipinos held the town for three days but were forced out after a furious battle against fresh Spanish troops. Emilio Aguinaldo, mayor of Kawit, was then known as Capitan Miong. He won a signal victory in Imus on September 5, 1896 against the forces if General Ernesto Aguirre. From then on, he became General Miong, the hero of the Cavitños. The four Katipunan leaders taken prisoner in the Battle of San Juan -- Sancho Valenzuela, Ramon Peralta, Modesto Sarmiento, and Eugenio Silvestre -- were executed by a firing squad at the Luneta, Manila. Thirteen martyrs of Cavite were executed in front of San Felipe Fort in the Cavite arsenal. The twin battles in Binakayan (a barrio in Kawit) and Dalahican (then a barrio of Noveleta) were decidedly brilliant. They were the first humiliating defeat of the Spanish army. On the night of December 5, the Christian-Filipino soldiers of the 2nd Company, Regiment No. 69, having learned of the raging revolution in Luzon, mutinied under the leadership of Corporal Felipe Cabrera de los Reyes and Bugler Protasio Añonuevo. The mutiny was suppressed and both Cabrera and Añonuevo and five comrades were executed on December 26.

September 5, 1896 Battle of Imus September 6, 1896 September 12, 1896 November 9-11 1896 Battle of Binakayan Battle of Dalahican December 5, 1896

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The Tejeros Assembly of 1897*
I am taking the chair in this meeting to give you fullest opportunity to voice your views and then to vote what shall be done. But one restriction do I impose upon the freedom of your deliberations. It is that whatever the majority shall decide, that all present will loyally accept and steadfastly abide by. - Andres Bonifacio The First Meeting of Tejeros On March 22, 1897, the Magdiwang and Magdalo councils met once more, this time at the friar estate house in Tejeros, a barrio of San Francisco de Malabon. This convention proved even stormier than the Imus meeting and, as in Imus, the declared objective of the meeting was not even discussed. According to Jacinto Lumbreras, a Magdiwang and first presiding officer of the Tejeros convention, the meeting had been called to adopt measure for the defense of Cavite. Again this subject was not discussed, and instead, the assembled leaders, including the Magdiwangs, decided to elect the officers of the revolutionary government, thus unceremoniously discarding the Supreme Council of the Katipunan under whose standard the people had been fighting and would continue to fight. Bonifacio presided, though reluctantly, over the election. Beforehand, he secured the unanimous pledge of the assembly to abide by the majority decision. The results were: President Emilio Aguinaldo Vice-President Mariano Trias Captain-General Artemio Ricarte Director of War Emiliano Riego de Dios Director of the Interior Andres Bonifacio Emilio Aguinaldo had been awarded the highest prize of the Revolution on his own birth anniversary, although he was not present, being busy at a military front in Pasong Santol, a barrio of Imus. As for Bonifacio, the death-blow to the Katipunan and his election as a mere Director of the Interior showed clearly that he had been maneuvered out of power. It must have been a bitter pill to swallow, especially since even the Magdiwangs who were supposed to be his supporters did not vote for him either for President or Vice-President. But another insult was yet to follow. Evidently, the Caviteño elite could not accept an "uneducated" man, and a non-Caviteño at that, even for the minor post of Director of the Interior. Daniel Tirona protested Bonifacio's election saying that the post should not be occupied by a person without a lawyer's diploma. He suggested a Caviteño lawyer, Jose del Rosario for the position. This was clearly an intended insult. It naturally infuriated Bonifacio who thereupon hotly declared: "I, as chairman of this assembly and as President of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan, as all of you do not deny, declare this assembly dissolved, and I annul all that has been approved and resolved." The Second Meeting at Tejeros Aguinaldo, who was at Pasong Santol, a barrio of Dasmariñas, was notified the following day of his election to the Presidency. At first, he refused to leave his men who were preparing to fight the enemy, but his elder brother, Crispulo Aguinaldo, persuaded him to take the oath of office, promising to take his place and would not allow the enemy to overrun the place without dying in its defense. Aguinaldo then acceded to his brother's request and proceeded to Santa Cruz del Malabon (now Tanza), where he and the others elected the previous day, with the exception of Bonifacio, took their oath of office. Meanwhile, Bonifacio and his men, numbering forty-five, again met at the estate-house of Tejeros on March 23. All of them felt bad about the results of the previous day's proceedings, for they believed that anomalies were committed during the balloting. Convinced that the election held was invalid, they drew up a document, now called the Acta de Tejeros, in which they gave their reasons for not adopting the results of the convention held the previous day. From Tejeros, Bonifacio and his men proceeded to Naik in order to be as far as possible from Magdalo men who, they thought, were responsible for the commission of anomalies during the Tejeros election. Aguinaldo, wanting to bring back Bonifacio to the fold, sent a delegation to him to persuade him to cooperate with the newly constituted government. But Bonifacio refused to return to the revolutionary fold headed by Aguinaldo.

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The Naik Military Agreement

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Bonifacio's anger over what he considered an irregular election and the insult heaped on him by Daniel Tirona, a Magdalo, rankled for long. At Naik, they drew up another document in which they resolved to establish a government independent of, and separate from, that established at Tejeros. An army was to be organized "by persuasion or force" and a military commander of their own choice was to take command of it. Among the forty-one men who signed it were Bonifacio, Artemio Ricarte, Pio del Pilar and Severino de las Alas. The document posed a potential danger to the cause of the Revolution, for it meant a definite split in the ranks of the revolutionists and an almost certain defeat in the face of a united and well-armed enemy.

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The Biak-na-Bato Republic of 1897*
With almost all of Cavite in the hands of the Spaniards, [ Governor General ] Primo de Rivera issued another decree extending the benefit of his pardon beyond May 17, 1897. His purpose was to win over the Filipinos to his policy of attraction. A few took advantage of the governor's decree, while the rest continued their resistance against the enemy. Aguinaldo, meanwhile was in Talisay, Batangas where he had established his headquarters. The enemy surrounded the area in the hope of capturing him, but he slipped through the Spanish cordon on June 10 and proceeded with his men to the hilly region of Morong ( Rizal ). With 500 picked men, he crossed the Pasig to Malapad-na-Bato, near Guadalupe, and from here he secretly passed through San Juan del Monte and Montalban, and on to Mount Puray. After a well-earned rest, Aguinaldo and his men proceeded to Biak-na-Bato, San Miguel de Mayumo, where he established his headquarters. News of Aguinaldo's arrival at Biak-na-Bato reached the towns of Central Luzon. As a consequence, armed men from Pangasinan, Zambales, and Ilocos provinces, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija, renewed their armed resistance against the enemy. From Biak-na-Bato, Aguinaldo and his men joined forces with those of General Mariano Llanera of Nueva Ecija and harassed the Spanish soldiers garrisoned in the Central Luzon Provinces. With the coming of the rainy season, Primo de Rivera's campaigns were temporarily halted. Before July 1897, Aguinaldo and his men had already established a republican government at Biyakna-Bato, known as the Biyak-na-Bato Republic. The provisional constitution of this Republic was prepared by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho, who copied, almost word for word, the Cuban constitution of Jimaguayu. The Biyak-na-bato Constitution was signed on November 1, 1897. Its preamble states: The separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and their formation into an independent state with its own government called the Philippine Republic has been the end sought by the Revolution in the existing war, begun on the 24th of August, 1896; and , therefore, in its name and by the power delegated by the Filipino people, interpreting faithfully their desires and ambitions, we the representatives of the Revolution, in a meeting at Biac-na-bato, November 1, 1897, unanimously adopted the following articles for the constitution of the State. In accordance with Article 1, the Supreme Council was created on November 2, with the following as officers: Emilio Aguinaldo President Mariano Triad Vice-President Antonio Montenegro Secretary of Foreign Affairs Isabelo Artacho Secretary of the Interior Emiliano Riego de Dios Secretary of War Baldomero Aguinaldo Secretary of the Treasury Pact of Biak-na-Bato: A Chronology The program drafted for the execution of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed by the Spanish Gov. Gen. Fernando Primo de Rivera and Pedro Paterno. It is dated Dec 14, 1897 and its details (not included in regular textbooks) give a chronology Dec Departure of Isabelo Artacho with the Convention of Peace approved by his Excellency, the 14 Governor General Dec Transmittal of orders of pacification by Emilio Aguinaldo. 16 Dec Departure from San Miguel de Mayumo of Pedro Paterno as well as enemy generals Celestino 23 Fernandez Tejeiro and Ricardo Monet, staff and nephew of the Governor General Lt. Col. Miguel Primo de Rivera Dec Arrival at Biak-na-Bato (of the above enemy officers, the negotiator) Paterno who would be 24 met on the way by Isabelo Artacho and Jose Salvador Natividad(and escorted to Aguinaldo's hideout headquarters at Bat Cave of Biak-na-Bato) Dec Departure of Aguinaldo, his men and the hostages "for Lingayen, where the Spanish 25 Government will have a merchant steamer to take them to Hong Kong; the persons on board may take their revolvers and the two rifles asked for by Don Emilio Aguinaldo. On the departure of these gentlemen from Biak-na-Bato, the Spanish government will give to Don Baldomero Aguinaldo, through Don Pedro Paterno, a draft payable to the order of the SpanishPhilippine Bank upon some bank in Hong Kong, for the sum of P400,000, the cost of exchange being charged to the Spanish government"
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The Dictatorial Government of 1898*
In the wake of his military victories, Aguinaldo decided that it was time to establish a Filipino government. He had with him when he arrived from Hongkong a draft of a plan prepared by Mariano Ponce for the establishment of a revolutionary government: Consul Wildman, however, had advised Aguinaldo earlier to establish a dictatorial government which later on could be the nucleus of a republican government similar to that of the United States. Probably because the critical times demanded a government with a strong executive, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Aguinaldo's adviser, told him to form a dictatorial government. Consequently, Aguinaldo made known his intention of establishing such a form of government when he announced, in the morning of May 24, 1898, that he was assuming "command of all the troops in the struggle for the attainment of our lofty aspirations, inaugurating a dictatorial government to be administered by decrees promulgated under my sole responsibility..." Later in the day, he issued a decree formally establishing the Dictatorial Government. The decree nullified the orders issued under the authority of the Biyak-na-Bato republic and asserted that the Dictatorial Government was temporary in nature, "so that, when peace shall have been reestablished and our legitimate aspiration for unrestricted liberty attained, it may be modified by the nation, in which rests the principle of authority." Declaration of Independence With a government in operation, Aguinaldo thought that it was necessary to declare the independence of the Philippines. He believed that such a move would inspire the people to fight more eagerly against the Spaniards and at the same time, lead the foreign countries to recognize the independence of the country. Mabini, who had by now been made Aguinaldo's unofficial adviser, objected. He based his objection on the fact that it was more important to reorganize the government in such a manner as to convince the foreign powers of the competence and stability of the new government than to proclaim Philippine independence at such an early period. Aguinaldo, however, stood his ground and won. On June 12, between four and five in the afternoon, Aguinaldo, in the presence of a huge crowd, proclaimed the independence of the Philippines at Cavite el Viejo (Kawit). For the first time, the Philippine National Flag, made in Hongkong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo, assisted by Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina Herboza, was officially hoisted and the Philippine National March played in public. The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, who also read it. A passage in the Declaration reminds one of another passage in the American Declaration of Independence. The Philippine Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, among them an American army officer who witnessed the proclamation. The proclamation of Philippine independence was, however, promulgated on August 1 when many towns has already been organized under the riles laid down by the Dictatorial Government. Proclamation of Philippine Independence The most significant achievement of Aguinaldo'sDictatorial Government was the proclamation of Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite, on June 12, 1898. The day was declared a national holiday. Thousands of people from the provinces gathered in Kawit to witness the historic event. The ceremony was solemnly held at the balcony of General Emilio Aguinaldo's residence. The military and civil officials of the government were in attendance. A dramatic feature of the ceremony was the formal unfurling of the Filipino flag amidst the cheers of the people. At the same time, the Philippine National Anthem was played by the band. Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista solemnly read the "Act of the Declaration of Independence" which he himself wrote. The declaration was signed by 98 persons. One of the signers was an American, L.M. Johnson, Colonel of Artillery. Protectorate Proclaimed Aguinaldo continued his moves for consolidation. The next step was the proclamation of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898. Appropriate celebrations marked the event in Kawit at which the Philippine flag was officially raised and the Philippine National Anthem first publicly played. The declaration was prepared by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista who patterned it after the American Declaration of Independence. Aguinaldo invited Dewey to the festivities, but the latter declined the invitation and did not even report the event to Washington. The declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, including an American office, L.M. Johnson, Colonel of Artillery.

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The Revolutionary Government of 1898
The Dictatorial Government lasted for only a month, from May 24 to June 23, 1898. At the instance of Mabini, Aguinaldo delivered on June 23 a message, penned by Mabini, giving his reasons for changing the form of government to a revolutionary one. On the same day, Aguinaldo issued a decree setting up the Revolutionary Government. It change the title of the chief of state from Dictator to President and defined the object of the government as the "the struggle for the independence of the Philippines until all nations, including the Spanish, shall expressly recognize it, and to prepare the country so that the true republic may be established." To help the President in his duties, four departments were created, namely:  the Department of Foreign Affairs, Navy and Commerce  the Department of War and Public Works  the Department of Police and Public Order, Justice, Education and Hygiene  the Department of Finance, Agriculture and Manufacturing Industry The department secretaries were not responsible for the decrees of the President, but they were to sign them "with the President to give them authority." The President appointed the department secretaries and personnel of each department. The decree also provided for the creation of Congress. As has been seen, the decree of June 18 provided for the election of delegates from each province to represent it in Congress. The decree of June 23 provided that in those provinces which had not yet been pacified, that is to say, provinces which had not yet been taken from the Spaniards, the delegates for said provinces were to be appointed by the President. The powers of Congress were defined as follows: To watch over the general interest of the Philippine people, and the carrying out of the revolutionary laws; to discuss and vote upon the said laws; to discuss and approve, prior to their ratification, treaties and loans; to examine and approve the accounts presented annually by the Secretary of Finance, as well as extraordinary and other taxes which may thereafter be imposed.

The Malolos Congress
*

In accordance with the decrees of June 18 and 23, 1898, Aguinaldo convoked the Revolutionary Congress at Barasoain, Malolos. Peace and order conditions in some provinces were such that Aguinaldo was compelled to appoint their delegates to Congress. Consequently, on September 4, he appointed fifty delegates to the Congress. This number was increased by ten on September 10. The number of delegates to the Congress fluctuated from time to time. In the morning of September 15, the basilica at Barasoainwas filled with delegates and spectators. Outside, the Banda Pasig played the National Anthem. When Aguinaldo and his officers arrived, the delegates, the cream of the Filipino intelligentsia, spread out to give way to the President. With the President seated, the secretary read the names of the delegates, after which Aguinaldo was introduced. Cries of"Viva!" reverberated and Aguinaldo acknowledged the applause of the throng. Then he stood up and read his message, first in Tagalog, then in Spanish. A round of applause followed Aguinaldo's speech, which Felipe Buencamino wrote. Aguinaldo then announced that the ceremonies were over and that Congress was to convene after electing its officers. In the afternoon, the Congress proceeded to elect its officers, namely, Pedro A. Paterno, President; Benito Legarda, Vice-President; Gregorio Araneta, First Secretary; and Pablo Ocampo, Second Secretary. The first significant act of the Congress was the ratification on September 29, of the independence proclaimed at Kawit on June 12, 1898. Aguinaldo, whose office and official residence were located at the convent of Malolos Church, arrived at Barasoain, where Congress was holding its sessions, amidst the "vociferous acclamations of he people and strains of music." The ceremonies began at 10:30am and Aguinaldo, after congratulating Paterno for having been elected to the presidency of Congress, partly said in Tagalog: * * * now we witness the truth of what the famous President Monroe said to the effect that the United States was for the Americans; now I say that the Philippines is for the Filipinos. *** A committee to draft the constitution was created with Felipe G. Calderon as its most prominent member. Having set Mabini'sConstitutional Program aside, the committee. under the influence of Calderon, also set aside, but in a subtle manner, Paterno's constitutional plan, which smelled strongly of the Spanish Constitution of 1869. With the advise of Cayetano Arellano, a brilliant but unreconstructed mestizo, Calderon drew up his plans for a constitution, deriving inspiration from the constitutions of Mexico, Belgium, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Brazil and France. In the session of Oct 8, Calderon presented the draft of this constitution. A few other amendments were inserted in the draft constitution before it was sent to Aguinaldo for approval.
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The Malolos Republic*
The Philippine Republic Owing to the objections of Mabini to some provisions of the constitution, Aguinaldo did not immediately promulgate it. The Congress leaders compromised with Mabini by agreeing to insert amendments to satisfy the President's closest adviser. On January 21, 1899, Aguinaldo finally promulgated the Malolos Constitution. Earlier, on January 2, he formed the cabinet as follows: Apolinario Mabini Teodoro Sandico Baldomero Aguinaldo Mariano Trias Gracio Gonzaga President of the Cabinet and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Secretary of the Interior Secretary of War Secretary of Finance Secretary of Welfare, including Public Instruction, Public Works, Communications, Agriculture, Industry and Commerce

The Council of Government, or the Cabinet, according to Mabini, "belongs to no party, nor does it desire to form one; it stands for nothing save the interest of the fatherland." On January 23, 1899, the Philippine Republic was inaugurated at Malolos in colorful ceremonies. Aguinaldo took his oath of office after having been informed that he has been proclaimed President of the Republic. The Malolos Constitution was readarticle by article, and the army took its oath of loyalty before the President. A review of troops and procession followed. To make the event more memorable, Aguinaldo issued a decree granting pardon to all Spanish prisoners of war who were not members of the Spanish regular army and at the same time, granting to Spaniards and other aliens the right to engage in business within the limits of the Republic. Birth of the Philippine Republic On the sunny morning of January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic, popularly known as the Malolos Republic, was inaugurated amidst colorful ceremonies at the Barasoain Church. This was also the first republic in Asia. In this inaugural address, President Aguinaldo expressed hiscongratulations to the members of the Malolos Congress for drafting the Malolos Constitution, to the armed forces for winning the country's freedom by force of arms, and to the Filipino people for their cooperation and sacrifices in the struggle for independence. He stated the aspiration of the nation "to live under the democratic regime of the Philippine Republic, free from the yoke of any foreign domination." In conclusion, he declared: "Great is this day, glorious this date, and forever memorable this moment in which our beloved people are raised to the apotheosis of Independence." Pomp and Ceremony On January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic was inaugurated. The people rejoiced; appropriate festivities marked the day throughout the land. In Malolos, the inauguration ceremonies were typical of the elite. Aguinaldo took his oath of office as President of the Philippine Republic wearing formal attire "with top hat, white gloves, and bow tie" and carrying a "tasseled gold-knobbed cane." The food at the inaugural banquet was European and the menu written in French.

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United Nations system's operational activities for development in the Philippines*
The UN System in the Philippines began in 1945 when the Philippines joined 49 other nations in signing the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, USA. Since the Charter came into force on October 24, 1945 the partnership between the Government of the Philippines and the United Nations has been growing steadily. The Philippines has important historic links with the United Nations including through Dr. Carlos Pena Romulo, the former Foreign Secretary and Philippine ambassador to the United Nations (from 1946 to 1954) who eventually distinguished himself as the first Asian to become president of the UN General Assembly. United Nations System in the Philippines The Philippines is a signatory to the 2000 Millennium Declaration which led to the development of the time-bound Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a global agenda for development by 2015. The United Nations System supports the realization of the MDGs through the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), which is based on the national priorities, plans and programs of the government (i.e. Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010). The accelerated implementation of the MDGs, including its localization, forms an important thrust of the UN System work in the Philippines. At the request of the Government, the 2005-2009 UNDAF has been extended until 2011 to fully align with the national planning process and benefit from the new MTPDP. The 2005-2011 UNDAF addresses five inter-related areas of cooperation, namely, macroeconomic stability, broad-based and equitable development; basic social services; good governance; environmental stability; and conflict prevention and peace- building. The unique blend of assets which distinguish the UN System from other multilateral and bilateral development players include its lead role in setting and implementing global norms and standards and achievement of the MDGs; linking of peace, security, sustainable development and human rights-based approach to development; support for capacity development as both means and an end in itself; and knowledge management. The collective expertise, diverse strengths and resources of UN agencies are brought together in a holistic fashion to address cross-sectoral development challenges. Halfway through the 2015 target year to achieve the MDGs, the Philippines has made progress, particularly in nutrition, reducing child mortality, combating HIV and AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, access to safe drinking water and sanitary toilet facility. However, there still remains uneven progress and wide regional disparities especially in MDG targets concerning universal access to education, maternal mortality and access to reproductive health services. The worsening of poverty and widening inequality amidst remarkable economic growth is a particular concern. Efforts to meet the MDGs are challenged by financing and implementation gaps, high population growth, governance, effects of climate change and series of natural disasters. The continuing conflict, particularly in Mindanao, has setback the development gain that has been achieved. United Nations System-wide Coherence As a way of enhancing development effectiveness and ensuring continued relevance in the Philippines as a lower middle-income country, the UNCT is working on a more 'integrated and operational' UNDAF as the rallying point of the UN system in the Philippines. This approach is grounded in the directions contained in the 2007 Triennial Comprehensive Policy Review (TCPR) decision on UN system wide coherence, as well as in support of the Paris Declaration Principles to which the government has subscribed. The focus on substance and content of the programme, reflects the UNCT's desire to be driven by results and impact- and not the process. In addition to individual agency programmes' contribution to the UNDAF outcomes, the UNCT has increasingly aligned its work around implementation/upscaling of joint programs and centered advocacy on key common critical issues such as the MDGs less likely to be achieved, human rights, population management, and peace-building. In line with the Paris Declaration, the UN is working towards expansion of joint and common services and searching for the "One UN" House for simplification of services and reduced transaction costs.
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UNITED NATIONS REPRESENTATIVES

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UN Country Team Representatives (as of June 2009)*

Resident Agencies
Dr. Jacqueline Badcock Mr. Neeraj Jain Mr. Kazuyuki Tsurumi Captain Peter Weiss Mr. Yolando Arban ADB FAO ICAO IFAD UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative Country Director Country Representative Programme Coordinator Country Programme Management Facilitator Country Manager Sub-regional Director Resident Representative Regional Representative Director, Manila Adm. Center Regional Coordinator Secretary-General Country Coordinator Country Director Security Adviser Country Representative Programme Manager Head of Office Country Representative Representative National Coordinator Country Director and Representative Country Representative Country Director

Mr. Jesse Ang IFC Ms. Linda Wirth ILO Mr. Denis Botman IMF Mr. Charles Harns IOM Mr. Bruce Reed IOM Atty. Brenda Pimentel IMO Amb. Preciosa Soliven UNACOM (UNESCO National (observer status) Commission of the Philippines) Ms. Teresita Bagasao UNAIDS Mr. Renaud Meyer UNDP Mr. Michael Godfrey UNDSS Ms. Suneeta Mukherjee UNFPA Ms. Eden Garde UN-HABITAT Atty. Rico Salcedo. UNHCR Ms. Vanessa Tobin UNICEF Dr. Suresh Chandra UNIDO Raj Ms. Luz Rodriguez UNIFEM Mr. Stephen Anderson WFP Dr. Soe Nyunt-U Mr. Bert Hofman WHO World Bank

Non-Resident Agencies Mr. Sanna Jatta IFAD Mr. Terje Skavdal OCHA Mr. Homayoun Alizadeh Mr. Young Woo-Park Mr. Hubert Gijzen Mr. Toshi Noda Ms. Jean D'Cunha Mr. Gary Lewis OHCHR UNEP UNESCO UN-HABITAT UNIFEM UNODC

Country Programme Manager Head, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Regional Representative for South-East Asia Regional Director Director Director Regional Programme Director Representative

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UNITED NATIONS REPRESENTATIVES

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Permanent Representatives of the Philippines to the United Nations *
HILARIO G. DAVIDE, JR. Present Ambassador and Permanent Representative Lauro L.Baja, Jr. 2003-2007 Alfonso T. Yuchengco 2001-2002 Felipe Mabilangan 1994-2001 Narcisa L. Escaler 1992-1994 Sedfrey A. Ordonez 1990-1992 Claudio Teehankee 1988-1989 Emmanuel N. Pelaez 1987-1988 Luis Moreno-Salcedo 1982-1985 Alejandro D. Yango 1979-1982 Narciso G. Reyes 1970-1977 Salvador P. Lopez 1964-1969 1986-1987 Jacinto C. Borja 1962-1964 Francisco A. Delgado 1958-1961 Felixberto M. Serrano 1954-1957 Carlos P. Romulo 1946-1953

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Permanent Representatives of The Philippines To The United Nations

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