ODA Bioenergy Oilseeds Project Quarterly Report by uab11439

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									                      ODA Bioenergy Oilseeds Project Quarterly Report

Report Period: Oct – Dec 2008

Project Title: ODA-OSU Bioenergy Oilseeds Project

Project Coordinator:
Russ Karow, Head, Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University

Researchers:
Agronomics and alternate crops – Daryl Ehrensing
Weed and volunteer plant management, pollen flow – Carol Mallory-Smith, Jim Myers and
     Michael Quinn
Insect monitoring – Amy Dreves and Glenn Fisher
GIS mapping and information technologies – Chris Daly and Mike Halbleib
Economics – Bill Jaeger and Ryan Siegel

BACKGROUND

Funding for this project was initially provided by an Oregon Legislature Emergency Board grand
and is now funded by a specific base budget allocation to the Oregon Department of Agriculture
(ODA). Funding is provided so that ODA can obtain the information it needs to make informed
decisions about canola production zones in the state. The following information is specifically
sought as an outcome of research efforts. These main points were identified in Emergency
Board authorization language:

   A. Understanding interactions between canola and other specialty seed and vegetable crops
      grown in Oregon. Key areas of information need include isolation distances, flower
      synchrony, pollen flow, local weather and topological needed conditions for canola and
      specialty seed production
   B. Development of potential management strategies for production of canola crops while
      protecting the specialty seed and vegetable crop industry
   C. Investigation of alternative oilseed crops that do not conflict with specialty seed and
      vegetable crop production.
   D. Need a system to share oilseed information among researchers, industry, and agency
      personnel.

The following work areas were identified for the Dec 1, 2007 through Nov 30, 2008, work
period to address project objectives. In the period Dec 1, 2008 to Nov 30, 2009 work in areas I,
II, III and VI will continue. GIS work is still in progress and will be completed as soon as the
recently formed ODA Canola Advisory Committee meets and provides input on implementation
strategies for the pinning maps that have been created. Work area V is completed.

I. Grower field trials, alternate crop trials, publications and web site (Objectives B, C, D)
II. Weeds project, cross-pollination, seed bank (Objectives A, B)
III. Insect monitoring (Objective A)



                             ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 1 of 20
IV. GIS mapping work (Objective B)
V. Economic assessment work (Objectives B, C)
VI. Communications (Objective D)

Please note that these quarterly reports are a cataloging of work that has been completed
in the report time period. They are not intended to be final products. The final product of
this project will be a summary document that provides research outcomes and conclusions that
can be drawn from the work that has been done. This same information will be provided in web
format. Project researchers are also actively engaged in sharing project outcomes with an array
of groups through field days, grower commission meetings, grower association meetings and
professional peer presentations. Parts of the project have been or will be published as extension
or refereed journal article publications.


PROJECT PROGRESS/ACCOMPLSHMENTS

I. Grower field trials and alternate crop trials

Hyslop Farm Trials
Fall planted trials (winter canola, camelina, winter flax) appear to be in good condition despite
late-December weather events. Spring mustard, canola, camelina, and flax trials on Hyslop Farm
are scheduled for planting in February, 2009.

Grower Field Trials

ID   Producer: Location                             Acres, Variety            History of Land
1    D. Freeborn: NE Greenwood road side            20 A, Athena              S half PRG: N half wheat
2    K. Freeborn: on hill off greenwood             25 A, Baldur              Perennial rye grass (PRG)
3    D. Freeborn: west of 2007 site                 10 A, Athena              PRG
4    Bruce Bice: SW Greenwood road side             16 A, Athena              Wheat
5    Scott Setniker: McMinnville area               70 A, Athena              PRG

Five winter canola fields were established in 2008 as part of the ODA-OSU oilseed research
project. Growers included Dean Freeborn, Kathy Freeborn, Bruce Bice, and Scott Setniker. All
fields were issued permits by the Oregon Department of Agriculture to be planted as part of this
research project. All fields were planted to non-GM canola varieties.

Dean Freeborn planted two canola fields. His smallest field is approximately 10 acres. This field
is the remaining portion of the grass seed field that had been planted in an OSU-ODA canola
trial in 2007. Dean’s other field is a 20-acre field which had grown half grass seed and half
winter wheat the previous season.

Both fields were disc-ripped followed by tandem discing. Treflan was applied at the rate of 2 lbs
a.i./acre and incorporated prior to a final harrow and roll operation before planting. Both fields
were planted on September 15, 2008 with Athena canola at the rate of 5 lbs/acre using a
conventional grain drill with rows on 12 inch centers. Starter fertilizer was applied (200 lb/a of


                            ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 2 of 20
16-16-16 and 1 lb/a Boron) through the drill at planting. Select was applied to both fields at the
rate of 5oz./acre on December 5, 2008 to control volunteer grasses and wheat.




Photos taken November 13, 2008 showing left: Dean Freeborn’s 10-acre canola field and right:
Dean’s 20-acre canola field.

Kathy Freeborn’s 25-acre canola field was planted following many years of grass seed
production. Prior to planting the field was disc-ripped followed by tandem discing (2x) and one
pass with a Dixon harrow and roller. The field was planted using Baldur canola at the rate of 6
pounds per acre on September 16, 2008. Starter fertilizer was applied (200 lb/a of 16-16-16 and 1
lb/a Boron) through the drill at planting. Select was applied to the field at the rate of 5oz./acre on
December 5, 2008.




Photo taken November 13, 2008 showing Kathy Freeborn’s Baldur canola field.


                             ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 3 of 20
Bruce Bice’s 40 acre canola field was planted following a winter wheat crop. Prior to planting,
the full wheat straw load was chopped and then plowed. After plowing, the field was disced
twice. Treflan was applied and incorporated, then the field was harrowed and rolled before
planting. The field was planted on September 15, 2008 with Athena canola at the rate of 5
lbs/acre using a conventional grain drill with rows on 12 inch centers. Starter fertilizer was
applied (200 lb/a of 16-16-16 and 1 lb/a Boron) through the drill at planting. Although volunteer
grass and cereal pressure was low in this field, Select was applied at the rate of 5oz./acre on
December 5, 2008.




Photo taken November 13, 2008 showing Bice’s canola field.

All of the above mentioned fields were planted just prior to a predicted storm front, but
insufficient rainfall arrived in that storm to germinate and establish crops. As a result, plant
emergence did not occur in these fields until a more significant rainfall event in mid-October.
Following this rain, good stands were rapidly achieved in all fields. Weather conditions were
mild from crop emergence through mid-December, and the canola seedlings grew rapidly until
the onset of cold weather in December.

Scott Setniker planted approximately 75 acres of canola following grass seed. Straw residue from
the preceding grass seed crop was baled and removed. The field was then disc-ripped and
harrowed to level the ground. Preplant fertilizer (190lb/a of 23-0-31) was applied and
incorporated. Treflan was applied at the rate of 2 lbs a.i./acre and incorporated prior to a final


                            ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 4 of 20
harrow and roll operation before planting. The field was planted on September 29, 2008 with
Athena canola at the rate of 7 lbs/a using a John Deere No-Till drill. An additional 50 lb/a of 11-
52-0 was applied through the drill at planting. This field is a center-pivot, irrigated field.

This field has had a long history of heavy slug pressure, and slug bait was applied by the grower
three times in fall 2008. Significant slug damage was observed in small parts of the field in early
December, but stand establishment and crop development was quite good in all but a few acres.




Setniker’s canola field, December 2008.

II. Weeds project, cross-pollination, seed bank

Long-term goal: Evaluate whether the introduction of canola poses a risk to the Brassica seed
crop production industry.

Objective 1: Determine the potential of gene flow and hybridization via pollen flow from
Brassica napus to related Brassica vegetable crops, and evaluate whether transgenes will be
detectable in harvested Brassica vegetable seed even if the seed is aborted.

Greenhouse crossing experiments
Isolated greenhouse crossing experiments were conducted using either imidazolinone resistant
(Imi), or glyphosate resistant (RR) Brassica napus cultivars as the pollen parent, and cytoplasmic
male sterile (CMS) B.oleracea cultivars as receptors. Initiation and duration of flowering were
recorded for each species. Seed was harvested from individual receptor plants. Number of


                            ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 5 of 20
racemes, siliques (seed pods), seed set and number of seed per plant were recorded for each
cross.

All of the seed produced in these crosses were shrunken and failed to germinate. Seed from the
B.oleracea x (RR) Brassica napus were tested for the presence of the CP4 EPSP protein using
the Trait √ ™ system. None of the shrunken seed tested positive for the presence of the protein.

Field experiments
In-field crossing studies were conducted in a B. napus field on the Van Leeuwen farm near
Corvallis, OR. Pollen receptor plants of a self-incompatible B. rapa var. chinensis (Pak-choi), a
second B. rapa head type Chinese cabbage, and cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) B. oleracea var.
botrytis (broccoli) plants were grown in the greenhouse and sequentially moved into the field
throughout B. napus flowering. These experiments are identical to those conducted at the
Robinson farm last year. Additionally, a second experiment was conducted in a B. napus field on
the Hyslop Agricultural Research Farm using a B. oleracea leafy type cabbage as a receptor
species. Each receptor plant was arranged in a 7 x 7 m grid inside the perimeter of a 15 x 15 m
study area at both locations with one plant located at the intersection of the grid axes. Each
experiment contained thirteen individual receptor plants. Initiation and duration of flowering
were recorded for all species at both sites.

The number of racemes, siliques, and the total seed produced by each receptor plant in each
respective cross varied greatly depending on both location and receptor species (Figure 1). The
exceptionally low level of seed set that occurred in the B. oleracea x B. napus cross conducted at
the 2008 Van Leeuwen location may be partially attributed to environmental factors. On May
16th and 17th the recorded in-field air temperature exceeded 92ºF. This resulted in considerable
blossom drop on the B. napus plants, but did not appear to impact the B. oleracea receptor
plants. However, the elevated temperature may have caused unseen damage resulting in
significantly reduced seed set when compared to the results from the previous year.

Once germinated, progeny of the field crosses will be sampled and their parentage determined by
morphology, flow cytometry, and molecular marker analysis.

Figure 1. Number of racemes, siliques, and total seed produced from the four field crossing
  experiments.1

               B. rapa var. chinensis x B. napus Field Cross
        1000


        100
                                                                   Racemes
  Log




                                                                   Siliques
         10                                                        Total Seed


          1
                1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8    9   10 11 12 13
                            Receptor Plant Number




                                                ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 6 of 20
                       B. oleracea x B. napus Field Cross
          1000



          100
                                                                                           Racemes
    Log




                                                                                           Siliques
           10                                                                              Total Seed



            1
                  1    2   3       4       5       6       7       8       9 10 11 12 13
                                   Receptor Plant Number


                  B. rapa (head type) x B. napus Field Cross
          10000


          1000

                                                                                           Racemes
    Log




           100
                                                                                           Siliques
                                                                                           Total Seed
            10

             1
                   1   2       3       4       5       6       7       8    9   10 11 12
                                   Receptor Plant Number



                  B. oleracea (leafy type) x B. napus Cross

          10000

          1000
                                                                                           Racemes
    Log




           100                                                                             Siliques
                                                                                           Total Seed
            10

             1
                   1   2   3       4       5       6       7       8       9 10 11 12 13
                                   Receptor Plant Number

1
 Totals for number of racemes, siliques, and seed are plotted on a Log scale.

Objective 2: Evaluate the potential for volunteer Brassica napus to become a contaminant in the
Brassica vegetable seed crops.

Soil cores extracted from the 2007 and 2008 field sites have been sampled and processed. Three
seeds were recovered from the Robinson (2007) field site. Five buried seeds were recovered
from the Venelle (2007) field site. These seeds were placed in a growth chamber to determine
germinibility. None of the recovered seed were able to germinate. No buried canola seed were
recovered in the soil samples from any of the 2008 sites.

Analysis of the data collected for the 2007 & 2008 in-field volunteer assessment illustrated
differences in seed shatter between windrow and non-windrow locations within the same field
(p= 0.0248 to <0.0001), with the exception of the 2007 Van Leeuwen site (Figure 2). Differences
in mean seed shatter between the locations are given in Table 1. The number of seedlings
resulting from the shattered seed differed between locations (p<0.0001), with the exception of
the 2007 & 2008 Van Leeuwen sites (Figure 2). Differences in volunteer seedling numbers
between the windrow and non-windrow within the same location were only detected at the


                                                                       ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 7 of 20
Freeborn (2008) location (p<0.0001). Differences in mean volunteer seedling number between
the locations are given in Table 1.

Figure 2. Results of the in-field assay of canola seed shatter and seedling recruitment for the study locations in 2007
&
   2008.

                                 2007& 2008 Canola Field Site Seed                                        2007 & 2008 Canola Field Site Seedling
                                             Shatter                                                                  Recruitment
                                                                                                                                                   A2R windrow
                           100                                                                           14
                            90                                                                                                                     A2R outside windrow
                                                                                                         12




                                                                             Millions of Seedlings / A
                            80
    Millions of Seed / A




                                                                                                                                                   Van Leeuwen windrow
                            70                                                                           10
                            60                                                                                                                     Van Leeuwen outside
                                                                                                          8                                        windrow
                            50                                                                                                                     Freeborn windrow
                            40                                                                            6
                                                                                                                                                   Freeborn outside windrow
                            30                                                                            4
                            20                                                                                                                     Van Leeuwen 08 windrow
                                                                                                          2
                            10
                                                                                                                                                   Van Leeuwen 08 outside
                             0                                                                            0                                        windrow
*
 Error bars represent the standard error of the means.



Table 1. Means comparisons of shattered seed and the resulting seedlings for each of the field sites in both windrow
and
    outside of the windrow sample locations.
                                                          1                                                          1
                              Mean Number of Seed/A                              Mean Number of Seedlings/A
 Field Site                 Windrow          Outside Windrow                    Windrow               Outside Windrow
 A2R                      82988410 a           57371807 a                      6729921 b                 5676929 a
 Van Leeuwen 08           77056849 a           23996364 b                      1398315 c                 151653 b
 Van Leeuwen              22621518 b          20807967 bc                      1610222 c                 1197098 b
 Freeborn                 25929640 b           12098718 c                     10613112 a                 4230068 a
1
 Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different.



Volunteers have not been detected at any of the monitored 2007 field sites. The 2007 and 2008
sites will continue to be monitored and any volunteer plants noted.

Future Plans:
Seed from all field crosses is being germinated, and the results will be analyzed. Progeny of the
field crosses will be sampled and their parentage determined by morphology, flow cytometry,
and molecular marker analysis.

In 2009, the field crossing experiments using B. rapa head type Chinese cabbage, and B.
oleracea leafy type Chinese cabbage as pollen receptor species will be repeated. We are
currently in the process of acquiring several other vegetables species of Brassica to use in future
crossing experiments. Monitoring for volunteer canola will continue on the sites from 2007 and
2008, and the new locations scheduled for planting fall 2008.




                                                       ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 8 of 20
III. Insect Monitoring

A number of pests can damage canola crops when planted in late fall - aphids [turnip (Hyadaphis
erysimi (Kaltenbach)), green peach [(Myzus persicae (Sulzer)), and the cabbage aphid
(Brevicoryne brassicae (L.))], grey field slug (Deroceras reticulatum), crucifer flea beetles
(Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze)), fall flight of the cabbage maggots (Delia radicum L.), spotted
cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata), and miscellaneous vertebrates (mice, voles, and
rabbits). The objective of monitoring was to assess levels of arthropod pests, along with other
pest observations, in the fall-planted grower canola fields.

Amy Dreves and Glenn Fisher, entomologists in the OSU Department of Crop and Soil Science,
visited project fields on 9/27/08, 11/11/08, and 11/24/08 and conducted thorough visual
inspections. We plan to check for infestations of cabbage maggots in root samples in late
December or early January.

The lack of precipitation after seeding delayed germination in all fields. Little to no germination
was observed during the first field visit on Sept 27 in the Freeborn or Bice fields. By Nov 11, all
fields were in the 3 - 4 leaf stage. In the 10-acre Freeborn and Bice field we observed very low
levels (<5%) of leaf defoliation caused from vertebrates (voles, mice, rabbits) and cucumber
beetles (on borders). The most prominent damage to leaves in the 20-acre Freeborn Athena field
was a phytotoxicity effect due to herbicide drift from a south neighboring field - @ 20% burning
of leaves. The damaged plants showed few symptoms at the Nov 24th evaluation.

The grey field slug is the pest of greatest concern in the Setniker field. Slug defoliation was
highest in the northwest area of this field. In some cases, no plants were present. High straw
residue and bordering vegetation favored slug habitat. As noted earlier, this field has a history of
slug problems.

On Nov. 24th, all fields were at the 6-8 leaf stage. Additional slug damage was observed in the
Setniker field despite Scott’s baiting efforts. At least 4 pellets per ft2 are desired for good control
of slugs. Timing of treatment is critical as the first day of baiting can kill up to 80% of
population. All the fields had volunteer grass, shepards purse or broadleaf weeds between rows
which should be controlled by the herbicides applied by growers or should have their
competitive effect minimized as the canola crop continues to develop.

The Freeborn Baldur field had a bluer leaf color than the Athena fields and the least amount of
insect defoliation on leaves. Many of the leaves in all fields inspected had a mottled look,
perhaps due to the cold temperatures and lack of nutrient uptake.

IV. GIS Mapping Work

No additional work was done on mapping in this period. Once the ODA Canola Advisory
Committee has met and makes decisions on how to deploy the maps developed under this grant,
project personal will complete this work. One of the discussion points for the Advisory
Committee will necessarily need to be on-going maintenance and associated costs of maintaining




                             ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 9 of 20
a web-based mapping system.

V. Economic Assessments

Economics projects have been completed and work is underway to post annotated project
findings to the oilseeds website - http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/bioenergy/. The web site has
this listing for economics work:

       Five projects of varying size and complexity were pursued related to economic aspects of
       biodiesel and oilseed production in the Willamette Valley. Each area is summarized
       below with links to additional information and sources.

               Willamette Valley Agricultural Model
               Meal Market Size
               Biodiesel Private and Social Cost Estimates
               Oilseed Crop and Biodiesel Production Cost Estimator Tools
               Specialty Seed Producers' Concerns Regarding Canola Production

Please note that this web site is being used to catalog information from a variety of sources
on topics related to biofuels. Information from other universities and agencies as well as
work done at OSU with other funding sources can be found on the site.

VI. Communications
Researchers on this project have been actively engaged in sharing information about this project
through project reports at commission and association meetings and one-on-one or small group
meetings with growers and interested industry partners. Daryl Ehrensing has been most active in
this regard in work with Willamette Biomass Producers to assist growers with camelina
production and harvest across the state.

SYNERGIES

   winter canola small plot work is being done as part of a project managed by Tom Chastain
    with funding from a City of Portland grant
   operational funds for camelina date of planting, fertility and variety trials is provided through
    the Sun Grant program. Daryl Ehrensing’s time is being paid through this grant. A copy of
    the Dec 2008 quarterly report for the regional camelina project is attached as Appendix 1 to
    this report
   funds from the OSU-CSS Willard Endowment are being used to fund camelina herbicide and
    seed testing studies
   a proposal on establishment of camelina in no-till cropping systems in the Willamette Valley
    was submitted by Ehrensing to the OSC-ODA Alternatives to Field Burning grant program
    and funded at the $10K level. Work has begun on this project.
   flax straw samples were collected from 2008 plots and have been provided to Dr. Hsiou-Lien
    Chen and Brigitte Cluver, OSU Department of Design and Human Environment. They are
    doing preliminary work with these samples to develop background information on possible
    performance of flax fiber in interior design, green-building products. This information will



                            ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 10 of 20
    be used in attempts to secure funding for additional research. Additional materials will be
    collected as needed for further exploratory work.
   Dr. Carol Mallory-Smith has received a grant for $389,000 from the Biotechnology Risk
    Assessment Grants Program through USDA-CSREES. The study is to address gene flow
    among Brassica species. As part of the study the Mallory-Smith group will do a detailed
    survey of Brassica species that occur in the Willamette Valley. The work will include a
    distance component through which the specific question of how far brassica pollen can be
    moved by wind or bees will addressed – they will use a non-GM, herbicide resistant brassica
    in these studies
   the following bioproduct proposals have been submitted by project participants in response to
    the December 15 due date Western Regional Sun Grant RFP
         Karow, et al. 2008. Exploring Field Crop Biomass Sources for Use in Pacific
            Ethanol’s Boardman Oregon Cellulosic Ethanol Plant - $597,139
         Ehrensing and Roseberg. 2008. Developing Russian Dandelion as a Natural Rubber
            Source for the United States - @$200,000
   Ehrensing has applied for an OSU International Programs Faculty Grants to travel to Europe
    (Holland, Germany, France, Spain, Czech Republic) to meet with university and government
    agency scientists to discuss possibilities for cooperative work on Russian Dandelion and
    others crops, such as flax and sunflower, with which these labs work

FUNDING STATUS

A separate report will be filed in early January 2009 outlining funding status and a spending plan
for the remaining phases of the project. As of mid-December, with salary encumbrances in place
through June 30, @$47K remained in the grant. Given salary and service and supply expenses
through the coming harvest season, these funds will be fully utilized.




                           ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 11 of 20
Sun Grant Quarterly Report
                                         DOT-Funded Projects

Project Quarter: Oct – Dec 2008

Project Title: Development of Camelina as a Low-Input Oilseed Crop for Oregon, Idaho and
Washington

Project Coordinator:
Russ Karow, Head, Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University

Research Leaders:
UI Moscow – Stephen Guy
OSU Corvallis – Tom Chastain and Daryl Ehrensing
OSU Pendleton – Don Wysocki
WSU Lind – Bill Schillinger

PROJECT PROGRESS AND ACCOMPLSHMENTS
This is a three-year project with four defined objectives: 1) to determine the optimum planting
date for camelina across the PNW; 2) to identify from among available germplasm that best
adapted to the PNW; 3) to explore nitrogen fertility needs of camelina grown in different
environments in the PNW; and 4) to share research findings through publications, field tours,
grower meetings and other venues to allow camelina to become a viable part of cropping systems
across the PNW.

2007-08 was the first crop year of this study. Plantings for the 2008-09 crop year have begun as
noted under individual station reports.

This project is still in the activities and outputs stages. Some of our early findings will influence
crop management by early grower adoptors of this crop.

                        Update from Corvallis, Oregon State University

Determining optimum planting dates
An early fall planting date was added to the trial this year to test the effect of early planting on
camelina growth, development, and seed yield.

All plots were planted at the rate of 5 pounds of seed per acre using a Nordsten grain drill
mounted on a Massey Ferguson 290 tractor. Plots were 7.5 feet wide by 50 feet in length. Drilled
plots were planted using conventional drill shoes on 6 inch centers followed by a rake attached to
the drill to smooth the soil over the rows. Broadcast plots were planted with the same drill, but a
piece of plywood was attached to the drill just below the seed metering mechanism to prevent the
seed from entering the seed tubes, which allowed the seed to scatter randomly on the soil surface
within the plot. When broadcast seeding, the rake on the drill was pivoted out of the way to




                             ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 12 of 20
prevent covering or moving the seed. This was followed by rolling with a flat roller if conditions
permitted.

The first fall planting occurred on September 30, 2008, and seedling emergence was observed in
both the drilled and broadcast plots on October 5. Plants in these plots established and grew
rapidly regardless of planting method. The rosette canopy virtually covered the entire soil surface
in these plots by the middle of November. In late November stem elongation was observed in a
few plants in both the drilled and broadcast plots, indicating that these plants were attempting to
initiate flowering.




Photo taken December 4, 2008 showing stand establishment and crop development in plots from
the September 30 camelina planting. The drill planted strip is on the right and the broadcast strip
is on the left. Drilled and broadcast plots from the October planting can be seen at the far right of
the picture.

The second planting was completed on October 29, with first emergence in the broadcast plots
on November 4 and in the drilled plots several days later. All plants in these plots are well
established, but the rosettes are growing slowly in the cool weather conditions.

Another planted was made on December 1, 2008, and seedling emergence was noted in the
broadcast plots on December 5.


                            ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 13 of 20
Cultivar Evaluation
Eighteen camelina varieties were planted in Corvallis on December 5, 2008 using a
Wintersteiger cone drill. The trial was planted using a randomized complete block design with
four replications. Plot dimensions were 5 feet by 20 feet. The cultivars planted include:

   1   Blaine Creek
   2   Calena
   3   Celine
   4   Columbia
   5   Cheyenne
   6   Ligena
   7   Suneson
   8   SO-1
   9   SO-2
  10   SO-3
  11   SO-4
  12   SO-5
  13   SO-6
  14   GP07
  15   GP41
  16   GP42
  17   GP48
  18   GP67


Determining Optimum Fertilizer Rates.
Camelina fertility trials are scheduled for planting in February, 2009. The field selected for this
trial was harrowed and rolled in October 2008. Roundup was applied in late November to control
weeds that had sprouted following fall rains.

                       Update from Lind, Washington State University

Planting of experiments in fall 2008
The first planting of the planting date/sowing method study was dusted into dry soil on October
17. The Kyle hoe opener no-till air drill was used for both the direct seed and the broadcast
methods of planting. For the broadcast method, the openers were left 5 inches above the soil
surface, which provided uniform scatter of camelina seed on the soil surface. We pulled a 5-bar
tine harrow behind the drill for the broadcast method instead of the coil packer that was used in
the 2008 crop year. The camelina fertility trial was also planted (direct drilled) on October 17.
We plan to add the nitrogen and sulfur fertilizer treatments by sprayer with a Solution 32 mix in
mid February.




                            ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 14 of 20
The second planting of the sowing date/sowing method was conducted on November 17. Both
direct seed and broadcast techniques were used as described above. Seeding rate is 5 lbs/acre
and the variety “Calena” is used.

Our Sun Grant group decided this year to try fall plantings of camelina varieties at all locations.
Specifics as to varieties planted, number of planting dates and number of locations vary by
principle investigator capabilities and field condition allowances. At Lind we planted 18
varieties (as listed under the Corvallis report) in individual 5 ft x 20 ft plots at a rate of 5 lbs seed
per acre on November 17. All studies mentioned in this report are replicated four times in a
RCB design.

Stand Establishment
Excellent stands of camelina were achieved from the October 17 planting with both the direct
seed and broadcast method of planting. There has of yet been no emergence from the November
17 planting date.

Winter Kill
Lind experienced very cold air temperatures and high winds in December. During the 3rd week
of December, there was a full day of high wind (average wind speed 27 mph with gusts to 38
mph) where the maximum air temperature for the day was 8 degrees F. There was about two
inches of snow cover on the soil prior to the windstorm, but afterwards more than 80% of the
ground was bare. Then, on the evening of December 16-17, air temperatures dropped to a low of
–10 degree F and stayed below 0 degree F for 12 hours.

Following this bitterly cold night with essentially no snow cover, we conducted “grow out” tests
for winter wheat, camelina, safflower, and winter canola. Usually we use a pick ax to acquire
frozen blocks of soil (that contain above and below ground portions of the plants) for these tests.
This year, due to the dry soil conditions, we easily obtained samples of frozen soil with a shovel.
Blocks of soil were placed in trays containing a layer of water and then placed in the greenhouse
at a constant temperature of 50 degrees F. We have conducted many such “grow out” tests for
winter wheat throughout the years and know, quite simply, that if tissue turns brown and rots the
plant is dead and if the plant turns green it is alive.

None of the camelina plants sampled from the October 17 planting date recovered in the green
house, thus we surmise that they were killed by cold. The fate of the camelina planted on
November 17 (and yet to emerge) remains to be seen.

Of major potential economic importance, most of the winter wheat plants sampled also did not
recover in the greenhouse. This means that many eastern Washington winter wheat fields (i.e.,
those fields without snow cover) will likely need to be replanted in the spring. The last major
cold kill of winter wheat in eastern Washington occurred in 1991. Interestingly, winter wheat
that was “dusted in” in November and had not yet emerged from the soil at the time of the high
winds and cold temperatures produced healthy green plants in the greenhouse grow-out tests.

Four lines of so-called winter hardy safflower did not survive the greenhouse grow-out test.
Winter canola appears to have survived the cold as all plants in the greenhouse recovered nicely.


                             ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 15 of 20
Future Plans
Four additional plantings for the camelina planting date/sowing method experiment will be
conducted on or about January 15, February 15, March 1, and March 15. The second planting of
the camelina variety trial will be conducted on March 1. Based on the greenhouse grow-out
tests, it appears that the camelina nitrogen and sulfur fertility experiment will likely need to be
replanted in late winter.

                           Update from Moscow, University of Idaho

Date of planting and seeding method, fall 2008
The first planting of the planting date/sowing method study was on October 31. Planting
methods were a double disk opener placing the seed shallow in the soil followed by small press
wheels, and broadcast seeding by hand followed by light surface packing. Because of above
average temperatures through November, this seeding emerged within 5 days and established
well from both seeding methods.

The second planting of the sowing date/sowing method study was conducted on December 6. At
this date there had been some freezing temperatures and frost was detected in the soil to about 2
inches, but warmer conditions on that day had thawed the surface and seed was placed with the
drill, but the broadcast seeding was not packed due to sticky soil conditions. Temperatures were
above normal for a few days after seeding and the seed probably germinated. However, within a
week, temperatures plunged and we had snowfall. Effects of this weather change and subsequent
very cold conditions will be assessed when snow cover allows.

Variety evaluation trials
Variety evaluation trials were fall seeded at two locations on November 6 at the Palouse
Conservation Field Station just north of Pullman and near La Crosse Washington. Nine cultivars
were included in each trial that were selected from the cultivars evaluated in 2008. There will be
spring planted variety trials adjacent to each of these fall planted trials to make a comparison of
fall vs. spring planting across cultivars. Temperatures during November were well above normal
and precipitation was good. These conditions allowed good germination and establishment in
both trials. Subsequent winter survival will be assessed on these trials after snow cover leaves.

Crop Sequence Study
Winter wheat was seeded into all 2008 spring crop areas of camelina, yellow mustard, oriental
mustard, canola, pea, lentil, wheat, and barley. Each of the previous crop areas has five subplots
of winter wheat for variable nitrogen fertilizer application. Urea fertilizer was broadcast applied
at 32, 64, 96, 128, and 160 pounds per acre of nitrogen in each previous crop area. The winter
wheat was direct seeded following flailing of the 2008 crop residue. All winter wheat established
uniformly, and was in the two-three leaf stage by the end of November.

All studies mentioned in this report are replicated four times in a RCB design.

Future Plans
Four additional plantings for the camelina planting date/sowing method experiment will be
conducted on or about February 15-30, March 20, April 5, and April 20. The second planting of


                            ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 16 of 20
the camelina variety trials are planned to be seeded about March 15-30 at La Crosse and April 1-
15 at Pullman. The camelina nitrogen and sulfur fertility experiment will likely be seeded at
Moscow about April 1-15. A second trial of the spring crop sequence effect on winter wheat will
be initiated in the spring of 2009 with planting of the same eight spring crops grown in 2008, but
location has not been determined.

                      Update from Pendleton, Oregon State University

Date of planting and seeding method, fall 2008
 The first fall planting was made on November 7 into spring wheat stubble with the variety,
Calena. The planting was delayed until this date because of extremely dry weather (Figure 1).
There was not sufficient seedzone water to attempt planting before this date. Because of the very
dry conditions, volunteer wheat and winter annual weeds had not yet germinated at time of
planting. We felt it was more important to plant as soon as possible rather than waiting to apply
Glyphosate as a burn down. Because of the poor performance of fall and winter plantings in the
2007-2008 crop season, we increased the sowing rate for this trial from 3 to 6 lb seed per acre.
We also changed the equipment used to for the broadcast seeding method. A Brillion drop
seeder was used for broadcast sowing (Figure 2). The Brillion drill has two culti-packer rollers.
Seed is dropped behind the first roller and the second roller incorporates and presses the seed.
Brillion drop seeders are commonly used to sow grass or alfalfa. Direct seeding was done with a
Fabro no-till plot drill, placing the seed at a nominal depth of 1/8 inches and applying 30 lb
N/acre 2 inches below and to the side do the seed row. The seed openers on the Fabro drill are
Atom Jet points on C shanks on 12 inch spacing. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied on the
broadcast plots using the fertilizer disks on the Fabro drill prior to broadcasting. Plot
dimensions are 8 x 30 feet. The experimental design is split plot with four replications with
planting date as the main treatment and sowing method as the split. After planting, mild
temperature prevailed (Figure 1) and the camelina seed was germinating and emerging with 72
hours of planting. Both the direct drilled and broadcast planting had good germination and
emergence. Figure 3 shows seedling 7days after planting. Volunteer wheat and fall annual
weeds have started to emerge in the plots. “Poast” a grass herbicide has been registered on
camelina. Poast will be applied for control of volunteer cereal and winter annual grasses as early
as is feasible. Snow covered the plots on December 13. Current snow cover is about 16 inches
in depth. It is unlikely that a December or early January planting date will be possible. The next
planting date will be as soon as the snow cover is off and conditions allow for equipment
operation.




                           ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 17 of 20
Figure 1. September through November daily air temperature and precipitation at Pendleton




Figure 2. Brillion drop seeder used to broadcast camelina seed




                              ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 18 of 20
Figure 3. Camelina seedlings on November 14, 7 days after planting.



Variety Evaluation Trials
As at Corvallis and Lind, we planted 18 cultivars that were planted in the spring of Year 1 of this
study. At Pendleton this trial was sown November 20 in a randomized complete block
experiment with four replications. The previous crop was winter wheat and the stubble had been
mowed with a rotary mower. Consequently the stubble was long and unmanageable. The plot
area for this planting date and the early spring planting was moldboard plowed, cultivated,
fertilized with a broadcast of dry urea at a rate of 30 lb N/acre and harrowed with a culti-packer.
The November 20th planting was sown with a 6-inch spaced Hege plot drill equipped with double
disk openers and semi-pneumatic press wheels. Seed was sown at a nominal depth of 1/8 inch.
Individual plot dimensions are 5 x 20 ft. Observations on December 9 showed that seed was
germinating but plants had not yet emerged. Snow covered the trial on December 13 and it has
been continuously covered since. Current snow cover is approximately16 inches in depth.

Determining Optimum Fertilizer Rates
The nitrogen rate experiment will be sown in early March 2009. It will follow the same protocol
at the N trial in Year 1 of this project. If space permits, plot dimensions will be increased from 5
x 20 feet to 5 x 40 ft.




                              ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 19 of 20
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
OSU – Corvallis
      Scheduled camelina presentation to the annual Oregon Ryegrass Growers meeting
         January, 21, 2009.

OSU – Pendleton
    Wysocki, D. 4 September 2008. Update and observations on camelina performance and
         experience this season. OSU Extension post-harvest meeting, Pendleton OR

     Wysocki, D. 16 October 2008. Meeting with Rick Smith and Tomas Endicott of
         Willamette Biomass, CBARC, Pendleton, OR

     Wysocki, D. 15 December 2008. Camelina Trial and Camelina Agronomy. Great Plains
         Oil and Exploration Grower Meeting, Blue Mountain Community College, Pendleton,
         OR. .




                         ODA Oilseeds Grant Quarterly Report Dec 2008 Page 20 of 20

								
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