BODY: Since generations mans eternal quest for better life had tested for how far science can venture into medicine. But along with these advances the evolution and discovery if new diseases had set limitations for the medical reach and cure of these diseases. As the fierce debate goes on; cancer, being one of the most unpredictable and lethal disease has been the biggest challenges for medicine and it has been time tested with many innovative methods of curing since its existence has been discovered. Yet the disease is still incurable. Through a vigorous and intensive research, a complete cure is still decades ahead. But there lies a vague chance of a complete cure if the disease is discovered in its initial stages. But here lies the problem since cancer is utterly unpredictable at its infant stages(no symptoms are visible ). Deep tissue tumors are still big trouble. So detecting and preliminary precaution even after sugery are the major challenges faced by todays scientific community and billons are spent on years of research throughout the world to find the solution. Well, the ray of hope for this baffling solution may be the nanoscience. It is defined by nano which means nanoscaled materials can definitely take up the detecting and curing processes at cellular levels because of there sheer size. With the recent discovery of nanosheels, nanocarbon tubles, and self devisable bioenzymes all at very cellular scale, a solution for cancer cure seems to be inevitable within a few years. Here is an idea which is deviced from these nanocompenents which can be a notable prototype for innovative cure of cancer with nanotechnology. A complete detail is listed below
Living organisms are naturally-existing, fabulously complex systems of molecular nanotechnology Molecular nanotechnology has many precedents. Enzymes are natural molecular machines that adsorb individual reactant molecules from the surrounding solution and, as a result of precisely orienting them with respect
to each other in a protected "nanoenvironment," catalyze reactions in a highly specific manner at very high speeds and under mild reaction conditions. Many industries already make use of enzymes to catalyze desired reactions one molecule at a time. Genetic engineers are producing pharmaceuticals by using naturally occurring enzymes to edit DNA, and the soft drink industry uses enzymes that have been modified to allow them to produce sugar at high rates near 100 degrees C without denaturation. The real promise for the future, however, lies in the development of fully artificial enzymes. Enzymes have already been designed, synthesized, and found to function as designed. Designed enzymes that are found not to function as intended can be modified as many times as necessary until they function as desired. Thus, whether from first principles or from enlightened trial and error, industrially useful artificial enzymes should be forthcoming. More than 10100 average-sized synthetic enzymes are possible with the use of nature's 20 amino acids, whereas probably less than 10 14 enzymes are presently responsible for maintaining the entire biosphere. There are many useful kinds of chemistry that are not easily promoted by natural amino acids. One particularly versatile method for transcending the biological limits of proteinaceous catalysts has already been demonstrated. It is based on the fact that the genetic code specifies amino acids by the sequence of any one of four nucleic acid bases taken three at a time, with each three-letter base sequence known as a codon. There are 64 codons in all, but nature uses them to specify only 20 amino acids rather than 64. Recently, it has become possible to create an artificial transfer RNA that can add an unnatural amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain in response to one of the "unused" codons that exist naturally. This could be expanded to an unlimited number of unnatural amino acids, and these unnatural amino acids could contain totally nonbiological catalytic groups or even pre-made machine parts, such as structural support struts, molecular bearings, or the like. In a fully artificial system, the 20 natural amino acids might even be entirely dispensable. Furthermore, it is now possible to insert artificial bases into DNA and RNA, drastically augmenting the prospects for designing catalytically active RNA as well as proteins with unnatural functional groups. Exploring the above possibilities, a new concept is set as a testification to these facts and is called “smart pharmaceuticals”.
Today's drug is essentially a single molecule with an often sophisticated but always limited repertoire. Tomorrow's "smart pharmaceuticals" could be essentially programmable machines with a range of "sensory," "decision-making," and "effector" capabilities. They might avoid side effects and allergic reactions by coming in generic, biocompatible housings; becoming active only upon reaching their ultimate destinations; and attaining almost complete specificity of action. They might check for overdosage before becoming active, thus preventing accidental or intentional poisoning. They might have not one chemical action but several, processing targeted invading organisms or malignant cells through a series of chemical reactions that guarantee the death of the target. Using nanotechnology cancer can be treated in the following way as described.
The radio active stopper used in present days treatment are radon, actinium 225 etc. Due to these radiations (the presents of gamma rays) the cancer cells are killed and destroyed. Due to low radioactivity, the neighboring cells are left unhurt (even though considerable normal cells are also killed to prevent any spread). But some times even at this extent of precaution some malignant cells may escape the radiation and pave way for regeneration of carcinoma i.e cancer. Hence indicators are always required to detect their presence, regrowth or spreading to other tissues. Indicators should have a unique property to maintain its inertness in normal condition and transcend themselves when situation of malignancy occurs. Molecules which emit heat and light detectable by the sensors are required to function & as indicators. There properties are exhibited by the 1. RAE (Radio Isotope of Bismuth) 2. 49k40 (Potassium) 3. Minor quantities of iodine 135 isotope.
Heat sensors can track the heat produced by the decay of bismuth from RAE & iodine 135 is already in use as biological indicator in plants (under pest attack). Its mild blue radiation in the form of light can be detected by the photo sensors. A direct injection of these radioactive isotopes may cause harm to the body. They must be encapsulated in the shells which protect body from radiation expose. A recent discovery of nanoshells has solution for this problem. These nutshells can encase the radio isotopes and prevent the undesirable effects from radiation. the manufacturing and encasing of nanoshells may look tedious because of their nanosize. But with the availabity of present day sophisticated methods like photolithography, the group of R.A atoms can be shelved into the silica and lead alloy. Silica for giving skeletal structure & lead to prevent leak of radioactivity. A silver film is also coated to these nanoshells. This proves the inertness of shells w.r.t the bioenzymes and other chemicals.
Due to the nano fixer carbon tubules this compounded isotopes fixes them selves to all organs of the human system. The compounded stricture consists of carbon nano tube, as a structural support and fixture, a compounded isotropic shells, a protein which accumulates enzymes The nano fixture tubules gets released in following conditions 1. Unusual stress 2. Destructing of walls for which tubules are attached 3. Abnormal reactions 4. Unexplainable blood consumption .………which are common reactions on cancer tissue. Taking the 4th condition, when unexplainable blood consumption occurs,as in the case of preliminary stages of cancer, more accumulation of protein as carrier of O2 takes place. This in turn gathers the unnatural amino acids thereby generating enzymes which dissolve the carbon nanotubules and enzymes affixing it to body in the cource of this process, the nanoshells are released in the malignant area there by releasing the isotopes. As we have seen these are bifunctional, 1. 2. Radon and Actinium225 kills the tumor cells & initiates the first hand and immediate curing process. Iodine 135 & bismuth act as indicators which are detected by the micro electronic sensors placed discretely with in the body.
Thus detection and curing takes place at a time….
The design of nano circuts for sensing and detection is discussed below The detecting of heat and radiation from I 135 can be done by using Nano electronic circuits implanted in tissue of the organs. These circuits acts as the sensory devices and are deviced using simple transistors, resistors. As the scale of present day transistors has been brought down to 6-9nm, one could imagine the scale of min. combination of 5 to 10 transistors….Definitely Nanoscale! The transistors are designed as per newly evolved SSDOI technology (i.e Silicon Segmented Directly On Insulator) that provides high performance at nanoscale virtually chasing Moore’s law. It also eliminates the process integration problems at nanoscale. These circuits can be easily manufactured by the present day photolithograph techniques. The circuit design of the nanoscale circuit is as explained. The circuit has photodiode, and thermistor connected to wired structures called as nanotentacles. These nanotentacles consists of serially connected thermistors and photodiode pairs. They provide individual sensory action as given below Thermistor: as discussed earlier, due to the decaying of radioactive Bismuth released from nanoshells , heat is released. As this is area specific, it can easily be detected by the thermistors from tentacles, thus activating them.
Photodiode: The mild radiations from the freed IODINE 135 or radon or Actium 225 in the malignant area activates the photodiode thereby sensing the radioactivity These are numbered as per the requirement and are structured by a carbon tubules with lined conductors. Thus the sensors lay intact to the device without skipping into the body fluids on course of there freq motion. In either way (thermistor or photodiode) the nanotentacles by the circuit design forms a closed circuit due to there activation, thus activating the inbuilt local oscillator which gives pre-emptive warning signals. These tentacles spread along the area of the presence of the chip platelet and
gathers the data. The chip itself is powered by power generated within human cells. At a comman end the chip also consists of built in local oscillator which produces mild signals.
These signals are received by a main processor chip implanted at specific location of the body and acts as interface to external communication system. The processor chip has to be implanted during operation where as the chip platelets can be spread inside and on tissues as nanodust during surgery or through intake as tablets. They get themselves at various spots and affixes themselves inthe surroundings of the post-sugery-malignant tissue. The external communication is performed by external display devices which are readily available in the market. DRAWBACKS: The barriers to this route could be more political than technical, but the availability of rapid local synthesis could make a life-or-death difference in some cases, such as those involving acute poisoning, for example. Alternatively, and more probably, instruments capable of identifying and quantitating drugs without calibration standards should be feasible. A major incentive for this decentralization of medical care will be ethical concerns over patient privacy and the use of genotypic information for unauthorized purposes: these are issues of "drug information" that continue to redefine the term. Relevant compendia should be available on line to any interested party, particularly those whose software allows them to interface the data with a medical "expert system."