Hexagonal Writing A Literary Analysis Heuristic
Set How will I begin the lesson to focus and “hook” students toward the lesson objective? What connections to prior knowledge, skills, and attitudes will I make for the students? Ask students to remember the different kinds of connections we can make with texts (text to self, text to text, text to world) and some of the different terms we’ve used when talking about literature (theme, evaluation, allusions, literary devices). Next, ask students to think back to times when they have eaten Jell-o. What kinds of Jello did they eat? Brainstorm types of Jell-o they have eaten and list on a chart. Tell Objective How will I communicate the lesson objective to the students? Today we are going to be reading a piece of literature from Texas Monthly magazine. The article is Anne Dingus’ reflections on growing up and eating lots of different Jell-o salads. We are also going to do some writing about the article after we finish reading it, and then used our writing to discuss what we thought. Purpose How will I communicate the importance of the objective to every student? How will I communicate how all students will use the learning stated in the objective? Why is it important that we be able to read a piece of text, write about it, and discuss it? (that’s what literate people do, that’s what we have to do on tests, if we write about something we learn more about it, can ask better questions, can prove our point or opinion, etc.) By reading this piece of text and writing about it, it will enable you to deepen your understanding of the Dingus’ writing and we will be able to discuss it intelligently with other people in the class, and it might even be something we could write about later in our journals! Input What is necessary information (task analysis) the student must have to be successful with the lesson objective? What strategy/strategies will I use to deliver the necessary information? Students will need to know the meaning of plot summary (retelling the story), personal allusion (what the article reminds you of from your own life/experience), theme (the
author’s overall message), literary devices (personification, alliteration, metaphor, etc.), literary allusions (what other texts, movies, poems, etc. does the article remind you of), and evaluation (the reader’s opinion of the article). After we read the article, we will walk through those six perspectives one at a time. The definition of each will be given orally as we go through the writing. Do a shared reading of the article with the class. Model/Checking for Understanding/Guided Practice How will I model to make the learning meaningful to the students? What questions or activities will I use to determine the depth of each students’ learning/s? What practice should I design for the students to make sure they practice the new learning/s? Hand each student a triangle and ask them to label it at the top “Plot Summary.” Ask them to write a brief summary of the article. Remind students that a summary includes the most important part of the beginning, the middle, and the end. As students are writing their summaries, write your own summary on a triangle. After you write your summary, walk around to read some of the summaries students are writing. After all are finished, ask a few volunteers to share their summaries. Give everyone a second triangle and ask them to label it “Personal Allusions” or “Text to Self.” Review with the students that a personal allusion is something you were reminded from your own life/experience as you read the article. It is a text-to-self connection. Ask students to write a few sentences on their triangle explaining what personal allusions or text-to-self connections they thought of while reading the article; write your own triangle as they are writing. Ask volunteers to share their personal allusions. Distribute the remaining triangles so they have them at their seats. Choose a third triangle and have students label this one “Theme.” Explain to students that the theme is the author’s underlying message, what they want us to walk away with or learn from the writing. Give the students a few minutes to write about what they think the theme of the article is as you are writing on your own triangle. Volunteers may share aloud. On the fourth triangle, students label it “Literary Devices.” Remind students that literary devices are a way we analyze a piece of literature. Literary devices include things such as metaphor/simile, personification, alliteration, assonance, and repetition. Ask students to look back at the text and find some literary devices that the author used and write about them on their triangle. They should try to include some thoughts about how the literary devices added to the piece. Write on your own triangle as the students are writing. Volunteers may share. Have students label the fifth triangle “Literary Allusions” or “Text to Text.” Literary allusions are similar to personal allusions, but literary allusions differ in that they are
pieces of text, movies, songs, etc., that you are reminded of as you read the original text. They are also called text-to-text connections. Invite students to re-enter their text and find some text-to-text connections, or literary allusions, they made with the article. Then have them write about those literary allusions on their fifth triangle as you are writing your own. Have a few volunteers share their writing. Finally, on the sixth triangle, students label it “Evaluation.” This is where students have the chance to share their opinion of the article. What did you think of it? Did you like what the author had to say? Did you like the author’s style of writing? Why or why not? Have students write their evaluations as you write yours, then ask a few to share. Now students have written about the piece of text in six different ways. Show students how to assemble the six triangles onto a piece of black construction paper so that it forms a hexagonal. Have them glue the piece down and trim around them. Students now have a hexagonal that they can use as a springboard for discussion or as a springboard for a piece of written literary analysis. Today we are going to use it as a springboard for discussion. Everyone needs to find a partner in the room. Stand and walk to that partner. For the next two minutes, each group will discuss their plot summaries and see what similarities and differences you have. After two minutes, stop the groups, have them choose new partners, and discuss the personal allusions for two minutes. Continue in this manner until they have discussed all six perspectives. Each time, you may need to model by reading your own writing aloud, but showing them that you want them to more than just read it aloud, you want them to talk about what they wrote. After they have discussed all six perspectives, they may return to their seats. Closure How will I have students reflect and summarize their learning? After all have returned to seats, facilitate a class discussion. Ask students what they learned by writing about the article? What did they learn as they discussed the article and their writing with their partners? How did their thinking about the article change as they wrote and talked to others? How can they use this kind of information in the future? Ask them to keep their hexagonals with their class things so that we can refer to them in the future.
TEKS Addressed in this lesson: (Bold indicates TEKS that are specifically utilized in the lesson) Middle School: 7.1A determine the purposes for listening such as to gain information, to solve problems, or to enjoy and appreciate (4-8); 0.4 7.1B eliminate barriers to effective listening (4-8); 0.4 7.1D listen to learn by taking notes, organizing, and summarizing spoken ideas (6-8); 0.4 7.2 E compare his/her own perception of a spoken message with the perception of others (6-8); 0.4 7.3A listen to proficient, fluent models of oral reading, including selections from classic and contemporary works (4-8); 0.4 7.4A connect his/her own experiences, information, insights, and ideas with the experiences of others through speaking and listening(4-8); 0.4 7.5B demonstrate effective communications skills that reflect such demands as interviewing, reporting, requesting, and providing information (4-8); 3.4 7.5F clarify and support spoken ideas with evidence, elaborations, and examples (4-8). 2.4 7.8A read classic and contemporary works (2-8); 0.2 7.8B select varied sources such as plays, anthologies, novels, textbooks, poetry, newspapers, manuals, and electronic texts when reading for information or pleasure (68); 0.2 7.8C read for varied purposes such as to be informed, to be entertained, to appreciate the writer's craft, and to discover models for his/her own writing (4-8); 0.2 7.8D read to take action such as to complete forms, make informed recommendations, and write a response (6-8); 3.2 7.9A develop vocabulary by listening to selections read aloud (4-8); 0.3 7.9B draw on experiences to bring meanings to words in context such as interpreting figurative language, idioms, multiple-meaning words, and analogies (6-8); 2.2 7.10A use his/her own knowledge and experience to comprehend (4-8); 0.2 7.10B establish and adjust purposes for reading such as reading to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy, and to solve problems (4-8); 0.2 7.10C monitor his/her own comprehension and make modifications when understanding breaks down such as by rereading a portion aloud, using reference aids, searching for clues, and asking questions (4-8); 0.2 7.10D describe mental images that text descriptions evoke (4-8); 0.2 7.10G paraphrase and summarize text to recall, inform, or organize ideas (4-8); 1.2 7.10H draw inferences such as conclusions or generalizations and support them with text evidence and experience (4-8); 1.2 7.10I find similarities and differences across texts such as in treatment, scope, or organization (4-8); 1.2 7.10K answer different types and levels of questions such as open-ended, literal, and interpretative as well as test-like questions such as multiple choice, true-false, and short answer (4-8); 1.2 7.10L represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8); 2.2
7.10M use study strategies to learn and recall important ideas from texts such as preview, question, reread, and record (6-8). 0.2 7.11A offer observations, make connections, react, speculate, interpret, and raise questions in response to texts (4-8); 1.2 7.11B interpret text ideas through such varied means journal writing, discussion, enactment, and media (4-8); 0.2 7.11C support responses by referring to relevant aspects of text and his/her own experiences (4-8); 0.2 7.11D connect, compare, and contrast ideas, themes, and issues across text (4-8). 7.12G recognize and analyze story plot, setting, and problem resolution (4-8); 7.12J recognize and interpret literary devices such as flashback, foreshadowing, and symbolism (6-8); 7.13E summarize and organize information from multiple sources by taking notes, outlining ideas, and making charts (4-8); 7.13G draw conclusions from information gathered from multiple sources (4-8); 7.13H use compiled information and knowledge to raise additional, unanswered questions (3-8); 7.14A compare text events with his/her own and other readers' experiences (4-8); 7.15A write to express, discover, record, develop, reflect on ideas, and to problem solve (4-8); 7.15C write to inform such as to explain, describe, report, and narrate (4-8); 7.16A write legibly by selecting cursive or manuscript as appropriate (4-8); 7.16B capitalize and punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning such as capitalizing titles, using hyphens, semicolons, colons, possessives, and sentence punctuation (6-8); 7.18A generate ideas and plans for writing by using prewriting strategies such as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and logs (4-8); 7.19B respond in constructive ways to others' writings (4-8); 7.19D analyze published examples as models for writing (4-8); 7.20B organize prior knowledge about a topic in a variety of ways such as by producing a graphic organizer (4-8); 7.20D summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources in useful ways such as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines (4-8); 7.24A select, organize, or produce visuals to complement and extend meanings (4-8);
High School: Grade 10 2(A) use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan; 3(A) produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization such as italics and ellipses; 4(A) use writing to formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas; 4(B) use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic; 4(D) represent information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and learning logs; 4(E) use writing as a study tool to clarify and remember information; 6(A) expand vocabulary through wide reading, listening, and discussing; 7(A) establish a purpose for reading such as to discover, interpret, and enjoy; 7(B) draw upon his/her own background to provide connection with texts; 7(D) construct images such as graphic organizers based on text descriptions and text structures; 7(F) produce summaries of texts by identifying main ideas and their supporting details; 7(G) draw inferences such as conclusions, generalizations, and predictions and support them with text evidence and experience; 8(A) read to be entertained, to appreciate a writer's craft, to be informed, to take action, and to discover models to use in his/her own writing; 8(B) read in varied sources such as diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and other media; 9(B) compare text events with his/her own and other readers' experiences. 10(A) respond to informational and aesthetic elements in texts such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and enactments; 10(B) use elements of text to defend his/her own responses and interpretations; 11(A) compare and contrast varying aspects of texts such as themes, conflicts, and allusions; 11(E) connect literature to historical contexts, current events, and his/her own experiences; 14(B) engage in critical, empathic, appreciative, and reflective listening. 16(A) use the conventions of oral language effectively; 16(E) ask clear questions for a variety of purposes and respond appropriately to the questions of others; 16(F) make relevant contributions in conversations and discussions; 17(B) choose valid proofs from reliable sources to support claims; 18(A) make valid interpretations of a variety of literary texts;