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									Application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID ) Introduction
Radio Frequency Identification RFID is the use of radio frequencies or thereabouts to read data electronically that are stored in small devices called tags. These tags are in the form of cards, tickets, key fobs, badges, necklets, wrist or ankle bands and even implants. RFID can "read" many at a time even when hidden in a product or package. All that adds up to automation - getting rid of the human and the associated costs, errors and delays for reading or identifies the tags in the product.

RFID Systems
The goal of the RFID tags is to identify objects in open environments.A tag can be remotely read without optical access to the item holder. Several tags can be read at the same time.A RFID tag has its own identifier (therefore an item has a unique identifier).

RFID Systems data processing
Interaction: -1- The reader broadcasts a request in its communication zone. -2- The tags send back their answers. -3- The answers are sent to the data processing subsystem.

RFID Characteristics
            Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited No processor Memory: A few hundred bits (ROM or EEPROM) Typically between 64 and 128 bits in ROM Not tamper-resistant No battery Energy is brought to the tag by the electric or magnetic field of the reader Reader-to-Tag channel: up to 100 meters Tag-to-Reader channel: up to a few meters Channel between readers and tags is not secure

Security Issues RFID Technology
Security Issues Threats are  Threats on the tag's bearers (privacy)

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Threats on the system (denial of service attacks, tag forgery, ...) Information leakage: The tag gives some information related to the object holder. Traceability:An adversary is able to track the tag, and therefore its bearer also. A solution for tracability consists in using identifiers chosen randomly: the tag's identifier contains no useful data for an adversary; only the data processing manager can match the identifier with the corresponding item. Data Processing "Cryptography, theory and practice" :Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags : The tag is deactivated (or physically destroyed) when the customer pays for an item. Efficient and straightforward, but: 1. Suitable for some specific applications only 2. Loss of functionalities (the tag is not usable anymore) 3. Doubt kept in mind (Are tags really invalid?) Interfering the request/answer : This can use physical phenomena (e.g. Faraday cage) or electronic devices (e.g. blocker tag), but: 1. Not always possible 2. The tag has to stay in the device electronic eld 3. Electronic pollution Answering to authorized readers Only : No such a (secure) protocol exists yet. Refreshing the tag's identifier: The tag's identifier is modified each time the tag is queried by a reader. For these several schemes exist,

Identification Protocol
Each tag has the identity. Initially, the tag , also known by the database. The tag refreshes itself its current identifier using a hash function. , the database has to identify the corresponding tag. Receiving For that , it constructs the hash chains from the initial values it stores until it ends where such that. This scheme suffers from several drawbacks: Putting a hash function into the tags is not possible yet (but could become possible in the near future) The protocol implies a high complexity on the data processing hand.

Singulation protocol
The singulation protocol is used to identify several tags at the same time in order to avoid collisions. The most used singulation protocol is a tree-walking-based algorithm, but such an algorithm, which is based on the identifier of the tag, needs several requests to identify the tags. Designing an identification protocol preserving the privacy of the tags's bearer.

Some of the aplication of RFID

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Targeted Applications Speed up the checkouts in the shops Management of stocks and stocktakings Renting (e.g. libraries) Recycling Pets identification Carriage of small amount of data Anti-counterfeiting Sensor networks

RFID in Healthcare 2005 Remote rewriting
RFID tags are often referred as "read write" tags which means they can have some of the data stored in them are rewritten by a remote electronic device called an "interrogator". Interrogator is nothing but a device that can be used to update repair, warranty and maintenance information etc.,.

Electronic handshake for error prevention
The tag talks to the interrogator electronically and, if the interrogator is not satisfied, it prevents a procedure stored in them taking place or alerts staff. It keeps an electronic record, useful for subsequent investigations including litigation.

Security and safety
RFID is useful for security and safety. RFID cards, pendants and key fobs let only the authorized member of staff into secure areas such as drug storage or any restricted area and they do it without any need to put things down or let go of a patient.

Automating research and testing
The ability to automate with RFID is exploited in many device,because its short range is acceptable with such applications, these tags are at or near the size of a silicon chip and are embedded in the base or the cap of the device and are read by "smart shelves" and record the information for research and also used for testing purpose. Thus increasingly, RFID will enable holistic management of a healthcare facility using tags on almost every person and item give both identity and status(overheated, unauthorised movement ) in real time with automated responses where appropriated. In this quest, the latest hot areas for RFID in healthcare include tagging most assets and linking all the "islands of automation" being created today by using many different wireless systems as appropriate such as RFID, RFID with sensors, ZigBee, Near Field Communication NFC and WiFi.

New RFID technologies
Ultra Wide Band(UWB) is now approved for RFID in which high microwave frequencies can pass vast amounts of data and radio locate at low cost even in the hospital environment. Several universities and research centres are working on location using RFID with a single beam of radiation ie a single interrogator instead of the bulky and expensive multiple interrogator systems used today. Then we may have low cost hand held locators identifying exactly where a tagged product resides.

A list of RFID requirements that still need to be satisfied
Challenges • Tags that can be radio located at low cost. The hand-held card-shaped locator that senses the tag may simply have an arrow and a distance and work off a button battery and be used for such purposes as tracing kidnapped or lost children • Cheaper hands-free staff access control of highest security. • Air cards (ticketless travel, purse etc) that double as passport, visa, ID all interrogated at meters away (vicinity) and work for payment at 1cm or so (proximity) but low cost. • Non-stop road tolling on multilane highways with no obstructions yet high integrity, (all shapes of vehicle weaving in and out). A low-cost smart label is needed in the vehicle windshield. • Retailers must be absolutely sure that the products on their shelves are authentic; they need to instantly detect when, where and by whom the goods were made and instantly detect product theft efficiently and effectively. • Manufacturers must be able to produce to demand, cutting wastage, making their processes more efficient, and so making it easier to hold prices. • Manufacturing should be more efficient in its use of resources, and by RFID coding packaging, far more can be recycled. Suitable low-cost smart labels are needed. • Microwave ovens should sense a tag on prepared food and automatically cook it correctly. • Washing machines should sense tags on all clothing and program accordingly, rejecting inappropriate items - even saying out loud what the inappropriate item is. • More RFID companies should be offering a global service with appropriate economies of scale, particularly system integrators.

• Acquisitive companies that will rationalise fragmented smart label sectors and give better, lower cost "one-stop-shopping" to the purchaser of such systems. • Companies using CCTV and tags intelligently coupled eg in supermarket trolley theft prevention. • Systems that can track people with things eg in an airport, where is that particular vehicle and who is driving it? Did the same person enter the plane that checked in their bag? • Medical consumables tagged so the surgeon can wave a gadget over the patient to detect if he left anything in them, and what, after operating. The nurse should similarly be able to detect if dangerous disposables have been put in the wrong waste bin. Just hold an RFID detector near and stock control be carried out without opening multipacks. • Product handshaking such as holding a gadget over a box of pills to check the right instructions and pots are in there and the box is the right one. • Contactless chip tickets that can be read and written too at a few centimeters (proximity) for fare payment on boarding a bus, and can be read at 1m (vicinity) on alighting to gather data and prevent fraud. • Antenna-on-chip low-cost RFID with a range of more than the current 1 cm (to go on test tubes, behind jewellery etc.) and price below 10 cents in volume. • 5-10 cents smart labels with read-write capability and several meters range - for vehicles and conveyances. • Globally harmonised radiation regulations so RFID tags have the same performance wherever they are sold.

Thus ,in the near future RFID is going to change the way companies do business.Combined with sensor networks, it will give unprecedented visibility into supply chain management of the companies, also in the field of medicine and health care and going to play vital role in monitoring the secure areas aganist intrusion by terrorists . We can certainly expect great progress with RFID in Health care and Holistic mangement in the very near future.

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