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					TMP Peer Cities Review
– Stage 1 Review
February 2008
TMP Peer Cities Review
– Stage 1 Review
February 2008

 Prepared for:                          Prepared by:

 Sacramento Regional Transit District   Steer Davies Gleave
 1400 29th Street (PO Box 2110)         Suite 1000 355 Burrard Street
 Sacramento, CA 95816                   Vancouver, BC V6C 2G8

                                        +1 604 608 6198
                                                         TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

1.       INTRODUCTION                                                                     1
         Introduction                                                                     1
         Approach                                                                         1
         Structure and Contents of this Report                                            2
2.       CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPARATOR CITIES                                             3
         Introduction                                                                     3
         Sacramento, CA                                                                   3
         San Bernardino, CA                                                               7
         San Diego, CA                                                                   10
         Denver, CO                                                                      13
         Salt Lake City, UT                                                              17
         Portland, OR                                                                    20
         Charlotte, NC                                                                   24
         Memphis, TN                                                                     27
         Kansas City, MO                                                                 29
         Indianapolis, IN                                                                32
         Minneapolis/St Paul, MN                                                         35
         Cleveland, OH                                                                   38
         Vancouver, Canada                                                               41
         London, England                                                                 45
         Nottingham, England                                                             48
         Dublin, Ireland                                                                 51
         Montpellier, France                                                             55
         Summary of Key Characteristics                                                  59
3.       PEER TRANSIT COMPARISONS                                                       61
         Introduction                                                                    61
         Scale of Operations                                                             61
         Comparative Assessment                                                          64
4.       INITIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STAGE 2 DETAILED REVIEW                            69
         Introduction                                                                    69
         San Diego                                                                       69
         Portland                                                                        69


                                                                              Table of Contents
       Denver                                                                                            69
       Vancouver                                                                                         70
       London                                                                                            70
       Dublin                                                                                            70
       Montpellier                                                                                       70
       Summary of Recommendations                                                                        71

Table 2.1           Blueprint Region Wide Growth Projections                                               4
Table 2.2           Summary of Regional Transit Revenue Sources                                            7

Table 2.3           Key Characteristic Summary – San Bernardino                                          10
Table 2.4           Key Characteristic Summary – San Diego                                               13

Table 2.5           Key Characteristic Summary – Denver                                                  17
Table 2.6           Key Characteristic Summary – Salt Lake City                                          20

Table 2.7           Key Characteristic Summary – Portland                                                24
Table 2.8           Key Characteristic Summary – Charlotte                                               27

Table 2.9           Key Characteristic Summary – Memphis                                                 29
Table 2.10          Key Characteristic Summary – Kansas City                                             32

Table 2.11          Key Characteristic Summary – Indianapolis                                            35
Table 2.12          Key Characteristic Summary – Minneapolis                                             38

Table 2.13          Key Characteristic Summary – Cleveland                                               41
Table 2.14          Key Characteristic Summary – Vancouver                                               44

Table 2.15          Key Characteristic Summary – London                                                  48
Table 2.16          Key Characteristic Summary – Nottingham                                              51
Table 2.17          Key Characteristic Summary – Dublin                                                  55
Table 2.18          Key Characteristic Summary – Montpellier                                             58
Table 2.19          Key Characteristic Summary                                                           60

Table 3.1           Local Characteristics and Fleet Information                                          61
Table 3.2           Summary of Key Agency Data                                                           62

Table 3.3           Key Comparative Indicators                                                           65
Table 4.1           Summary of Recommended Cities & Characteristics for Further Review                   71


Table of Contents
                                                                      TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

Figure 2.1             Sacramento – Tower Bridge                                                       5
Figure 2.2             San Bernardino – Sante Fe Rail Station                                          8
Figure 2.3             San Diego - Downtown                                                           11

Figure 2.4             Denver – Union Station                                                         14
Figure 2.5             Salt Lake City – Skyline and Mountains                                         18

Figure 2.6             Portland – Pioneer Square                                                      22
Figure 2.7             Charlotte – Skyline                                                            25

Figure 2.8             Memphis – Skyline                                                              28
Figure 2.9             Kansas City – Skyline                                                          30

Figure 2.10            Indianapolis – Indianapolis Canal                                              34
Figure 2.11            Minneapolis – City Hall                                                        37
Figure 2.12            Cleveland – Rock and ROll Hall of Fame                                         39

Figure 2.13            Vancouver – SKyline and Mountains                                              42
Figure 2.14            London – Canary Wharf                                                          47

Figure 2.15            Nottingham – City Hall and Old Market Square                                   49
Figure 2.16            Dublin – River Liffey                                                          52

Figure 2.17            Montpellier – Préfecture                                                       56
Figure 3.1             Total Ridership by Peer Authority                                              63
Figure 3.2             Fare Revenue and Operating Costs                                               63
Figure 3.3             Transit Trips per Capita                                                       66

Figure 3.4             Operating Costs per Passenger Mile                                             67

A        Data Table Comparisons

B        Service Area / System Maps

C        Photographs of Peer Transit Agencies


                                                                                           Table of Contents
                                                                       TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

1.            INTRODUCTION


1.1           Sacramento Regional Transit (RT) is undertaking a comprehensive update of its Transit
              Master Plan (TMP), Short Range Transit Plan (SRTP) and ADA/Paratransit Plan. While
              there will be a strong focus on long-term strategic planning there is also a need to
              recognize the “real-world” existing challenges facing RT in financing and operating its
              current bus/LRT network. Therefore, as a key starting point to this initiative, the Steer
              Davies Gleave team has undertaken a Peer Review and Best Practices Study.


1.2           The potential for using peer reviews as a tool for improving the quality, efficiency and
              sustainability of public transit is considerable. In particular, public sector transit
              operators can benefit from the systematic approach it provides to performance
              assessment and identification and adoption of best practice.

1.3           The Peer Review has been split into two phases with the first stage used to gather
              published information about the agencies and enable a „sifting‟ process to better focus
              resources and idenfity specific areas of best practice in the second stage. This report
              summarizes the results of the first stage review and concludes with recommendations
              for cities and best practices to be taken forward for further consideration in the second
              phase of the assessment.

1.4           As agreed with Regional Transit, the cities reviewed in the first stage were:

                    San Bernardino, CA                                 Indianapolis, IN
                    San Diego, CA                                      Minneapolis/St Paul, MN
                    Denver, CO                                         Cleveland, OH
                    Salt Lake City, UT                                 Vancouver, Canada
                    Portland, OR                                       London, England
                    Charlotte, NC                                      Nottingham, England
                    Memphis, TN                                        Dublin, Ireland
                    Kansas City, MO                                    Montpellier, France


      Structure and Contents of this Report

1.5   Following this introductory section, Chapter 2 provides short summaries of some of the
      key characteristics of each city including:

         Land use characteristics;
         Transit organization;
         Transit services operated:
             Overview;
             Bus; and
             Light rail.
         Fares & Ticketing;
         Marketing & Information;
         Travel Demand Management (TDM); and
         Funding.

1.6   Chapter 3 then looks at the specific peer city transit comparisons, in particular:

         Scale of operation:
              Service area population;
              Service area;
              Fleet size;
              Total ridership;
              Total fare revenue;
              Total operating costs; and
              Commentary on scale of operational issues.
         Key comparative assessments including:
             Trips per capita;
             Operating costs per passenger mile; and
             Farebox recovery.

1.7   The report then concludes in Chapter 4 with a set of recommended cities for more
      detailed analysis in the second stage of the Peer Review.

1.8   In addition, three appendices are attached to provide further background and context:

         Appendix A – data table comparisons;
         Appendix B – service/system area maps; and
         Appendix C – photographs of peer transit agencies.


                                                                     TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report



2.1           This Chapter provides short summaries of the key characteristics of each city including:

                    Land use characteristics;
                    Transit organization;
                    Transit services operated:
                        Overview;
                        Bus; and
                        Light rail.
                    Fares & Ticketing;
                    Marketing & Information;
                    Travel Demand Management (TDM); and
                    Funding.

              Sacramento, CA

2.2           As a base for the Peer City Review comparison, a summary of the key characteristics of
              Sacramento and Regional Transit has been included in this section.

              Land-Use Characteristics

2.3           The six county, greater Sacramento area has experienced over 30 years of mainly low-
              density suburban growth. With population forecast to continue to grow over the next
              50 years, the Sacramento Area Council of Governments (SACOG) undertook a visioning
              and land-use process called the Blueprint to try to address issues of increased
              congestion, decreasing air quality and continued urban sprawl. The SACOG Board of
              Directors adopted the Preferred Blueprint Scenario in December 2004 as the vision for
              growth for the Sacramento region. It is a vision and future that promotes compact,
              mixed-use development and more transit choices as an alternative to low density

2.4           The Preferred Blueprint Scenario depicts a way for the region to grow through the year
              2050 in a manner generally consistent with the following Blueprint Growth Principles:

                    Greater Transportation Choices;
                    More Mixed-Use Developments;
                    More Focus on Compact Development;
                    Greater Housing Choice and Diversity;
                    Better Use of Existing Assets;
                    Higher Quality Design; and
                    Natural Resources Conservation.


2.5    Key Sacramento region-wide growth projections from the Blueprint Preferred Scenario
       are provided in Table 2.1.


                  Area of Growth             2005              2050

           Population                        2.15m             3.82m

           Jobs                              1.06m             1.83m

           Housing                           0.82m             1.53m

2.6    The Sacramento region is forecast to almost double in population, jobs and housing over
       the next 50 years and the goal of the Blueprint initiative and the Preferred Scenario is
       to try to accommodate this growth in a sustainable way that preserves the quality of
       life in the Sacramento region.

2.7    The Blueprint Preferred Scenario sees the need to shift away from longer commutes
       made by private car towards greater transportation choice and resulting in a fourfold
       increase in the use of public transit (region-wide).

       Impacts for Sacramento County

2.8    Sacramento County, which is fairly consistent with Regional Transit‟s service area
       boundaries, is expected to receive over half (56%) of the region's growth through 2050,
       and is predicted to grow to a county of about 2.3 million people. Specifically, this

             Growth is an even mixture of jobs and housing (568k and 499k respectively);
             While most of the growth occurs on vacant land, a significant amount occurs
              through reinvestment, primarily in the downtown and along transit corridors; and
             Housing growth is fairly evenly divided between large lot single family, small lot
              single family and attached townhomes, rowhouses, condominiums and apartments,
              consistent with housing needs identified by demographic trends (more seniors,
              smaller households) and the market (higher prices and affordability challenges).

2.9    Transportation and types of trips made in Sacramento County are expected to shift even
       more than in other areas of the region. It is predicted that transit ridership will grow
       from 1.1% to 4.4% in Sacramento County which will have a direct impact on the volume
       and nature of services that Regional Transit will need to provide to facilitate this
       growth and shift away from private vehicle travel.

       Transit Organization

2.10   Regional Transit (RT) is the biggest transit provider in the region and provides service
       throughout most parts of Sacramento County. However, within the wider six county
       region (covered by the SACOG), there are 13 other transit operators including:

             Folsom Stage Line;
             Yolo County Transportation District (Yolobus);


                                                                      TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

                    Yuba-Sutter Transit;
                    Roseville Transit;
                    Lincoln Transit
                    Auburn Transit
                    El Dorado Transit;
                    South County Transit/Link (Galt);
                    Unitrans (Davis);
                    Placer County Transit;
                    Consolidated Transportation Services Agency (CTSA)
                    E-Tran (Elk Grove); and
                    Paratransit, Inc.

2.11          SACOG provides support for service and planning coordination among the region's transit
              operators through its Transit Coordinating Committee (TCC).

              FIGURE 2.1            SACRAMENTO – TOWER BRIDGE

              Transit Services

2.12          As of January 2008, RT operates 93 bus routes and two light rail lines covering a service
              area of 418 square miles.

2.13          Buses and light rail vehicles run 365 days a year with buses typically operating daily
              from 5 am to 11:30 pm every 15 to 75 minutes and light rail operating from 4 am every
              15 minutes during the day and every 30 minutes in the evening to midnight (Blue Line)
              and almost 1 am (Gold Line) – although only until just past 7 pm on the Folsom branch.


2.14   RT‟s existing operations have a peak vehicle requirement of approximately 208 buses
       and 56 light rail vehicles (LRVs). The full fleet is somewhat larger than this allowing for
       maintenance and repairs and upcoming mid-life refurbishments and includes
       approximately 256 CNG buses, 17 shuttle vans and 97 LRVs.

2.15   In addition, RT contracts its demand response ADA/Paratransit services to Paratransit
       Inc. who provide coverage of the network using approximately 95 vehicles.

2.16   Passenger amenities include 47 light rail stops or stations, 26 bus and light rail transfer
       centers and 18 free park-and-ride lots. RT also serves more than 3,600 bus stops
       throughout Sacramento County.

       Fares and Ticketing

2.17   RT provides a number of fare and ticketing options to customers including single trips,
       prepaid tickets and daily, semi-monthly and monthly passes. In addition discounts are
       provided to seniors (50%-ages 62-74, free-ages 75+), students (aged 5-18) and disabled

2.18   The basis flat fares (on which the 50% discounts are then applied) are:

          Single fixed route trip - $2.00;
          Central city shuttle - $1.00;
          Neighborhood Ride - $1.00;
          Transfers - $0.25 (discount $0.10);
          Monthly pass - $85.00; and
          Semi-monthly pass - $42.50.

2.19   Books of 10 pre-paid single and daily tickets are also available but do not provide a

       Marketing and Information

2.20   RT provides information on its services through a number of different media including:
       printed pocket timetables; a full timetable book; a network map as well as
       electronically through their website (; and via their telephone
       information line. Printed timetable information is also available at light rail stations.

2.21   RT also partner with many local agencies and associations to promote transit use in the
       region. Staff regularly attend community meetings and events to raise the profile of

       Travel Demand Management

2.22   RT is actively developing a number of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) projects to
       reduce the overall requirements to travel as well as promoting its park & ride facilities
       to reduce the need to travel by private car.


                                                                       TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report


2.23          RT‟s revenue sources can be split into three categories:

                    RT operating revenues (fares, contract services, other operating income);
                    Local and state assistance; and
                    Federal assistance.

2.24          As shown in Table 2.2, only 18% of revenues are under the direct control of RT. More
              than half of total revenues are derived from local and state sales taxes. Some 16% of
              total revenues consist of federal and state funding which is dedicated to capital project
              funding. Additional federal assistance for operating purposes makes up 11% of total


                                                                         $ Million           Proportion
                  RT Operating Revenue                                     31.3                  18%

                  Sales Tax Funding: Measure A, LTF and STA                91.4                  54%

                  Restricted to Capital Funding: Federal and State         28.4                  17%

                  Other Federal Assistance                                 19.3                  11%

                  TOTAL                                                  $170.4                 100%

              San Bernardino, CA

              Land-Use Characteristics

2.25          San Bernardino is the 18th largest city in California and is part of the Riverside-San
              Bernardino-Ontario Metropolitan area. With a population of just over 1.5 million spread
              over an area of 439 square miles, the population density is relatively low at 3,400
              people per square mile (metropolitan area).

2.26          The Norton Air Force Base and Kaiser Steel were closed in the 1980s and 1990s. At the
              same time, railroad jobs were being relocated. These events had a large impact on the
              economy - traditional retail and office areas such as downtown and Highland Avenue
              have suffered. The City is however seeing growth along its south-end focused on
              Hospitality Lane. New industrial development is also occurring near the San Bernardino
              International Airport (the former Norton Air Force Base).

2.27          The economy has been growing rapidly. From 1998 to 2004, San Bernardino‟s economy
              grew by 26,217 jobs, a 37% increase, to 97,139. The main employed are government,
              retail, and service industries. Government was both the largest and the fastest-growing
              employment sector with almost 20,000 jobs (2004). Retail accounts for 16,000 jobs and
              education, 13,200 jobs.


2.28   The jobless rate in the region grew to more than 12% during the years after the Norton
       air force based closed in 1994 and households within one mile of downtown have a
       median income of $20,480, less than half that of the Inland region as a whole. While the
       service and warehouse industry has brought more than 2,000 jobs to the Norton site,
       attempts to turn San Bernardino International Airport into a regional aviation hub have
       not been as successful.

       Transportation Context

2.29   The city‟s location close to the Cajon and San Gorgonio passes, and at the junction of
       the I-10 and I-215 freeways, positions it as a railroad and logistics hub. The city hosts
       the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway‟s Intermodal freight transportation yard,
       the Yellow Freight Systems‟ cross-docking trucking center, and Pacific Motor Trucking.
       Large warehouses for Kohl's, Mattel, Pep Boys, and Stater Bros. have been developed
       near the San Bernardino International Airport.


       Transit Organization

2.30   Omnitrans is the public transit agency serving the San Bernardino Valley. Founded in
       1976 through a joint powers agreement, Omnitrans carries over 15 million passengers
       each year throughout its 465 square mile service area (although sources vary on the
       exact area covered). There is no trolley or light rail service. 92% of public transit miles
       are provided by bus, with Demand Response accounting for the remaining 8%.

2.31   The organization has an operating budget of almost $72 million (net of depreciation). It
       is also worth noting that the authority has won two APTA outstanding Transit Agency
       Awards – including one for being among the top four transit web sites in the nation.


                                                                        TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Bus Services

2.32          There are a total of 27 bus routes serviced by a fleet of 187 buses (although different
              sources vary). Omnitrans report that for 2007 - 2008:

                    Local fixed route ridership is 14,481,700 (97%); and
                    Demand response ridership is 491,900 (3%).

2.33          The Omnitrans website states the fleet is made up of 12 (TMC) diesel vehicles and a 173
              alternative fuel buses, 2 electric/gas hybrids and 173 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG).

2.34          Omnitrans was the first transit agency in the United States to introduce an
              electric/gasoline hybrid transit bus into service. The bus uses the latest in alternative
              fuel technology to cut smog-producing emissions. Omnitrans' hybrid buses are the first
              in the United States to feature the ISE Research Thunder Volt TB40-H drive system,
              combining unleaded gasoline with electricity instead of diesel or compressed natural gas
              (CNG) fuel. According to a study conducted by the California Air Resources Board, this
              combination provides a significant reduction in smog-producing emissions, over and
              above other alternatively-fueled vehicles.

2.35          All Omnitrans buses are accessible to persons with disabilities. Buses can take bikes.

2.36          In addition to the fixed route services, Omnitrans provides a demand responsive service
              which uses 101 Ford Goshen vehicles, running on Gasoline.

              Fares and Ticketing

2.37          Full fare is $1.35, day passes are $3.50 and a 31 day pass is $45. Seniors and some
              concessions pay just $0.55, $1.60 and $22.50, respectively.

2.38          Students pay the same fare as adults for single fares and day passes but receive 30%
              discounts on 7 day and 31 day passes.

              Marketing Information

2.39          Omnitrans operate a web site providing route, fare and other information, including
              „how to ride‟ information.

              Travel Demand Management

2.40          No information was found regarding travel demand management on the Omnitrans web
              site. Other sources have produced no current information.

              Summary Comparison

2.41          Table 2.3 provides a summary of the key characteristics of San Bernardino compared
              against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that although both these
              Californian regions have land-use management and coordination through an association
              of governments (SACOG and SANBAG), that San Bernardino is much more densely
              populated and its transit services are only provided by bus.



            Key Characteristic            Sacramento              San Bernardino
        Regional Population                  2.2m                        1.3m
        Population Density                 1,424 m                     3,136 m2

        Land-Use Planning/MPO               SACOG                      SANBAG

        Transit Modes:                         -                            -

           Bus                                                           

           Light Rail                                                     

           Other Rail                  Capitol Corridor              Metrolink

       San Diego, CA

       Land-Use Characteristics

2.42   San Diego, with the ocean to the west and Mexico to the south, is the second largest
       city in California and the eighth largest in the US. The Metropolitan area (San Diego –
       Calsbad – San Marcos) more than doubles the population from 1.2 million for the city
       alone to 2.9 million for the wider Metropolitan area.

2.43   The close proximity to Tijuana (just across the border) adds a further 1.5 million
       people, many of whom work in the Maquiladoras, industrial parks taking advantage of
       the different employment costs in Mexico. This makes the wider economic region the
       twenty-first largest in the Americas with a population estimated to be just over 5

2.44   The border crossing (San Diego-Tijuana) is the busiest border crossing in the world, in
       2005, over 41 million people entered the US through this crossing. The great majority of
       these are workers (both of Mexican and U.S. nationality) commuting from Tijuana to
       jobs in the greater San Diego area and throughout southern California.

2.45   San Diego County is approximately twice the size of Sacramento County in terms of
       population and area. The population density of San Diego County is relatively low (670
       mile2) by international standards.

       Transportation Context

2.46   Over 80% of residents use the automobile as their primary means of transportation
       within the Metropolitan area. However, congestion and road conditions are major
       issues. Despite this congestion less than 3% of the population use mass transit.

2.47   The transit system (inc. bus, rail, demand responsive) provides over 280 million miles of
       annual transit service, carrying over 52 million passengers.


                                                                       TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              FIGURE 2.3            SAN DIEGO - DOWNTOWN

              Transit Organization

2.48          Central planning is controlled by SANDAG (San Diego Association of Governments). In
              addition to fares, funding comes from TDA funds, STA, FTA and the Transnet program –
              a half-cent sales tax).

2.49          SANDAG shares planning responsibilities with several bodies, including the California
              Department of Transportation and two major operators – the Metropolitan Transit
              System and North County Transit District.

              Metropolitan Transit System (MTS)

2.50          The MTS is a federation of fixed route and paratransit operators and member agencies.
              The operation covers approximately 65% of the county with a service area of 760 square
              miles and a population of over 1.9 million.

2.51          The company has two operating divisions:

                    MTS Trolley with three trolley routes (the green, orange and blue lines); and
                    MTS Bus which operates 26 routes in the Metropolitan area.

2.52          Revenue is 38.5% from fares and 61.5% from grants/subsidy.

              North County Transit District (NCTD)

2.53          NCTD operates both bus and rail services. The company has 53 fixed route bus services,
              paratransit and demand response services in northern San Diego County, including


       routes into downtown San Diego. The company fleet includes 174 vehicles. They also
       operate the Coaster and Sprinter rail services.

       Bus Services

2.54   Bus services, under the „Breeze‟ brand, are provided along most major routes, however
       a large number of bus stops are concentrated in central San Diego and typical wait
       times vary from 15 to 30 minutes, depending on the location and route.

2.55   Annual bus mileage is just under 70 million passenger miles, accounting for 25% of
       passenger miles and 35% of fare revenue.


2.56   Trolleys (i.e. Light Rail) services provide a frequent service with frequencies varying
       between every 7 minutes in the peak periods, 15 minutes in the off peak, and 30
       minutes in the evenings.


2.57   There are two rail services, both operated by NCTD:

             The Coaster commuter rail service with 22 one way journeys on weekdays, 8 on
              Saturdays and 1 on Sundays between Oceanside and San Diego. Patronage on the
              Coaster is increasing with 1.43 million journeys in 2004 (up 10% on 2002).
             The Sprinter will be a 24-mile commuter rail linking the downtown areas of four
              rapidly growing North County cities: Oceanside, Vista, San Marcos and Escondido.
              It is currently scheduled to begin operating in March 2008.

       Fares and Ticketing

2.58   Up until recently there has been no integrated ticketing across the city, however the
       two main operators offer a range of ticket and fare options within their networks.
       SANDAG will be launching their integrated smartcard, the Compass Card, sometime in
       2008 that will be valid across both MTS and NCTD networks.

       Marketing Information

2.59   Information on services (both hard copy and web based) is published by SANDAG and the

2.60   511 is a free phone and Web service that consolidates the San Diego region's
       transportation information into a one-stop resource. 511 provides up-to-the minute
       information on traffic conditions, incidents and driving times, schedule, route and fare
       information for San Diego public transit services, carpool and vanpool referrals,
       bicycling information and more. The service is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

2.61   511 is managed by a partnership of public agencies led by SANDAG, the California
       Highway Patrol, the California Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transit
       System (MTS), North County Transit District (NCTD), and San Diego SAFE.


                                                                         TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Travel Demand Management

2.62          Research has been undertaken into working with employers to finding ways to reducing
              congestion and air pollution (in the early 2000‟s) – however there is little information in
              the public domain with regard to implementation.

2.63          There are however carpool and vanpool schemes in place, and cycling is promoted by

              Summary Comparison

2.64          Table 2.4 provides a summary of the key characteristics of San Diego compared against
              those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that although the population
              density is much lower for San Diego, both regions have land-use management and
              coordination through an association of governments (SACOG and SANDAG), and both
              operate both a bus and light rail network.

              TABLE 2.4             KEY CHARACTERISTIC SUMMARY – SAN DIEGO

                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento                San Diego
                Regional Population                      2.2m                     2.9m
                Population Density                     1,424 m                   671 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                   SACOG                   SANDAG

                Transit Modes:                             -                        -

                    Bus                                                           

                    Light Rail                                                    

                    Other Rail                     Capitol Corridor             Coaster

              Denver, CO

              Land Use Characteristics

2.65          Denver is the capital of Colorado and its most highly populated city. It is located on the
              Great Plains, with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west.

2.66          The Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area has a 2006 population of 2.4 million and the 21st
              most populous US metropolitan area. This also includes the counties of Arapahoe,
              Jefferson, Adams, Douglas, Broomfield, Elbert, Park, Clear Creek and Gilpin. The
              neighboring metropolitan areas are Boulder and Greeley, both relatively small
              compared to Denver-Aurora. The population density is relatively high, with 4,827
              people per square mile.

2.67          Denver is the largest city within 600 miles, so has become a hub for distribution. Many
              federal agencies have offices in Denver, leading to it having more federal workers than
              in any other metropolitan area except Washington DC. Alongside these there are many


       companies working on US defence and space projects. Energy and mining companies
       remain important to the area‟s economy.


2.68   The area also benefits by being in the Mountain Time Zone and high elevation allowing
       for communications across most time zones during the business day and the effective
       use of real time satellite uplinks.

       Transportation Context

2.69   Denver is served by two interstate highways; the I-70 which runs east-west from Utah to
       Maryland, and I-25 which runs north-south from New Mexico through Denver to
       Wyoming. According to the Regional Transportation District, Denver is the seventh most
       congested city in the U.S., and in the Denver region in 2000, three quarters of people
       drove to work alone.

2.70   Public transit covers over 459 million passenger miles annually and carries 298,000
       riders daily, 85% of which are on buses. Light rail accounts for 13% of passenger

       Transit Organization

2.71   Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) is the Metropolitan Planning
       Organization for transportation planning in the region; it mainly works at the strategic
       level but also provides traffic signal co-ordination, forecasting and TDM.

2.72   Transit is managed by the Regional Transportation District (RTD), which covers an area
       of 2,326 sq miles and a population of 2.6 million. The District includes all or parts of
       eight counties: the City and County of Denver, the City and County of Broomfield, the
       counties of Boulder and Jefferson, the western portions of Adams and Arapahoe


                                                                          TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              counties; the northeast of Douglas County and small portions of Weld County. They are
              responsible for both bus and light rail services in the area.

              Bus Services

2.73          Bus services in the RTD service area cover 170 regular fixed routes with 10,329 stops.
              These routes are divided as follows:

                    Local (73 routes)
                    Express (25 routes);
                    Regional (18 routes)‟
                    Limited (15 routes);
                    skyRide (5 routes) – airport link buses with park and ride facilities;
                    Boulder City Local (15 routes);
                    Longmont City Local (8 routes); and
                    Miscellaneous (11 routes) - including Mall Shuttle (free shuttle along Denver‟s 16th
                     street 1.25 mile pedestrian and transit mall), Art Shuttle, Pathways and Goodwill.

2.74          There are also a number of special services such as:

                    access-a-Ride (curb-to-curb transit service for people with disabilities who are
                     unable to use the regular buses);
                    ski-n-Ride (service to Eldora Mountain Resort);
                    RockiesRide/ BroncosRide/ BuffRide (sports traffic park and ride shuttles);
                    call-n-Ride (curb-to-curb transit service within 21 designated geographical areas,
                     using compact vans or small buses and designed to connect with other services);
                    Race for the Cure running race; and
                    SeniorRide (taking groups of 10+ seniors to a calendar of cultural and
                     entertainment events).

2.75          The RTD have 1,060 vehicles, with 624 owned and operated by RTD. The remaining are
              owned by RTD and leased to private carriers.

2.76          There are 76 park and ride facilities available, and 21 miles of, mostly part time, bus

              Light Rail

2.77          There are three light rail corridors, with plans for a fourth. The Central corridor
              opened in 1994 and is 5 miles long. The second corridor is in the Southwest, and
              opened in 2000. This is 9 miles long running from the end of the Central corridor at I-25
              to Littleton. Central Platte Valley corridor (2 miles long) opened in 2002 joining up a
              number of venues such as Union Station, Invesco Field, and Coors Field.

2.78          Most recently, T-REX (TRansportation EXpansion), a 19 mile line, was opened in 2006,
              with 13 new stations with free parking at all but one. The fourth corridor (designs are
              due to be agreed in „early 2008‟) will connect Denver International Airport to
              downtown. The project is scheduled for completion before 2015.


       Fares and Ticketing

2.79   Light rail fares are zonal, and payable in cash at vending machines at all stops.
       Alternatively monthly passes are available, and discounts are available for students.

2.80   On buses, flat fares are payable by exact fare or pre-purchase tokens via a fare box on
       board. A monthly pass, local/express/regional service day pass, ValuPass (11 months
       paid upfront, get a month free), student discounts and 10-ride ticketbooks are also
       available. A Neighborhood Pass can be applied for to allow residents of a community to
       obtain unlimited travel for a fixed cost per housing unit, and similarly an EcoPass can be
       obtained by employers for employees‟ unlimited annual travel.

       Marketing Information

2.81   A website is run for information on all the RTD services including facilities to plan trips
       and buy tickets (see

       Travel Demand Management

2.82   DRCOG is mainly responsible for TDM, and has produced a report on the topic looking
       forwards to 2030 (adopted in 2005). The main basis of this is increasing the efficiency of
       the transportation system through the promotion and facilitation of alternative modes
       such as ridesharing, vanpooling, transit, cycling and walking. It also promotes
       alternative work schedules and telecommuting. Funding comes from the Transportation
       Improvement Program funded through the federal Congestion Mitigation Air Quality

2.83   They also work with transportation management organizations and RTD, as the transit
       provider. The Colorado Department of Transport also have an involvement in terms of
       Safe Routes to School, and bicycle and pedestrian programs. Denver also has a number
       of bicycle lanes and the city has developed a reputation as a “bike friendly” city.

       Summary Comparison

2.84   Table 2.5 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Denver compared against
       those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that although the population
       density is much, much higher for Denver (roughly four times that of Sacramento), both
       operate an integrated bus and light rail network with further rail expansion either being
       constructed or planned.


                                                                          TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              TABLE 2.5             KEY CHARACTERISTIC SUMMARY – DENVER

                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento                   Denver
                Regional Population                     2.2m                       2.4m
                Population Density                    1,424 m                    4,827 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                  SACOG                      DRCOG

                Transit Modes:                            -                          -

                    Bus                                                            

                    Light Rail                                                     

                    Other Rail                    Capitol Corridor       FasTracks - In planning

              Salt Lake City, UT

              Land Use Characteristics

2.85          Salt Lake City is the capital of Utah. While the city‟s population is less than 200,000,
              the tri-county metropolitan area, which includes the counties of Salt Lake, Summit and
              Tooele, has a total estimated population of over 1 million spread over almost 10,000 m2
              (population density of approximately 106 m2).

2.86          In common with many North American cities, its population stagnated during the 20th
              century as population growth shifted to suburban areas. A few of these areas were
              annexed to the city, while nearby towns incorporated and expanded themselves. As a
              result, the population of the surrounding metropolitan area greatly outnumbers that of
              the city itself. Since 2000, the city has lost approximately 2% of its population, however
              that of the wider metro area continues to grow.

2.87          One out of every six residents lives below the poverty line. This is mainly due to large
              family sizes and low housing vacancy rates, which have led to inflated housing costs.

2.88          In terms of employment, local, state, and federal governments account for 21% of jobs.
              Trade, transportation, and utilities account for another 18%. Also significant are the
              professional and business services, which account for another 18% of employment.
              Health services and health educational services comprise an additional 10%. Other
              major employers include the University of Utah, Sinclair Oil Corporation, and The
              Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

              Transportation Context

2.89          Car is the dominant mode in the Metropolitan area, replacing the extensive streetcar
              system which finally closed in 1945. A light rail transit (TRAX) was re-introduced in

2.90          Public transit accounts for 240 annual million passenger miles, with 58% provide by
              buses, 36% on light rail, and 2% by demand response services.



       Transit Organization

2.91   UTA, the Utah Transit Authority serves an area of over 1,400 square miles and covers six
       counties: Box Elder, Davis, Salt Lake, Tooele, Utah and Weber.

       Bus Services

2.92   UTA operates an extensive bus system with 129 fixed bus routes (with an additional five
       in the winter for skiing). The system extends from Brigham City in the north to
       Santaquin in the south and as far west as Grantsville.

2.93   The bus system provides (2006) over 21 million passenger journeys using a fleet of 485
       vehicles with an average age of 7.5 years.

2.94   There are 110 parking lots adjacent to bus stops, providing a park and ride service.

       Light Rail and Metro

2.95   The light rail system, TRAX, operated by UTA, consists of two lines originating
       downtown, one heading south to Sandy and the other splitting east to the University of
       Utah. Daily ridership averages 42,500 (2007), significantly above original projections,
       and it is the eleventh-most ridden light rail system in the country and fifth most ridden
       system by mile.

2.96   The system has a total of 25 stations (with 14 of them in Salt Lake City proper), with 2
       more currently under construction. Future TRAX lines to other Salt Lake City suburbs, as
       well as to the airport, are also planned.


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              Fares and Ticketing

2.97          Fares on the bus network are collected through manual drop fare boxes, tokens, day
              and monthly passes, and Eco Pass. The UTA website features an online store for
              purchasing TRAX, bus, and paratransit passes. Passes can also be purchased at Sales

2.98          A one way fare is $1.75 and an adult monthly pass $58.50. There is however an
              extensive range of discount schemes for seniors, students, minors. There is also a Free
              Fare Zone in downtown Salt Lake City when entry to zone is by bus, paratransit or TRAX.

              Marketing Information

2.99          Information is accessible on the UTA website and from sales outlets (

              Travel Demand Management

2.100         UTA operates and supports a number of initiatives including Eco Pass, vanpools, carpool
              matching, bicycling, teleworking, alternative work hours and company-sponsored transit
              passes, including:

                    Eco Pass is a company-sponsored transit pass for employees to use for commuting
                     to work and for personal transportation. It is available to companies with 35 or
                     more employees and is good on all UTA buses and trains with the exception of
                     Flextrans, Ski Buses and special services. Sixty-eight companies and organizations
                     currently participate in the Eco Pass program;
                    Vanpools- Leased Vanpooling is one of the most popular programs. Employers and
                     employee associations lease 15-passenger vans from UTA for employees to ride
                     together to and from the workplace. The scheme began in 1997 with 12 vans in
                     service. Today there are more than 250 vans in the program providing carpooling
                     service to residents throughout UTA‟s service area;
                    Bicycles- Promotes bicycle commuting by equipping all standard UTA buses with
                     commuting bike racks. Bike racks are also provided at each light rail park and ride
                    UTA also hosts the annual Bike Bonanza, where attendees receive free bike tune-
                     ups, licensing, and trail and safety information;
                    Telework is a local partnership with the International Telework Association and
                     Council to increase awareness and participation in telework programs; and
                    Co-op Pass offers discounted transit passes to participating company‟s employees.
                     Companies purchase monthly bus passes at a 20% discount, then subsidize them an
                     additional 30%. With the subsidy, employees are able to purchase transit passes for

        These schemes are funded by Utah‟s Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) program
        with 6.77% in UTA matching funds.

              Summary Comparison

2.101         Table 2.6 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Salt Lake City compared
              against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that although both cities


        operate a bus and light rail network, the population densities and geographical make-up
        of the cities is quite different.


             Key Characteristic            Sacramento                Salt Lake City
         Regional Population                   2.2m                        1.0m
         Population Density                  1,424 m2                     106 m2

         Land-Use Planning/MPO                SACOG                        WSFC

         Transit Modes:                          -                            -

            Bus                                                            

            Light Rail                                                     

            Other Rail                   Capitol Corridor     FrontRunner - In planning

        Portland, OR

        Land-Use Characteristics

2.102   Greater Portland, Oregon, has a population of 2.3 million in the metropolitan area of
        474 square miles giving a population density of 4,932 people per square mile.

2.103   Downtown Portland lies in the Southwest section of Portland and many of Portland's
        recreational, cultural, educational, governmental, business, and retail resources are
        concentrated there. Through urban growth policies and investment, Downtown
        Portland has not suffered urban decay to the same extent as many other U.S. cities.

2.104   Portland is a city with strong land use planning controls, largely the result of statewide
        land conservation policies. The urban growth boundary introduced in the 1980‟s
        separates urban areas where high-density development is encouraged, from traditional
        farm land. Such policies have concentrated development and contributed to the
        efficient operation and attractiveness of public transit across the city. The long term
        land use plan advocates „smart growth‟ in the future to encourage compact and
        efficient communities, to save rural land and open space for residents, and will
        encourage continued efficient public Transit operations.

2.105   The transit system in Portland has been heavily invested in since the mid-1980s. This
        has meant that public transit users have a wide range of options available to them. Real
        estate development has occurred in conjunction with these improvements.

        Transit Organization

2.106   TriMet (Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon) operates public
        transit across the city. It is a municipal corporation of the State of Oregon and is a
        public body with broad powers to provide mass transit on behalf of the district.


                                                                     TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

2.107         TriMet provides public transit for much of the three counties of the Portland
              metropolitan area. This includes the 44-mile, 64-station MAX (Metropolitan Area
              Express) system and 92 bus routes. The system has seen weekly ridership increases for
              19 consecutive years up to 2007.1

              Transit Services


2.108         The two main transit modes operated by TriMet are buses and the light rail network
              (comprised of MAX Light Rail and Portland Streetcar). TriMet also has a successful
              paratransit service called LIFT which provides a door-to-door service for disabled
              people. In the financial year 2005, LIFT provided one million rides which had increased
              by 7% from the previous year.

2.109         The “TriMet WES Commuter Rail” is due to open in the Summer of 2008 and will run a
              weekday 30-minute rush-hour service between Wilsonwille and Beaverton. WES
              (Westside Express Service) will connect with MAX Light Rail and various bus lines and
              offer free parking at four of the five stations.

2.110         The Portland Mall in Downtown acts as a large transit interchange for bus routes, the
              MAX light rail system and the Portland Streetcar.


2.111         In the mid- 1980‟s, TriMet drew up an “immediate action plan” and a “1990 Master
              Plan” to stop declining bus patronage. Amongst the proposals were consolidation of all
              local bus services under TriMet, development of transitways in major corridors and
              increasing the number of buses.

2.112         TriMet has a total of 660 buses serving Greater Portland, which are grouped into 18
              fleets and provide 92 different routes. At peak times, nearly all of these buses may be
              in service with many connecting with MAX Light Rail lines.

2.113         TriMet operates several “Frequent Service” bus (and MAX) lines which run at least every
              15 minutes during the day. Such a service is operated on 16 bus lines spanning the
              Greater Portland region, which has increased from 4 in 1998. These services are also
              preferential in terms of enhancements such as air conditioning, bus stop upgrades and
              roadway improvements. Such roadway improvements include signal priority, where a
              wireless system holds green lights a few seconds longer to help the bus catch up with its
              timetable if it is behind schedule. These 16 routes carry 55% of all TriMet bus riders.

    “Facts about TriMet”,, 2007



            MAX light rail and Portland Streetcar

2.114       The MAX connects the city and the suburbs and has received more than $6 billion in
            development since 1978, when the scheme was given the go-ahead. It has grown into
            one of the highest ridership systems in the US, exceeding even their own projections
            and now carrying 71,000 riders per day.2

2.115       It has currently has four lines (the Westside Blue Line, the Eastside Blue Line, the
            Airport Red Line; and the Interstate Yellow Line), though a new 6.5 mile MAX line along
            I-205 is under construction. TriMet also hope to expand the network more in the future,
            connecting communities and encouraging more drivers to use the service.

2.116       The trains cover 44 miles, run on reserved surface lanes and provide 32% of weekly
            transit trips. There are 64 stations connecting the cities of Portland, Gresham,
            Beaverton and Hillsboro, and the Portland International Airport.

2.117       Portland also has a Streetcar system operated by modern vehicles with a capacity of
            around 120 passengers each. The original line served as a catalyst to the regeneration of
            the Pearl District. Subsequent extensions now provide an 8 mile continuous loop from
            the Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital through the Pearl District and Portland State
            University. There are 46 stops in total and these occur every three to four blocks. The
            Portland Streetcar began passenger service in 2001.

    Center for Transportation Excellence,


                                                                      TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Fares and Ticketing

2.118         To travel on a TriMet operated network, passengers must hold a monthly pass, transfer
              receipt, validated ticket or an employee ID card with TriMet stickers. The area TriMet
              covers is split into three zones (aside from Fareless Square – see below) and adult fares
              are based on the number of zones you travel through, not the mode of transit you take.
              A regular fare is valid for two hours across all transit services, while longer passes are
              available on a 7 day, half month, full month or annual basis. Two-hour tickets can be
              bought individually or in books of 10, which is more cost-effective for the passenger if
              all are used. A two hour adult ticket for two zones costs $1.75 and $2.05 for all zones.

2.119         Other tickets which can be purchased are “Honored Citizen” which are discounted fares
              for those aged 65 and over, people on Medicare and people with disabilities. A
              Youth/Student ticket is also provided at a discounted rate. Those who are aged 7-17, in
              high school or pursuing a GED are eligible for this ticket. Children under the age of 7
              travel for free with a paying passenger. LIFT paratransit fares are $1.70 for an individual
              two hour ticket. These can also be bought at a discounted rate if you are a holder of an
              Honoured Citizen Pass.

              Marketing and Information

2.120         Information is provided about timetables and the services TriMet provide through a
              variety of sources. Real-time information is provided for all 7,700 bus stops and 64 MAX
              stations. Each Portland Streetcar stop now has a GPS tracking system which allows
              realistic Streetcar Arrival Times to be relayed to passengers. A phoneline is provided
              from 8am to 5pm on weekdays.

2.121         Schedules and a variety of information about the services provided are also included on
              TriMet‟s website ( As part of this website‟s capability, a trip planner is
              included where an individual can enter their origin, destination and time constraints,
              and the route which best fits their preferences will be shown.

2.122         In 2002, TriMet underwent a brand overhaul, which was the first change in 20 years.
              Included in this image change was the name (the hyphen was dropped from Tri-Met),
              and new colors for the logo and vehicles were introduced.

2.123         A Newsletter called “The Network” is produced which gives an update of developments
              across the TriMet system.

              Travel Demand Management

2.124         TriMet has encouraged the use of park and ride, with free 24-hour parking for TriMet
              riders and carpoolers.

2.125         Patronage of buses was encouraged by promotions such as “Fareless Square”. This
              promotion, largely impacting Downtown Portland, allows passengers to board a TriMet
              vehicle without paying a fare as long as they do not leave the designated area.


        Summary Comparison

2.126   Table 2.7 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Portland compared against
        those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that Portland has a much higher
        population density and in addition to also providing bus and light rail service, Portland
        also has a growing streetcar network – something that Sacramento has aspired to


             Key Characteristic             Sacramento                     Portland
         Regional Population                   2.2m                          2.3m

         Population Density                  1,424 m2                      4,932 m2

         Land-Use Planning/MPO                SACOG                          Metro

         Transit Modes:                          -                              -

            Bus                                                              

            Light Rail                                                       

            Other Rail                   Capitol Corridor                Streetcar

        Charlotte, NC

        Land-Use Characteristics

2.127   Charlotte is the largest city in the state of North Carolina and the 20 th largest city in the
        United States. It has an estimated population of approximately 700,000 with the wider
        metropolitan area boosting this to over 1.5 million and Charlotte is now the fastest
        growing city on the East Coast.

2.128   The city's economy is dominated by financial services and the banking industry in
        particular. It houses a number of major financial institutions including the headquarters
        of Bank of America.

2.129   Charlotte is a relatively polluted city, estimated to have the 26 th highest levels of smog
        among US cities (as reported by the American Lung Association in 2007). Heavy reliance
        on the automobile is clearly a major contributor to this problem.

        Transportation Context

2.130   Two major interstate highways, I-85 and I-77, intersect near the city's center. The city
        is building a beltway, (I-485) which is only partially completed. Construction has
        stopped due to funding constraints and completion is not anticipated until 2013. The
        final beltway should be approximately 67 miles.

2.131   The I-277 loop freeway encircles Charlotte's downtown, while Charlotte Route 4 links
        major roads in a loop between I-277 and I-485.


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2.132         A „Charlotte Center City 2010 Vision plan‟ has been drawn up
              ( This includes a wide range of initiatives to provide improved
              pedestrian access, mixed use areas, high quality and distinctive architecture, and
              sustainable transportation.

              Transit Organization

2.133         The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) is managed by the Public Transit Department.
              The Department manages day-to-day operations of the City's transit services and
              undertakes strategic planning for Mecklenburg County, including the City of Charlotte
              and the six surrounding suburban towns (Davidson, Huntersville, Cornelius, Matthews,
              Pineville and Mint Hill).

2.134         The city has ambitious development plans and a range of light rail, trolley, and other
              initiatives are being considered to provide cost effective alternatives to the automobile.

              FIGURE 2.7            CHARLOTTE – SKYLINE

              Bus Services

2.135         97% of public transit is provided by buses. The city operates over 263 vehicles operating
              a total of 90 million passenger miles. The system includes more than 40 routes,
              transporting more than 18 million passengers each year.

                    More than 30 local routes provide the flexibility of numerous stops within the city,
                     with most operating from 5 a.m. to 2 a.m., Monday through Saturday, and 5:30
                     a.m. to 2:00 a.m. on Sundays; and
                    12 express routes provide quick transportation from the suburbs to the uptown


2.136   Bus use is growing with passenger journeys growing from 12.5 million in 1999 to 15.5
        million in 2003, a growth of almost a quarter in five years. All routes are one person
        operation and the most intensive service frequency is 10 minutes. Buses have bike racks
        (vehicles can carry up to two bicycles)

        Light Rail

2.137   In November 2007 CATS opened the LYNX blue line, a 9.6 mile, 15 station, light rail line
        between uptown Charlotte and I-485 at South Blvd. The service operates seven days a
        week from 5:00 a.m. to 1:00 a.m., and service is available every 7.5 minutes during
        weekday rush hour and every 15 minutes during non-peak hours. During weekday
        evenings the service operates every 30 minutes. Weekend service will operate every 20
        minutes during the day and every 30 minutes during late night hours.

2.138   The vehicles have a capacity of 236, with level boarding and 100% accessible (as defined
        by ADA). Each vehicle has four wheelchair designed areas and four bike racks.

2.139   Lynx operations are integrated with bus routes to maximise use of the system.


2.140   A reproduction trolley service is planned for introduction Spring 2008. This will run
        between the Historic South End and the City Center.

        Fares & Ticketing

2.141   Bus fares are $1.30 (express routes $1.75) with a range of concessions. A LYNX adult
        single fare is $1.60 with concessions offering a 50% reduction. One day tickets are
        $4.00 and a seven day ticket $13.00.

        Marketing Information

2.142   Marketing information can be found at :

        Travel Demand Management

2.143   The city provides a number of alternatives to reduce use of the automobile:

           Car pool schemes;
           Van pool; and
           High occupancy lanes.

        Summary Comparison

2.144   Table 2.8 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Charlotte compared against
        those for the Sacramento region. While both cities operate both light rail and bus
        systems, Charlotte has only recently opened their light rail. In addition, while the cities
        are broadly similar in size and density, Charlotte, unlike Sacramento, is part of a much
        larger agglomeration of cities, although both are experiencing rapid growth.


                                                                        TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report


                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento                  Charlotte
                Regional Population                     2.2m                       1.5m
                Population Density                    1,424 m                    2,232 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                  SACOG                      MUMPO

                Transit Modes:                            -                          -

                    Bus                                                            

                    Light Rail                                                     

                    Other Rail                    Capitol Corridor          LYNX - In planning

              Memphis, TN

              Land-Use Characteristics

2.145         Memphis is situated in southwest Tennessee, south of the mouth of the Wolf River and
              above the Mississippi River. It is the regional hub for the tri-state area of Arkansas,
              Mississippi and Tennessee.

2.146         The Memphis Metropolitan Area has a population of approximately 1.3 million and
              includes the Tennessee counties of Shelby, Tipton, and Fayette, as well as the
              Mississippi counties of DeSoto, Marshall, Tate, and Tunica, and the Arkansas county of
              Crittenden. The population density is approximately 2,430 per square mile.

2.147         Economic development has benefited from Memphis‟ good connections, especially its
              proximity to the Mississippi River and two interstate highways. The city is home to a
              growing number of national and international head offices including FedEx, AutoZone
              Incorporated and International Paper are all located here.

              Transportation Context

2.148         In addition to the Mississippi River and freeway network including the I-40 and I-55,
              Memphis also has the world's busiest cargo airport, which serves as the primary hub for
              FedEx shipping.

2.149         The public transit network covers over 61 million passenger miles - 94% of which are
              provided by buses. Each weekday, nearly 40,000 riders use the transit system using 244
              vehicles including paratransit vans, vintage rail trolleys and buses.

              Transit Organization

2.150         Transit is managed by the Memphis Area Transit Authority (MATA), the largest transit
              operator in the state of Tennessee. The Authority serves four cities in Shelby County
              and West Memphis in Arkansas.


2.151   Funding for public transit comes from:

           Fare Revenue                20%
           Local Funds                 40%
           State Funds                 19%
           Federal Assistance          20%
           Other sources               01%

        Bus Services

2.152   Buses are operated by MATA and cover 36 routes and almost 2000 miles of road. The
        most frequent services have 15-minute headways with ticketing by electronic farebox
        using a zonal fare structure. There are park and ride services on a number of routes.

        FIGURE 2.8     MEMPHIS – SKYLINE


2.153   MATA also operates a heritage trolley network – with an average vehicle age of almost
        70 years. The trolleys run along three lines - the Main Street, the Riverfront Loop, and
        Madison Avenue. The total network covers almost 6 miles and has 34 stops.

2.154   While the system is „vintage‟, it is actually relatively new in its current state. It was re-
        opened in 1993 and is intended to be the core of a future planned light rail network.
        Three corridors have been proposed (North, Southeast, and South). The priority is
        currently to develop the Southeast line, which includes a link to the airport.

2.155   Trolley ridership continues to grow with 2004/05 boardings of over 1 million passengers
        - up 10% on the 2002/2003 figure. The services run every 8 minutes in the peak and
        every 13 minutes during the off peak.


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              Fares and Ticketing

2.156         Trolley and bus fares are integrated together and an adult single bus fare (2007) is
              $1.50 with seniors and people with disabilities qualifying for a 50% reduction. A 21 ride
              adult card costs $28.

              Marketing Information

2.157         Marketing is managed by MATA and a range of ticketing and route planning information
              is provided on their web site (

              Summary Comparison

2.158         Table 2.9 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Memphis compared against
              those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that while Memphis has roughly
              half the population and is more than twice as densely populated, it provides most (94%)
              of its public transit using buses and no existing or planned commuter rail services.

              TABLE 2.9             KEY CHARACTERISTIC SUMMARY – MEMPHIS

                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento                   Memphis
                Regional Population                     2.2m                        1.3m
                Population Density                    1,424 m                     2,430 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                  SACOG                   Memphis MPO

                Transit Modes:                            -                           -

                    Bus                                                             

                    Light Rail                                                      

                    Other Rail                    Capitol Corridor                Trolley

              Kansas City, MO

              Land-Use Characteristics

2.159         Kansas City, in Missouri, is the largest city in the state with a population of
              approximately 450,000. When combined with counties in Missouri and Kansas, the
              Kansas City Metropolitan Area has an estimated population over 1.4 million.

2.160         During the last 70 years the city has suffered considerable „flight from the city‟ - in
              1940, the city had almost 400,000 residents but by 2000 the population had dropped to
              about 180,000. Recent changes in urban planning have, however, slowed the sprawl
              and focused instead on the inner city, existing infrastructure and housing, as well as
              reviving the city's formerly blighted downtown area. Current estimates of population
              density are approximately 2,332 per square mile.



        Transportation Context

2.161   The city is located at the confluence of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers. With the
        construction of the Hannibal Bridge across the Missouri River it became the central
        location for 11 trunk railroads and there is still more tonnage of freight through the city
        than any other city in the country.

2.162   Interstates were pioneered by Missouri and Kansas when they built Interstate 70. The
        number of interstate loops has increased rapidly and encouraged suburban sprawl.
        Interstate 435, which encircles the entire city, is the second longest beltway in the
        nation. Today, Kansas City and its metropolitan area has more miles of limited access
        highway per person than any other city in the United States.

        Transit Organization

2.163   The Kansas City Area Transportation Authority (KCATA) – „The Metro‟ was formed in
        1965 and has responsibility for planning, construction, owning and operating passenger
        transit systems and facilities within the Kansas City metropolitan area.

2.164   The KCATA offers customers three types of service in the Kansas City area:

           Fixed-route service along 75 routes;
           Share-A-Fare Paratransit service for the elderly and persons with disabilities; and
           MetroFlex service which offers a combination of fixed-route and demand-response.

2.165   Operating costs are covered by fare revenues (15%), State funds (51%), Federal
        Assistance (21%), and Other funds (13%). Note that there is no local funding.


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              Bus Services

2.166         Bus services account for 95% of public transit (the remaining 5% being Vanpool).
              However services divide into conventional bus services, bus rapid transit and demand

              Conventional Bus

2.167         KCATA currently operates 70 routes, covering approximately 800 miles and carrying
              almost 15 million passengers per year.

              Bus Rapid Transit

2.168         In 2005 KCATA launched "MAX" (Metro Area eXpress). This $21 million project was the
              region‟s most significant public transit improvement in decades, providing quicker and
              more convenient service than the local bus routes.

2.169         MAX is the spine for future transit expansions and a key component of the region‟s long-
              range transit vision, Smart Moves. MAX uses 13 modern buses, easily identifiable
              stations and dedicated lanes (during rush hour) to help differentiate the service from
              conventional services.

2.170         MAX runs seven days a week from 5am to 1am. During rush hour periods, the buses run
              about every nine minutes with a $1.25 one-way fare.

2.171         Ridership on MAX is now over 5,000 riders per day - 27% of which are new transit users.
              The second MAX line is in the design phase and will launch in 2009.

              AdVANtage Vanpool Program

2.172         The AdVANtage Program provides free 8-passenger and 12-passenger luxury vans for
              commuting. The driver normally pays no monthly fee and is allowed up to 500 personal-
              use and other non-commute miles per month. Riders pay an affordable, low monthly
              fare. Vehicle licensing, insurance, service maintenance and ALL commuting costs, such
              as gasoline, are covered by the AdVANtage.

              Fares and Ticketing

2.173         Fares are flat, with supplement for some intercommunity journeys and express journeys
              (these are capped at double the bus conventional fare). Fares are collected by token or
              exact fare to farebox, there are also a range of monthly passes

2.174         The base fare is $1.25 one-way, with a variety of passes available. On predicted "Ozone
              Alert!" days between June 1 and September 30, the fare is reduced to $0.50.

              Marketing Information

2.175         Marketing is managed by KCATA with a range of ticketing and route planning
              information is provided on their web site (


        Travel Demand Management

2.176   The major initiatives to reduce travel by car include:

               The AdVantage vanpool program (described above);
               An extensive park and ride program;
               Ozone Alert days (when fares are reduced); and
               A bus / bike scheme (where bikes are carried on the front of the bus).

        Summary Comparison

2.177   Table 2.10 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Kansas City compared
        against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that Kansas City does not
        operate a light rail network - although a starter line is being planned and going through
        the FTA process and they do have a BRT system - and that Kansas City has roughly half
        the population and is more than twice as densely populated as Sacramento.


                Key Characteristic            Sacramento                 Kansas City
            Regional Population                   2.2m                      1.4m

            Population Density                  1,424 m2                   2,332 m2

            Land-Use Planning/MPO                SACOG                  Mid-America RC

            Transit Modes:                          -                          -

               Bus                                                          

               Light Rail                                                    

               Other Rail                   Capitol Corridor     The Jo (commuter rail)

        Indianapolis, IN

        Land-Use Characteristics

2.178   Indianapolis is the capital of the state of Indiana and is also the county seat of Marion
        County, Indiana.

2.179   The city population almost 800,000 and, including the wider metropolitan area, is
        approximately 2 million. It the third largest city in the Midwest (behind Chicago and
        Detroit) and the second most populated Capital in the U.S. (behind Phoenix). The
        Metropolitan area has seen modest and steady growth centered in the surrounding
        counties of Hamilton, Hendricks, and Johnson.

2.180   Like many North American cities, Indianapolis experienced urban decay in the 1970‟s
        and 1980‟s. However a major revitalization of the city's blighted areas occurred in the
        1990s and led to an acceleration of growth in both inner city and suburban areas. As a
        consequence, while the population density is still relatively low (3,589 per square mile)
        but increasing with redevelopment.


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2.181         Indianapolis is the international headquarters of a number of major corporations
              including Eli Lilly and Company, health insurance provider Wellpoint, and a number of
              major businesses. In addition to the above, major employers include Clarian Health,
              Sallie Mae, Cook Group, Rolls Royce, and General Motors.

2.182         In addition, Indianapolis remains a center for sports in the Midwest with professional
              teams in the NBA and the NFL and home to the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

2.183         Recently, the National Association of Home Builders and Wells Fargo ranked Indianapolis
              the most affordable major housing market in the U.S. and in 2008 Forbes magazine
              ranked it the sixth best city for jobs based on a combined graded balance of perceived
              median household incomes, lack of unemployment, income growth, cost of living and
              job growth.

              Transportation Context

2.184         Today the city is marked by a heavy reliance on the car and relatively undeveloped
              public transit network. There is for example no light rail system and the lack of cross-
              town bus routes forces bus riders to travel downtown to cross from one side of the city
              to the other. Due to the car dependent, suburban development of the 1960‟s and 70‟s
              many areas still do not have any sidewalks or bike paths. This heavy dependence on the
              car has also led to environmental degradation and the city often suffers from poor air

2.185         The city is the 13th largest city in the U.S., but has been ranked below 40th in mass
              transit availability.

              Transit Organization

2.186         Indianapolis's transit provider is the Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, also
              known as IndyGo.

              Bus Services

2.187         IndyGo operates 37 routes covering approximately 850 miles. The service carries
              approximately 11 million passengers per year equating to 50 million passenger miles.

2.188         This service is provided by a fleet of approximately 198 vehicles with an average age of
              approximately 5.7 years.

              Light Rail and Metro

2.189         While there is no light rail service in Indianapolis, there is however the Clarian People
              Mover (effectively a guided bus) which connects Indiana University to the Methodist
              Hospital. Plans for a more expansive system are being considered that would operate
              throughout downtown Indianapolis.



        Fares and Ticketing

2.190   Single fares are $1.50, with day passes $3.50, 7 day passes $17 and 31 day passes $55.
        Concessions pay half price. Passes can be purchased in advance or on the vehicle, but
        exact fare only.

        Marketing Information

2.191   Marketing is managed by IndyGo with a range of ticketing and route scheduling
        information provided on their web site (

        Travel Demand Management

2.192   Central Indiana Commuter Services (CICS) is an IndyGo service federally funded to
        reduce air pollution and traffic congestion.

2.193   CICS offers commuting solutions to area employers and employees in Boone, Hamilton,
        Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Madison, Marion, Morgan and Shelby counties. These
        commuting solutions are alternatives to driving alone, and include carpooling,
        vanpooling, riding transit, biking or walking.

        Summary Comparison

2.194   Table 2.11 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Indianapolis compared
        against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that while the cities have
        similar total populations, Indianapolis is almost three times more densely populated but
        does not operate or provide any rail services.


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                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento                 Indianapolis
                Regional Population                      2.2m                      2.0m
                Population Density                     1,424 m                   3,589 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                   SACOG               Indianapolis MPO

                Transit Modes:                             -                         -

                    Bus                                                            

                    Light Rail                                                     

                    Other Rail                     Capitol Corridor                 

              Minneapolis/St Paul, MN

              Land-Use Characteristics

2.195         The „Twin Cities‟ is the name given to the most populous urban area in the state of
              Minnesota. It is composed of 188 „cities‟ and townships including the largest urban
              area, Minneapolis, and the second largest and state capital, St Paul. Minneapolis itself
              has a population of nearly 400,000 with almost 3.5 million in the metropolitan area.

2.196         The twin cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul) directly border each other, and their
              downtown districts are 10 miles apart. However, despite the „twin‟ name, the two
              cities are quite distinct. Minneapolis has broad boulevards, a grid layout and modern
              downtown architecture, and early Scandinavian heritage, whereas St Paul has narrower
              irregular streets, with Victorian architecture and Irish and German Catholic roots.

              Transportation Context

2.197         The Twin Cities area expanded outwards significantly in the 20th Century. However,
              traffic volumes have grown faster than road capacity and traffic congestion is now a
              major issue, with the average Twin Cities traveller spending 43 hours a year delayed in
              traffic - three times that seen in comparable cities.

2.198         A number of steps have been taken to alleviate the congestion, including cameras and
              ramp meters on the freeways, and the introduction of high occupancy vehicle lanes. In
              addition, buses are able to drive on the freeway shoulder during congested times.

2.199         Despite the above, the metropolitan area has been criticized for inadequate public
              transit; particularly when compared to other cities of a similar size.

              Transit Organization

2.200         The Twin Cities‟ transit is provided under the Metropolitan Council, which is responsible
              for transit planning, policy and operations. They also contract operators to provide
              Metro Mobility, a demand responsive door to door service for the elderly and disabled.


2.201   The operating division of the Metropolitan Council is called Metro Transit, who run 95%
        of regular routes in the region.

2.202   The authority run bus and light rail services, as well as providing resources for car and
        van pooling, walking and cycling.

2.203   Funding for Metro Transit comes from a combination of fares (24%), motor vehicle
        excise and state taxes (61%) and federal/other sources (15%).

2.204   There are plans for Bus Rapid Transit corridors and a commuter rail line on the
        Northstar corridor between Minneapolis and Big Lake. This is being conducted by the
        Northstar corridor development agency who are a joint powers board representing
        counties, cities, towns and the regional railroad authorities.

        Bus Services

2.205   There are 118 bus routes in the region including 63 local and 46 express services, with a
        fleet of 721 vehicles. The service carries approximately 10 million passengers per year
        a distance of over 66 million passenger miles.

2.206   Additional services are contracted out to private operators. These are primarily
        commuter routes from the suburbs into the central cities. In 2005, nine providers
        operated 38 routes.

2.207   Twelve cities within the region have chosen to opt-out and run their own regular buses
        and dial-a-ride services, or have joined a consortium (Minnesota Valley Transit or
        Southwest Metro Transit).

2.208   The Minnesota Department of Transport has introduced the Northstar commuter coach,
        the first mass transit owned and operated by the authority. This runs from Elk River to
        Minneapolis downtown on weekdays.

        Light Rail

2.209   The 12 mile Hiawatha line runs from Downtown Minneapolis to the Mall of America and
        the airport. The line opened in 2005 and carried over 5.4 million passengers in its first
        year and then almost doubled that number to 9.4 million in 2006.

2.210   The line has 17 stops including two major park and ride interchanges.

        Fares and Ticketing

2.211   The „Go-To‟ card, a smartcard, has just been introduced on Metro Transit services. This
        allows travel on buses, Hiawatha line and other suburban transit services, such as the
        Northstar coach.

2.212   Local and express flat fares are also available to pay at the farebox or via a prepurchase
        magnetic strip pass. Longer duration (from six hour to annual) passes are also available.


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              Marketing Information

2.213         Information is available on the Metro Transit ( and Metropolitan
              Council ( web sites, as well as through local transit websites in
              the opt-out areas.

              FIGURE 2.11           MINNEAPOLIS – CITY HALL

              Travel Demand Management

2.214         Metro Transit Rideshare is operated by the Metropolitan Council and responsible for
              promoting alternatives to single-occupancy car journeys including bus, light rail,
              bicycle, carpools, vanpools, teleworking, flexible or staggered work hours.

2.215         Their services are focussed mainly on commuters and include an online ridematching
              service; free, discounted or preferred parking and the ability to use the high occupancy
              vehicle lane; tax benefits for employers if they underwrite employee travel passes;
              TransitWorks!, giving participating companies discounts on transit fares for employees;
              and the Guaranteed Ride Home program.

2.216         There are also five Transportation Management Organizations across the region, who
              focus on the needs of the business community and commuters in specific geographic
              locations, funded by Metro Transit Rideshare who focus on the regional level.

              Summary Comparison

2.217         Table 2.12 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Minneapolis compared
              against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that while the cities have
              both have bus and light rail systems, Minneapolis has approximately 50% more people
              and is more than twice as dense as Sacramento.



                Key Characteristic            Sacramento                  Minneapolis
            Regional Population                   2.2m                         3.5m
            Population Density                  1,424 m                      2,278 m2

            Land-Use Planning/MPO                SACOG                   Metro Council

            Transit Modes:                          -                             -

               Bus                                                             

               Light Rail                                                      
                                                                     Northstar Corridor – In
               Other Rail                   Capitol Corridor

        Cleveland, OH

        Land-Use Characteristics

2.218   Cleveland is the County seat of Cuyahoga County and is located in the northeast of the
        state of Ohio, on the southern shore of Lake Erie.

2.219   The City is located in the Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor metropolitan area which has a
        population of almost 2.3 million - the 23rd largest in the country. The city itself has a
        population of around 480,000 but, like many other U.S. cities, has suffered from
        population loss since 1970 due to out-migration to the outer counties.

2.220   The city was originally a center of manufacturing, but since the decline in heavy
        industry, has diversified into service economies.

        Transportation Context

2.221   Cleveland is served by Hopkins International Airport, a hub for Continental Airlines, and
        interstates 71, 77, 90, 480 and 490. Two other limited access highways serve the city:
        the Cleveland Memorial Shoreway and the Jennings Freeway, as well as the Berea
        Freeway linking the airport to I-71. All of these freeways were the result of a massive
        freeway expansion program that increased lane miles from 250 in 1960 to over 1,500
        miles in 2000.

2.222   Transportation in Cleveland has a range of issues to contend with, mainly due to the
        changes seen in the city in recent years:

               Annual vehicle miles in the region have more than doubled in the past forty years -
                from 6.9 billion in 1960 to 15.9 billion in 2000;
               In some areas of job and housing growth, transit expansion has not kept pace with
                demand; and
               Annual transit ridership fell from a peak in 1980 (130 million trips), to less than half
                of this in 1995 (58 million trips) – although this has stabilized since then and transit
                ridership is beginning to grow again (69 million trips in 2006).


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              Transit Organization

2.223         The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA) is responsible for public transit
              in Cleveland and the surrounding suburbs of Cuyahoga County. The RTA provides bus,
              metro and light rail services - with bus accounting for 89% of passenger miles.

              Bus Services

2.224         Bus services are provided by RTA, with over 100 routes, 8,000 bus stops and 650 vehicles
              in service. Buses on some routes are as frequent as every five minutes in the peak. As
              well as regular services, RTA also provides loop buses around the downtown area
              providing transit from the Municipal parking lot to Tower City (the downtown hub).

2.225         Reintroduced in 2006, new vehicles with original trolley bus features provide two
              routes. These free services provide links around the downtown area on two routes.

2.226         Community Circulator services are available in central and suburban communities, using
              smaller vehicles. These provide improved access to essential services and
              entertainment including such as supermarkets, stores and medical offices.

2.227         Other services include Suburban coaches, providing links between downtown and park
              and ride locations, and special transit services for the elderly and disabled.

2.228         The RTA are also in the process of building their first BRT line – the Silver Line. This
              will be integrated into the existing LRT network and is expecting to start operation at
              the end of 2008.

              FIGURE 2.12           CLEVELAND – ROCK AND ROLL HALL OF FAME


        Light Rail

2.229   The Blue and Green lines travel together between Tower City and Shaker Square, and
        then branch off to the southeast and east respectively, to serve the eastern suburbs.

2.230   A 2.2 mile extension of these lines was built in 1996, known as the Waterfront line. This
        connects downtown with the growth areas and entertainment districts along the Lake
        Erie coast.

2.231   The light rail connects with the Red Line (see below) in the downtown area, and
        interchange to bus is available at most stations. In addition, park and ride facilities are
        available from many of the outer stations.

        Heavy Rail

2.232   A heavy rail line known as the Red line provides services from Cleveland Hopkins Airport
        to Windermere in the City of East Cleveland. The 20 mile east-west line has 18
        stations, with park and ride facilities at half.

2.233   When it opened in 1968, this was the first rapid transit connection between an airport
        and downtown in the western hemisphere.

        Fares and Ticketing

2.234   Flat fares vary by mode, from $1 for a loop/circulator service, $1.75 for a bus or rapid
        service and $2 for a park and ride bus ticket. Five trip farecards are available, as well
        as day, week or monthly passes.

2.235   Fares are collected at a farebox on buses or via automated turnstiles on the metro/light

        Marketing Information

2.236   Marketing is managed by the RTA with a range of ticketing, planning and route
        scheduling information provided on their web site (

        Travel Demand Management

2.237   RTA has a number of promotions aimed at encouraging commuters to use public transit.
        These include the „Commuter Advantage‟ program, where employees can get added
        discounts on fares plus membership of the guaranteed ride home scheme; the „Join the
        Ride‟ promotion asks people what they won‟t miss about driving and provides them with
        public transit information; mortgages are available under the „Smart Commute Plus‟
        initiative, providing a better mortgage deal for people buying a home within ¼ mile of
        bus or ½ mile of rapid transit service.

2.238   In addition all mainline buses have bike racks, and bicycles are allowed for free on rapid


                                                                        TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Summary Comparison

2.239         Table 2.13 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Cleveland compared against
              those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that while the cities have
              approximately the same population and that both have bus and light rail systems,
              Cleveland is almost five times more densely populated than Sacramento.


                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento               Cleveland
                Regional Population                     2.2m                     2.3m
                Population Density                    1,424 m                  6,167 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                  SACOG                    NOACA

                Transit Modes:                            -                        -

                    Bus                                                          

                    Light Rail                                                   

                                                                             (Red Line)
                    Other Rail                    Capitol Corridor
                                                                         NEORail – In planning

              Vancouver, Canada

              Land-Use Characteristics

2.240         Metro Vancouver is Canada‟s third largest city with a population of almost 3 million
              people covering an area of approximately 1,100 square miles.

2.241         Located on the Pacific Ocean and less than 20 miles from the USA-Canada border,
              Vancouver is a major shipping and trade center providing a „gateway‟ to both Asia and
              the United States.

2.242         Historically a City with an economy influenced by primary industry – including forestry,
              mining and fishing – the economy has greatly diversified over the past 30 years and has
              become a major center for corporate offices, retail, education, financial services and
              other „white collar‟ industries.

2.243         The Metro Vancouver area is the official name for the administrative regional district
              comprised of 21 incorporated municipalities and one unincorporated area. The primary
              function of Metro Vancouver is to administer resources and services which across the
              metropolitan area including community planning, water, sewage, drainage, housing,
              transportation, air quality, and parks.

2.244         Vancouver is consistently ranked as one of the most livable cities or regions in the world
              and this is in part due to the land-use plan for the region – the Livable Region Strategic
              Plan (LRSP).



2.245   The Livable Region Strategic Plan (LRSP) is Metro Vancouver's regional growth strategy
        and was adopted by the Board with the formal support of all municipalities in 1996.
        The primary goal of the plan is to help maintain regional livability and protect the
        environment in the face of anticipated growth. The LRSP is used by all levels of
        government as the framework for making regional land use and transportation decisions.
        The LRSP is linked to Municipal OCPs through the Regional Context Statement. Other
        agencies, the private sector and residents also use the plan in order to understand and
        contribute to Metro Vancouver's vision for its future development.

        Transportation Context

2.246   In the 1960‟s, Vancouver made the conscious decision to not build a freeway network
        through its city. As a result the main national and provincial highways terminate on the
        outskirts of the city or run around its peripheries.

2.247   Public transit carries over 165 million passengers annually split between the region‟s
        buses, light rail, ferries and commuter rail services.

        Transit Organization

2.248   The South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority (TransLink) is the planning
        and operating company providing public transit services in the Metro Vancouver region.
        In addition to operating and maintaining transit services, TransLink is also responsible
        for the Major Roads Network and the bridges throughout the region.

2.249   In addition, TransLink allocates funding to each municipality for transit improvements,
        such as transit priority signals, queue-jumping lanes for buses, and bus lanes. TransLink
        contributes up to half of the costs of municipal capital projects, up to the maximum
        funding allocated to each municipality.


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              Bus Services

2.250         The Coast Mountain Bus Company is the operating subsidiary that runs TransLink‟s bus
              fleet. It has an operating staff of over 2,800 drivers to run its fleet of over 1,600 buses
              covering almost 200 bus routes (including community shuttles, conventional services,
              express buses and three „B-Line‟ BRT services).


2.251         Originally completed in 1985 for Expo 86, SkyTrain is an automated light rail transit
              system (ALRT) that has become an important part of the region's transit network.
              SkyTrain's Expo Line now operates from downtown Vancouver through southern Burnaby,
              New Westminster, and into Surrey. The Expo Line was further expanded upon
              completion of the Millennium Line in 2002, which links eastern New Westminster and
              northern Burnaby to Vancouver.

2.252         The rapid transit network is currently being expanded south from downtown Vancouver
              to connect to Richmond and the Airport – the Canada Line will open in late 2009 and has
              been financed and procured using a P3 model.

              Fares and Ticketing

2.253         TransLink uses a three-zone fare system that is applied on weekdays from the start of
              service to 6:30 p.m. Outside of these times (including weekends), the entire system is
              considered to be one zone.

2.254         There are two classes of fares on TransLink: adult and concession. Concession fares are
              discount fares available to children (ages 5 to 13), secondary students (ages 14 to 19,
              with a TransLink GoCard), seniors (ages 65 and up), and disabled patrons (with a valid
              HandyCard). Children four years old and younger ride free when accompanied by an

              Marketing Information

2.255         TransLink maintains strict control over all marketing and branding information and is
              the process of repainting the livery on all its vehicles.

2.256         TransLink‟s website ( provides information on transit services and
              route planning as well as information on fares, ticketing and projects being planned for
              the region.

2.257         Maps – both region and local – as well as timetable information is available both online
              and as hard copies.

              Travel Demand Management

2.258         TransLink has been actively working with its regional partners – in particular the Metro
              Vancouver municipalities and the federal government on the Urban Showcase Program –


        on six projects aimed at improving the movement of people and goods in the region.
        The pilot projects undertaken to date have included:

               Transit Villages – including concept plans for Surrey Central, Metrotown, and
                Broadway/Commercial Transit Villages have been completed. Implementation
                schedules for the plans are now being developed for Surrey Central and
                Broadway/Commercial with construction of the planned improvements are
                expected to begin later this year;
               TravelSmart - The TravelSmart personal travel planning pilot program took place
                from September 2005 to June 2006 in six communities: Kitsilano, Richmond City
                Center, Sperling Burnaby, South Surrey, Coquitlam Town Center and Tsawwassen -
                results from the pilot will be available in early 2008;
               Central Valley Greenway – construction of a new cycle and mixed-use path
                connecting Vancouver, Burnaby and New Westminster.
               Hybrid Bus Demonstration - testing of both the Hybrid Bus (and other Bus
                Technology Demonstrations currently being tested) began with all eight test buses
                in revenue service on September 6, 2005;
               Main Street corridor – streetscape redesign to improve the walkability and transit
                movements through the corridor – construction now underway including the
                implementation of transit priority measures and street and new sidewalk
                construction; and
               Goods Movement Study – completed study looking at improving movement of goods
                vehicles through the region – includes a a summary of the data assessment,
                economic and industry sector scan, modal profiles and traffic patterns, regulatory
                issues and governance scan

        Summary Comparison

2.259   Table 2.14 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Vancouver compared
        against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights both cities have very
        similar populations, population densities and that both have bus and light rail networks.
        What this does not show however is that Vancouver has a unique combination of natural
        growth boundaries (i.e. mountains, ocean and an international border) restricting its
        future growth.


                Key Characteristic            Sacramento                Vancouver
            Regional Population                  2.2m                      2.1m

            Population Density                 1,424 m2                  1,905 m2

            Land-Use Planning/MPO               SACOG                 Metro Vancouver

            Transit Modes:                         -                          -

               Bus                                                         

               Light Rail                                                  

               Other Rail                  Capitol Corridor      West Coast Express


                                                                      TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              London, England

              Land-Use Characteristics

2.260         London, the capital of England and the United Kingdom, is the largest urban area in the
              country with a population of 12 million within the wider metropolitan area (7.4 million
              of these are in Greater London). This area covers 31 local authorities across 609 square
              miles. Population density is high at nearly 20,000 people per square mile.

2.261         London is the second largest financial center in the world, after New York, with a
              dominant role in several international financial markets which are based in the „City‟
              (the traditional financial district) and the recently regenerated Docklands area (to the
              east of the city center).

              Transportation Context

2.262         London is surrounded by a large freeway, the M25, with seven freeways extending from
              this in different directions connecting London to other parts of the country.

2.263         London is also served nationally and internationally by five airports: London City in
              Docklands, Heathrow (the UK‟s largest) to the west of the metropolitan area, and
              Gatwick, Stansted and Luton, outside the M25. The city also acts as a hub for intercity,
              international and regional rail, despite being in the southeast of the country.

2.264         Public transit covers 8,987,768,000 passenger miles, 46% of which are on buses. The
              London Underground (Metro) accounts for just over 50%, and light rail (Docklands Light
              Railway and Croydon Tram) a further 2% of passenger mileage. In recent years the river
              has also undergone a renaissance with a number of riverboat services now available.

              Transit Organization

2.265         Transit is managed by Transport for London (TfL), which is part of the Greater London
              Authority led by the Mayor of London, and is responsible for implementing the Mayor‟s
              Transport Strategy and managing the services provided.

2.266         It is responsible for managing the buses, London Underground, Docklands Light Railway,
              the Overground (rail) and Trams. It also runs river services, the coach station, and Dial-
              a-ride (Paratransit) services.

2.267         In addition, they also administer congestion charging in the central area of the city and
              are responsible for the strategic road network across the metropolitan area.

2.268         Each weekday 5.5 million trips are made using the transit system, mainly bus, light rail
              and underground services.

2.269         TfL is currently progressing its £10 billion Investment Program to improve and expand
              the network, half of which will be spent on the Underground.


        Bus Services

2.270   Both in the city and the metropolitan area buses are run mainly by private companies
        under contract, in a franchise system unique within the UK (the rest of the country
        operates buses commercially and deregulated). TfL are however also responsible for
        provision and control of the bus infrastructure including 100 bus stands, 17,500 bus
        stops, and 11,800 bus shelters. Countdown realtime information is also being added at
        4500 stops.

2.271   There are more than 30 private operators, with the largest being First (111 routes),
        Metroline (96), and Stagecoach (93). In total, 6,500 buses are run on over 700 routes,
        there are also 100 night bus routes. The entire fleet is low floor and wheelchair
        accessible except for a small number of Routemasters running heritage routes in central
        London. „Bendy buses‟ (articulated 18m buses) currently run on 12 major routes.

        Light Rail and Metro

2.272   In London, light rail/metro services are provided by the London Underground, Docklands
        Light Railway, and Croydon Tramlink, all managed by TfL.

2.273   TfL is responsible for running the Underground, the main metro system, as part of a
        public private partnership. The first line opened in 1863, the first underground railway
        in the world, and has since developed into a network of 12 lines covering 408km and 274
        stations. Most stations have fully automatic ticket barriers.

2.274   At the peak, 500 trains are in operation and are as frequent as every two minutes.

2.275   The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is an automated light metro similar to Vancouver‟s
        SkyTrain and is run under franchise. The first line opened in 1987, and has grown to
        four interconnected lines covering 20 miles and 38 stations.

2.276   94 driverless computer controlled vehicles are used, providing 97%+ punctuality. The
        network had a key role in regenerating the Docklands area, and a series of expansions
        and extensions are now underway to aid transit links for the 2012 Olympics and

2.277   The Croydon Tramlink runs in the southern suburbs of London and connects Croydon,
        Wimbledon and other key settlements using 24 LRVs to provide services between 33
        stations. A number of other tram projects are planned in London, including extensions
        to the existing and new routes.


2.278   Suburban rail services connect London to settlements up to 100km away. The extensive
        network is particularly dense in east and northeast London, and south of the Thames
        which is more poorly served by metro.

2.279   Rail is provided by franchised rail operating companies, through the Department for
        Transport. Unique to this is London Overground which has recently been passed to TfL
        for management.


                                                                     TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              FIGURE 2.14           LONDON – CANARY WHARF

              Fares and Ticketing

2.280         Fares are zonal across nine concentric zones. Different standard fares are available for
              bus and metro, and a range of tickets are available for all modes or bus only. Buses
              now operate a „pay before you board‟ area in central London.

2.281         Elderly and disabled passengers are eligible for free travel after the morning peak,
              which is funded by the London municipalities. Free travel for most journeys is available
              to under 18 year olds, and discounts can be obtained for students and Londoners on
              income support.

2.282         The Oyster card, a smartcard based system, has been introduced, and is now used for
              73% of journeys on the network. Pre paid and season ticket versions, or a combination,
              are available. There is a strong move to encourage use of this cashless system with
              fares generally significantly cheaper than the equivalent cash fare. For example, a
              single fare in Zone One (the inner city) is £4.00 ($8) but only £1.50 ($3) paid for by

              Marketing Information

2.283         All paper based and internet resources are provided by Transport for London. The
              website includes detailed information on all services provided by TfL, including
              timetables, maps, live service updates and a journey planner.

2.284         Information is available from a wide range of sources across the metropolitan area. TfL
              also advertise current campaigns on television, radio and posters. Information and
              service updates are also available by SMS.


        Travel Demand Management

2.285   A large range of TDM is being invested in by TfL, including

               Vehicles driving within a clearly defined area of central London have to pay a
                Congestion charge;
               Large vehicles and those which have older diesel engines (buses, lorries and
                coaches) have to pay a daily charge to enter the Low emission zone;
               Walking events and promotion of routes;
               Cycle training, events, and promotion;
               Sutton is currently a „Smarter Travel town‟, a £5 million 3-year project to change
                transportation use in the area;
               Travel planning for schools and workplaces, and personalised travel planning; and
               The Londonliftshare website allows people to register journeys which they could
                share, which get matched to other people‟s journeys.

2.286   TfL also promotes Carclubs (car coops), smarter driving, and flexible working, as ways in
        which to improve or reduce travel.

        Summary Comparison

2.287   Table 2.15 provides a summary of the key characteristics of London compared against
        those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that London is a much more
        densely populated city region than Sacramento with a more mature fixed public transit


                Key Characteristic            Sacramento                  London
            Regional Population                  2.2m                        12m

            Population Density                 1,424 m2                  19,704 m2

            Land-Use Planning/MPO               SACOG                        GLA

            Transit Modes:                         -                           -

               Bus                                                          

               Light Rail                                                   
                                                                   Suburban, National &
               Other Rail                  Capitol Corridor
                                                                     International Rail

        Nottingham, England

        Land Use Characteristics

2.288   Nottingham is a medium sized industrial city in the East Midlands region of England.
        The population of the city is estimated at almost 300,000 with the larger metropolitan
        area more than doubling the population to approximately 650,000.


                                                                        TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

2.289         The city is close to, and has strong links with Derby (approximately 15 miles to the
              West) and Leicester (28 miles to the south). Nottingham is approximately 130 miles
              north of London and lies on the Strategic Midland Mainline (Railroad) that links it to
              London. The city also lies on the M1 freeway (freeway) that links London to the major
              Northern cities of Sheffield and Leeds, and is a major link to Scotland.

2.290         Nottingham is home to the headquarters of many well-known companies including
              Boots. Experian, Players (tobacco), and a large number of clothing manufacturers. It
              also is home to a number of government departments and agencies. The city is,
              however, progressively changing from an industrial city to one based largely in the
              service sector. Tourism, particularly from the United States and the Far East, is
              becoming an increasingly significant part of the local economy.

2.291         The city is a major regional shopping center and is the seventh most important shopping
              center in Britain (CACI Retail Footprint 2007). The city is also an important
              entertainment, cultural, and sporting center.


              Transportation Context

2.292         Nottingham is a very compact city. In the late 1980s the City Council undertook a land
              use review and formed a policy to resist out of town development. This policy has been
              successful at containing urban sprawl and decentralization of services, and has
              contributed to Nottingham city Center‟s particular success as a retail core.

2.293         Greater Nottingham's road network comprises a small section of the M1 freeway, trunk
              roads and local roads. It has a traditional road pattern comprising a network of radial
              routes leading to an Inner Ring Road around the City Center. Orbital movements are
              catered for by a partial Ring Road around the south, west and north of the conurbation.


2.294   Walking is an important mode of travel in Nottingham, particularly for short journeys to
        work, school, shops and other local community facilities, and accounts for around 25%
        of all trips made by adults.

        Transit Organization

2.295   Nottingham City Council is the Strategic and Local Planning Authority and the Highway
        Authority for the City of Nottingham. Nottinghamshire County Council is the Strategic
        Planning Authority and Highway Authority for Nottinghamshire County. The City Council
        administrative area does not cover the entire urban area of Nottingham. Therefore the
        City Council and the County Council have to work in partnership on transportation
        issues. They jointly produce the five-year Local Transport Plan (LTP) for the Greater
        Nottingham area.

2.296   Strategic objectives include the introduction of restraint-based measures coupled with
        investment in making the alternatives to the car more attractive. Greater emphasis is
        also being placed upon partnership and participation and on enhancing interchange and
        integration across all modes.

        Bus Services

2.297   The two main bus operators in Nottingham, Trent and Barton and Nottingham City
        Transport, operate nearly 25 million bus kilometres annually.

2.298   The city bus network provides four basic levels of service:

           14 major corridors are served by high frequency "Go2" bus services and these
            operate every 10 minutes or better;
           A second tier network includes services operating every 20-30 minutes which
            penetrate deeper into residential areas;
           These networks are supplemented by the "Link" bus concept, providing both
            frequent onward links to employment areas or interchange with "Go2" services to
            provide access to key facilities; and
           Finally, there is a network of socially-necessary services which reinforce the
            commercial network in particular residential areas. Interchange is made easier by
            the provision of Day and Season Tickets for unlimited travel and through the
            provision of key interchange points throughout the city center.

        Light Rail and Metro

2.299   In March 2004 Nottingham Express Transit (NET) Light Rail Line One opened, the first
        line of a proposed rapid transit network serving the Greater Nottingham area linking
        Hucknall with Nottingham City Center and the main railway station. Of the 14km total
        line, 10km is segregated and 4km on-street and the system uses a fleet of 15 100% low
        floor vehicles. (see

2.300   NET / bus integration has been achieved by bus route restructuring, and providing new
        bus routes feeding into NET. The NET has exceeded ridership forecasts and the volume
        of riders and revenue generated covers the operating cost of the system. Single peak
        hour rides are £2.30 ($4.60). Off peak rides are £1.40 ($2.80). Major discounts are
        offered with all day tickets costing £2.40 ($4.80) and all week tickets costing £11 ($22).


                                                                       TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Summary Comparison

2.301         Table 2.16 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Nottingham compared
              against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that while Sacramento
              has approximately three times the population of Nottingham, it has a considerably
              lower population density than its European counterpart.


                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento                Nottingham
                Regional Population                     2.2m                     650,000
                Population Density                    1,424 m                   9,674 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                  SACOG                  County Council

                Transit Modes:                            -                         -

                    Bus                                                           

                    Light Rail                                                    

                    Other Rail                    Capitol Corridor    Suburban & National Rail

              Dublin, Ireland

2.302         Dublin is the largest city in Ireland and the capital of the Republic of Ireland. It is
              located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and
              at the center of the Dublin Region. Today, it is an economic, administrative and
              cultural center for the island of Ireland, and has one of the fastest growing populations
              of any European capital city.

              Land Use Characteristics

2.303         The Dublin Metropolitan area includes the area administered by Dublin City Council and
              the adjacent counties of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin

2.304         The Metropolitan Area has a population of 1.7 million which is expanding rapidly, and is
              estimated to reach 2.1 million by 2021. Today, approximately 40% of the population of
              Ireland live within a 60 mile radius of the city.

2.305         The city has been at the center of Ireland's rapid economic growth over the last 10-15
              years, resulting in a dramatic rise in living standards. Dublin is now the world's 16th most
              expensive city to live in due to high house prices and high levels of imported goods.

2.306         Historically, brewing has probably been the industry most often associated with the
              city, however, a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and
              communications technology companies have located in the Greater Dublin Area. Major
              companies include Microsoft, Google, Amazon, PayPal, Yahoo, Pfizer, Intel and Hewlett-
              Packard. The city is also an important financial center with a number of major banks
              and financial institutions having operations in the city.


2.307   The economic boom years have led to the re-development of a number of run-down
        districts including Dublin Docklands, Spencer Dock and parts of the city center. The
        regeneration of the City in the early 1990‟s was supported by a comprehensive Dublin
        Transportation Initiative (DTI) plan which for the first time examined land use, road and
        public transit needs. The DTI plan set out many of the investments for a 20 year period
        including the Luas light rail system (see below). It also addressed governance issues
        including the formation of the Dublin Transportation Office (DTO) and the Rail
        Procurement Agency (RPA). (see below).

        Transportation Context

        Road Network

2.308   Car journeys account for approximately 55% of work trips, with buses accounting for a
        further 8 – 18% of journeys (depending on which survey is viewed). Congestion is a major
        issue with research indicating that the average road speed in the rush hour has fallen 3
        mph in the last seven years to an amazing 7.5 mph.

2.309   The Metropolitan area is served by several freeways. The M50 is a partial ring road
        around the southern, western, and northern edges of the city. The National Roads
        Authority is actively increasing capacity at many of the freeway's busiest junctions. To
        complete the ring road, an eastern bypass is also proposed.

        Public Transit

2.310   Dublin's transit system utilizes electrified suburban trains, diesel commuter rail, light
        rail and an extensive bus network. The service is however considered relatively poor
        when compared to other major European cities. However, this is an area the city is
        addressing and a new, more powerful, Transit Authority is in the process of being
        established. A key driver of this change is the perceived need for additional
        infrastructure and greater system integration.

        FIGURE 2.16      DUBLIN – RIVER LIFFEY


                                                                      TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Transit Organization

2.311         Public transit in Dublin is currently overseen by the Dublin Transportation Office (DTO)
              which provides transportation and land use planning advice to a range of stakeholders
              the National Government departments and authorities, transit operators, and local

2.312         The DTO:

                    Coordinates and monitors the DTO strategy;
                    Reviews activities to ensure consistency between the agencies' programs;
                    Reviews and updates the DTO strategy; and
                    Promotes public awareness campaigns in relation to the DTO Strategy.

              Bus Services

2.313         In 2006, 195 million passengers used the bus services, the bulk of which are provided by
              the state-owned Dublin Bus which operates nearly 200 radial, cross-city and peripheral
              routes in the Greater Dublin Area.

2.314         Apart from some tourist buses, all Dublin Bus' services are one-person operated, and
              fares are generally determined by the number of fare stages (e.g. zones) travelled
              through. Alternatively, various pre-paid tickets and passes can be bought from Dublin
              Bus or its agents, and are processed by a validating machine on the vehicles.

              Light Rail

2.315         There are currently two light rail (tram) lines in the city and several further extensions
              are planned together with a new Metro system. All of these projects are coordinated by
              the Rail Procurement Agency.

              Luas Light Rail (Tram)

2.316         The two line light rail network, called the Luas (Irish for „speed‟), opened in 2004 and
              has proved popular in the areas it serves, although the lack of a link between the two
              lines is widely criticized.

2.317         The Transport 21 plan calls for the joining of the two lines in the city center as well as
              seven other expansion projects. It is estimated that around 80,000 people use the Luas
              daily. The ridership and fares revenue generated covers the system‟s operating costs.
              Currently, the two on-street light rail lines are:

                    Red Line: Tallaght to Connolly; and
                    Green Line: St. Stephen's Green to Sandyford.

2.318         There are currently seven projects for adding new Luas lines, as well as extending the
              existing two.


        The DART

2.319   The Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) consists of one line and a spur running primarily
        along the coastline of Dublin Bay. The DART line is the only electrified railway in the
        country and over 80,000 people use it every day. The system suffers from overcrowding
        at rush hours, but current expansion plans will increase its capacity by 40% by 2009.

2.320   Plans are also in hand to greatly expand the network by boring a tunnel through Dublin
        City Center allowing the creation of two separate DART lines - one running from the
        northwest (Dunboyne/Maynooth) through the city center to the southeast (Bray); and
        one running from southwest (Hazelhatch) through the city center to the northeast


2.321   There are five lines constituting the Dublin suburban rail network operated by Iarnród
        Éireann, Ireland's national railway system. One of these is the electrified Dublin Area
        Rapid Transit (DART) described above.

        Fares and Ticketing

2.322   The DTO is responsible for establishing an integrated ticketing system for use
        throughout Dublin City, but progress has been slow on the project.

2.323   Bus fares are based on the number of stages travelled with 1 – 3 stages costing €1.05
        (approx $1.50) going up to a maximum of €4.30 (approx. $6.50). A range of daily,
        weekly, monthly and other passes are also available.

        Marketing Information

2.324   The DTO has an extensive website and service information is also available from a wide
        range of sources throughout the city.

        Travel Demand Management

2.325   The DTO is actively supporting and encourages a number of sustainable transportation
        initiatives and seeking to reduce commercial traffic in certain parts of the city.

        Summary Comparison

2.326   Table 2.17 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Dublin compared against
        those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that while Sacramento has
        roughly the same size population as Dublin, Dublin is almost ten times more densely
        populated than Sacramento.


                                                                          TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              TABLE 2.17            KEY CHARACTERISTIC SUMMARY – DUBLIN

                     Key Characteristic              Sacramento                   Dublin
                Regional Population                      2.2m                      1.7m
                Population Density                     1,424 m                   11,495 m2

                Land-Use Planning/MPO                   SACOG                 County Council

                Transit Modes:                             -                         -

                    Bus                                                            

                    Light Rail                                                     

                    Other Rail                     Capitol Corridor      Suburban & National Rail

              Montpellier, France

              Land Use Characteristics

2.327         Montpellier is a medium-sized city in southern France, situated on hilly ground 6 miles
              inland from the Mediterranean coast.

2.328         In less than three decades, Montpellier has changed more than it did during the previous
              three centuries, rising in rank from the 25th to the 8th largest French city. It has a
              population of 244,415 and the land area covering 35 square miles. This gives it a
              population density of 6,440 per square mile. With a large university, the city has a very
              big student population (37% of its population is under 25 years of age).

2.329         During the 19th century the city developed into an industrial center due to the
              development of the railways. In the 1960s, its population grew dramatically after
              approximately fifteen thousand people from Algeria were resettled in the city following
              the Algeria war of independence from France.

2.330         In the 1980s and 1990s, 11 business parks were opened around the city, and some major
              redevelopment projects took place, such as the Corum and the Antigone District. The
              scientific center has an important research activity, in particular in life sciences,
              agronomy and chemistry. Due to its reputation in scientific excellence, the mild
              Mediterranean climate, and its tourist facilities, Montpellier has become a traditional
              location for high profile conferences. The Corum is the first purpose-built complex in
              Europe specifically designed to serve both as opera house and conference center and
              can welcome over 4,000 people. The urban development of the Antigone district, built
              in grand post-modern style, started in 1977 and was finally achieved in 2000.

              Transportation Context

2.331         The first line of Montpellier's new light rail system opened in 2000 and by 2006, the
              public transit system carried over 55 million passengers.


2.332   Montpellier is also served by railway, including high-speed “TGV” trains with seven daily
        TGVs linking Montpellier to Paris (3h15 trip).

2.333   The Montpellier-Méditerranée Airport is located in the area of Fréjorgues, in the town
        of Mauguio, south-east of Montpellier, 10 km from the city center. It receives flights
        from Paris, and Nice, from which all international connections are possible. There is
        also one flight per day from London, and from several French cities.

2.334   The city has an extensive network of cycle paths, often separated from traffic for added
        safety. There is also a bike path running all the way to the beaches at Palavas-les-Flots
        and Carnon.

2.335   Bikes may be rented from various places in the city center, from the tourist office on
        the “Place de la comédie” and from the main TaM bike office, located adjacent to the
        train station.


2.336   Pedestrian areas in Montpellier started in 1985 and there is now an extensive pedestrian
        street network. The “Place de la Comédie” is one of the largest pedestrian areas in

        Transit Organization

2.337   TaM (Transports de l'Agglomération de Montpellier) manages the city's public transit,
        including its 28 lines of buses, its light rail network consisting of two lines, its cycling
        tracks and several parking facilities for the “Park and Ride” system.


                                                                       TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Bus Services

2.338         There are 28 bus routes using a fleet of 180 buses covering the “agglomération” of
              Montpellier (town + 31 districts).

              Light Rail

2.339         Line 1 was opened in 2000. It runs from Mosson in the west to Odysseum in the east and
              the second line, Line 2 in 2006. Line 2 runs from Jacou in the northeast to St. Jean-de-
              Vedas in the southwest. The two lines intersect at Gare St. Roch station, Place de
              l'Europe and again in front of the Corum. Typical of many modern French Light Rail
              investments the Montpellier system has been used as an urban regeneration tool with
              many street hierarchies being comprehensively re-modelled with pedestrian, bicyclists
              and transit have priority over cars. The “complete street” approach has also included a
              major focus on public realm improvements to further improve the attractiveness of the
              transit corridors. This integrated approach to urban development has also been
              extended to the bold use of transit livery to make the LRT a key feature of life in

2.340         Line 3 is planned to be in service by the end of 2010. This 22.4 km line will link Juvenac
              and Perols with a branch to Lattes and will serve 32 stations.

2.341         There are currently 12 car parks at light rail stops, with a total of 2,830 car spaces and
              a further eight more are currently being built,

2.342         Light rail vehicles run at a 3 - 5 minute frequency at peak hours but fewer at night,
              where there is one every 15 minutes until midnight.


2.343         Saint-Roch is the main railway station in Montpellier and is one of the principal
              transportation hubs of the Languedoc-Roussillon region, between Nîmes and Sète.

2.344         The high speed TGV trains connect Montpellier to the following major cities:

                    Paris in 3h 15
                    Lille in 4h 50
                    Lyon in 1h 40
                    Nice in 4h 00.

2.345         Most destinations in Southern France are easily accessible by rail from Montpellier. St
              Roch station is also serviced by the “Talgo” train service to Barcelona.

              Fares and Ticketing

2.346         Buses use the same tickets as the light rail and transfers are permitted on the same
              ticket for journeys under an hour. Tickets can be used on all buses and light rail
              vehicles operating in Montpellier and the 31 districts around the city.


2.347   Tickets must be validated in the machine when boarding and a one-way ticket costs
        $1.90. Other tickets available include:

               Round-trip - $3.50;
               Book of 10 tickets - $15.80;
               Day pass - $4.70 (valid for 24 hours from the first validation);
               Family day pass (up to 5 people) - $7.30; and
               Weekly pass - $18 and is valid for 7 days.

        Marketing Information

2.348   TaM is responsible for marketing as well as the general planning and management of the
        public transit in Montpellier. They publish fares, timetables, local tourist information
        and maps all on the website.

        Travel Demand Management

2.349   Efforts have been made by TaM to reduce congestion problems, to increase buses from
        the railway station, to encourage people to leave their car at the entrances of the city,
        and to use public transit.

2.350   Efforts made to encourage the use the new third line of the tramway are explained on
        TaM‟s website:

        Summary Comparison

2.351   Table 2.18 provides a summary of the key characteristics of Montpellier compared
        against those for the Sacramento region. The table highlights that while Sacramento
        has roughly the four times the population of Montpellier, Montpellier is almost ten times
        more densely populated than Sacramento. However, what this table does not show is
        that both cities have Mediterranean climates – an important consideration in transit and
        transit facility planning.


                Key Characteristic             Sacramento                 Montpellier
            Regional Population                  2.2m                          530k
            Population Density                  1,424 m                     11,027 m2

            Land-Use Planning/MPO                SACOG                  County Council

            Transit Modes:                         -                              -

               Bus                                                             

               Light Rail                                                      

               Other Rail                  Capitol Corridor              National Rail

2.352   Pedestrian areas in Montpellier started in 1985 and there is now an extensive pedestrian
        street network. The “Place de la Comédie” is one of the largest pedestrian areas in


                                                                      TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Summary of Key Characteristics

2.353         Table 2.19 has been provided overleaf as a full summary table of all the city tables
              provided in this Chapter. It shows that while many of the cities reviewed have similar
              population, planning structures, or similar modes of public transit – the most
              comparable (from a city characteristics standpoint only) are:

                    San Diego;
                    Denver;
                    Portland;
                    Charlotte;
                    Cleveland;
                    Minneapolis;
                    Vancouver; and
                    Dublin.

2.354         The following Chapter will examine each of the cities‟ transit system and operating
              performances to further develop a list of potential peer cities for further review in
              Stage 2 of the Peer Review process.



                                      San Bernardino

                                                                             Salt Lake City




                                                                                                                                   Kansas City

                                                       San Diego




 Key Characteristic

 Regional Population   2.2m          1.3m              2.9m        2.4m      1.0m             2.3m        1.5m         1.3m       1.4m           2.0m            3.5m           2.3m         2.1m              12m        650k          1.7m      530k

                       1,424         3,135             671         4,827     106              4,932       2,232        2,430      2,332          3,589           2,278          6,167        1,905            19,704      9,674         11,495 11,027
 Population Density
                        m2            m2               m2           m2       m2                m2          m2           m2         m2             m2              m2             m2           m2                m2         m2             m2     m2

 Transit Modes:            -               -              -           -           -              -            -           -            -              -               -             -            -                -           -            -          -

    Bus                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

    Light Rail                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

    Other Rail                                                                                                                                                                                                                     


                                                                                TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report



3.1           This chapter provides a summary of the data and statistics gathered through the first
              stage of the Peer Review process. A selection of these data are presented in the
              following tables and discussed below.3 A complete set of the data collected is included
              as Appendix A. The scale of operations is provided first, followed by a comparative
              assessment using some key performance indicators.

              Scale of Operations

3.2           Table 3.1 sets out the local characteristics and fleet information for the different peer
              transit authorities.


                                                  Service Area                      Maximum Service Fleet Size
                                                                 Service Area
                   Transit Agency                  Population
                                                                  (square mi)         Buses            LRT Vehicles
                Sacramento                            1.1            418                208                 56

                San Bernardino                        1.3            465                164                  0

                San Diego                             2.1            574                240                 99

                Denver                                2.6            499                921                 57

                Salt Lake City                        1.7            231                384                 44

                Portland                              1.3            574                526                 81

                Charlotte                             0.7            445                263               2 / 164

                Memphis                               0.9            288                144                 145

                Kansas City                           0.8            398                220                  0

                Indianapolis                          0.8            373                150                  0

                Minneapolis                           2.4            894                821                 24

                Cleveland                             2.3            458                514                 17

                Vancouver                             2.2            691                854                 192

       The information presented in the tables was collected from the 2006 FTA National Transit Database
       ( Where necessary and/or available this information has
       been supplemented with information provided on the individual transit agency websites.
       The 2006 database indicated two LRT vehicles for Charlotte. Since that time the new LRT line in
       Charlotte has expanded to include 16 vehicles. Information in the database is based on two vehicles
       and is therefore of limited use.
       The 2006 database indicates an inventory of 14 LRT vehicles in Memphis. However, according to the
       transit agency‟s website these appear to be streetcar trolleys rather than LRT vehicles.


3.3         Initial observations of the local characteristics and fleet information include:

                    Relative to the other peer agencies, Sacramento is among the smaller agencies
                     with a service area population of close to 1.1 million and a service area of
                     approximately 418 square miles;
                    Sacramento‟s maximum in-service bus fleet is also on the lower side with only 208
                     buses in service during the peak periods compared to as many as 921 in Denver. In
                     comparison to the peer agencies that provide both bus and LRT service, RT’s
                     maximum service bus fleet is among the smallest;
                    Relative to the other agencies, RT’s LRT fleet is large particularly given
                     Sacramento‟s relative size;
                    Sacramento is most similar in size to Kansas City and San Bernardino.
                     However, as neither of these agencies have LRT it is more difficult to make direct
                     comparisons on the performance side as, all else being equal, bus-only operations
                     are typically unable offer the same level of service offered through a rail-based
                     system and therefore struggle to attract a greater market share; and
                    RT’s LRT fleet size is similar to those in Salt Lake City and Denver. However,
                     these agencies have several more buses in service during the peak periods again
                     making it difficult to draw any particular conclusions from this comparison.

3.4         Table 3.2 provides a summary of some of the key ridership, fare and cost data.

            TABLE 3.2            SUMMARY OF KEY AGENCY DATA

                                                                         Fare Revenue            Operating Costs
                  Transit Agency       Ridership Total     Buses
                                                                          ($millions)              ($millions)
                Sacramento                  31.5              59%             $31.2                     $142.8

                San Bernardino              15.5              97%              $8.0                     $64.9

                San Diego                   52.7              35%             $45.3                     $108.9

                Denver                      86.3              86%             $67.8                     $318.6

                Salt Lake City              37.3              58%             $23.9                     $133.5

                Portland                   101.6              65%             $70.2                     $300.3

                Charlotte                   20.8              98%             $12.6                     $76.6

                Memphis                     11.7              90%              $9.1                     $45.9

                Kansas City                 14.8              96%              $9.3                     $68.6

                Indianapolis                10.0              97%              $8.3                     $43.1

                Minneapolis6                73.0              90%               NA                        NA

                Cleveland                   62.0              93%             $41.0                     $190.1

                Vancouver                  165.1              NA             $301.5                     $550.3

    Information in the 2006 National Transit Database is not consistent with information available on the
        agency website. As a consequence, an accurate comparison cannot be made with Minneapolis until the
        discrepancies in the information are reconciled.


                                                                                                                                         TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

3.5           In terms of total ridership, Sacramento lies in the mid-range of peer agencies
              (Figure 3.1). It has approximately three times the ridership of the lowest (Indianapolis),
              less than a third of the ridership of Portland, and a fifth of the ridership of Vancouver.


3.6           The total fare revenue and operating costs are illustrated in Figure 3.2.

              FIGURE 3.2            FARE REVENUE AND OPERATING COSTS


                           500                                      Fare Revenue $(m)
                                                                    Operating Costs $(m)






                                                                                 Kansas City

                                                                                                           Salt Lake City



                                                                                                                                                     San Diego

                                    San Bernardino


3.7   This shows that the ratio of fare income to operating costs is 1:5 in Sacramento. There
      are smaller ratios (and therefore a greater degree of operating costs recovered through
      fares) in Vancouver and San Diego (both 1:2) and in Portland (1:4). Sacramento‟s fare
      box recovery ratio is similar to that of Cleveland, Denver, Memphis and Indianapolis.

      Comparative Assessment

3.8   While the information presented in Table 3.3 provides some indication as to the scale of
      an agency‟s operations, in the absence of service area details, it does not enable a
      direct and meaningful relative comparison of transit agencies with such different
      populations and service areas.

3.9   In order to enable a more meaningful comparison, a set of key comparative indicators
      has been identified and calculated using the available data. For the purpose of this Peer
      Review the key comparative indicators are as follows:

           Trips per Capita – Trips / Service Area Population;
           Passenger Miles per Capita – Passenger Miles / Service Area Population;
           Average Trip Length – Annual Passenger Miles / Annual Ridership;
           Operating Costs per Passenger Mile; and
           Farebox Recovery – Percent of operating cost recovered from fares.


                                                                                        TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

3.10           The comparative indicators listed on the previous page are presented in Table 3.3 for
               each of the peer agencies. 7

               TABLE 3.3            KEY COMPARATIVE INDICATORS

                                Trips per                             Average Trip           Op. Costs per         Farebox
                                                    Miles per
    Transit Agency               Capita                                 Length                Pass. Mile           Recovery
                             Bus           LRT    Bus          LRT    Bus         LRT         Bus           LRT   Bus         LRT
    Sacramento               15.4          13.3   50.2         71.9   3.3         5.4        $1.48      $0.65     17%         22%

    San Bernardino           11.8          N/A    54.4         N/A    4.6         N/A        $0.80          N/A   20%         N/A

    San Diego                 8.7          16.1   33.0         99.4   3.8         6.2        $0.64      $0.26     35%         51%

    Denver                   28.3          4.3    149.7        22.6   5.3         5.2        $0.64      $0.59     22%         27%

    Salt Lake City           12.4          8.7    85.4         49.3   6.9         5.7        $0.63      $0.27     14%         32%

    Portland                 52.6          27.6   197.5    143.5      3.8         5.2        $0.82      $0.39     20%         37%

    Charlotte8               30.0          0.30   132.3        0.4    4.4         1.6        $0.74      $6.92     17%         11%

    Memphis                  11.8          1.1    64.8         1.0    5.5         1.0        $0.65      $3.99     21%         22%

    Kansas City              18.3          N/A    68.5         N/A    3.7         N/A        $1.12          N/A   14%         N/A

    Indianapolis             12.2          N/A    60.4         N/A    4.9         N/A        $0.70          N/A   23%         N/A

    Minneapolis              N/A           N/A    N/A          N/A    N/A         N/A        N/A            N/A   N/A         N/A

    Cleveland                25.7          1.7    92.3         9.8    3.6         5.8        $0.79      $0.59     22%         14%

    Vancouver                       75.7                 N/A                0.6                     $5.40               55%

3.11           A review of the key comparators reveals the following observations:

                      Despite the relatively low population and bus fleet size, with an annual ridership
                       of 31.5 million, on a per capita basis RT is able to attract 15.4 and 13.3 trips for
                       bus and LRT respectively. When bus and LRT trips per capita are combined, RT
                       places among the top half of the North America peer group agencies (Figure
                      Figure 3.3 also illustrates that Vancouver and Portland have the highest combined
                       bus and LRT trips per capita. With a service area population very close to that of
                       Sacramento, Portland is able to attract more than twice the transit trips per
                       capita. Vancouver, with almost double the service area population of Sacramento
                       is also able to attract more than twice as many riders with system-wide trips per
                       capita of 75.7;

    Given the discrepancies in the data for Minneapolis, the key comparative indicators have not been
        calculated. In addition, the modal breakdown between bus and rail was not available for Vancouver
        and therefore for the purpose of the comparator calculations system-wide statistics for Vancouver have
        been used.
    Data collected for Charlotte does not accurately reflect the full LRT operations.


             FIGURE 3.3                          TRANSIT TRIPS PER CAPITA
                                                 (BASED ON SERVICE AREA POPULATIONS)












                                                                                                               San Diego

                                                                                              Salt Lake City

                                      San Bernardino

                                                                                Kansas City

                     Sacramento is on the low end of the bus passenger miles per capita
                      comparison. When combined with LRT passenger miles per capita, RT‟s ranking
                      does not change relative to the other peer agencies that also provide both bus and
                      LRT service. Once again, Portland is the best performing agency in this area by a
                      significant margin;
                     Average trip lengths for both bus and LRT in Sacramento of 3.3 miles and 5.4
                      miles respectively are lower than most of the North American peers. When bus
                      and LRT are combined, Sacramento‟s average transit trip length is lower than all
                      agencies with the exception of Vancouver, Charlotte and Memphis. Average trip
                      lengths in Vancouver are much lower than the other North American peer agencies
                      likely reflecting the relative population densities in Vancouver‟s downtown core
                      where short bus and train trips are common. Trip data for Charlotte is likely
                      understated given the newness of its LRT system. In Memphis, where the LRT is a
                      streetcar, it is somewhat expected that the trip lengths would be lower than those
                      experienced in a true LRT jurisdiction;
                     Sacramento RT has the highest bus cost per passenger mile of all the
                      comparator authorities9 (Figure 3.4). LRT operating costs per passenger mile are
                      also slightly higher at RT than they are at other agencies offering LRT again with
                      the exception of Charlotte and Memphis. Based on the data presented in the table,
                      LRT operating costs per passenger mile are much higher in both Charlotte and
                      Memphis. However this is likely explained by the relatively small LRT fleets and age
                      of the LRT service in Charlotte which only recently expanded their new LRT fleet to
                      16 vehicles and has not been operating long enough to generate worthwhile
                      statistics. The statistics in Memphis are also somewhat misleading as Memphis
                      operates streetcars rather than LRT vehicles;

    Transit agencies may include different activities and functions within their operating budgets which may
       make financial comparisons between agencies misrepresentative.


                                                                                                                                                            TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

                                                 The range of bus fare box recovery ranges from 14% in Kansas City to 35% in San
                                                  Diego. Sacramento is towards the lower end of the range. Information is not
                                                  available split by mode for Vancouver; and
                                                 The range of LRT fare box recovery ranges from 11% in Charlotte to 51% in San
                                                  Diego. Sacramento is towards the mid to lower end of the range.

              FIGURE 3.4                                               OPERATING COSTS PER PASSENGER MILE


                  Operating Cost/Passenger Mile

                                                                        Bus                    Light Rail







                                                                                                                     San Diego

                                                                                                    Salt Lake City


                                                                              San Bernardino

                                                                                                                                 Kansas City


                                                                          TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report



4.1           This Chapter presents the initial recommendations for the Stage 2 further detailed
              review. For each of the agencies recommended, a brief explanation of the element(s)
              of their system that we believe could provide RT with some best practice to learn from
              is noted.

              San Diego

4.2           San Diego is recommended for further review for a number of reasons:

                    It is a Californian peer city and therefore faces many of the same restrictions on
                     operations and funding that challenge RT‟s operations;
                    It also has a warm, relatively hospitable climate;
                    It has a similar MPO planning agency (SANDAG) coordinating the transit and land-
                     use in the region.

4.3           However, we believe that the particular element of their operation that warrants
              particular attention and further investigation is their ability to recover such a high
              element of their costs or put another way, their ability to control and keep their bus
              and LRT operating costs very low.


4.4           Portland, with a similar area and population to Sacramento has a better performing
              transit system. This is likely related to a greater focus on a growth a management
              strategy over the last 25 years. The continued expansion of the MAX light rail system,
              the regeneration of the downtown, and the introduction of a streetcar system that has
              been extended beyond a small downtown shuttle (as is common in many other North
              American cities) are all reasons for recommending that a more detailed comparison is


4.5           Denver has also made major investments in its transit network over the last 10-15 years.
              Its transit system has higher ridership per capita, lower operating costs and higher
              farebox recovery than Sacramento. For these reasons we recommend that further
              analysis is undertaken.

4.6           Denver is also continuing its transit expansion program and a review of funding,
              procurement and delivery methods will also be useful given the likely program required
              for the Sacramento TMP.



4.7    The Peer City Review has also examined several non-USA cities all of which have many
       features that make them distinctly different from Sacramento (climate, governance,
       history, urban form etc.). That said, they also offer an insight to what can be achieved
       with an emphasis on transit investment linked to complementary land use and TDM

4.8    Vancouver, with its Liveable Region Strategic Plan and focus on “eco-density” policies
       and wider lifestyle issues (within which mobility and transit access are key components)
       offers many pointers for Sacramento in the context of the Blueprint and TMP
       challenges. For these reasons Vancouver is recommended for further examination.


4.9    In many respects London is significantly out of scale with Sacramento‟s circumstances
       and future planning. However, London offers a range of individual policies and projects
       with lessons for Sacramento. These include the role of the Mayor‟s Transport Strategy
       and governance issues; smartcard program; modern bus fleets; complete streets;
       various light rail projects (operating and being planned); and a range of procurement
       and delivery models including franchising and public-private finance. For these reasons
       we recommend that elements of the London peer review are carried forward for further


4.10   Dublin has lessons to give regarding their approach to restructuring their land use,
       transit and transportation planning process through the Dublin Transportation Initiative;
       the development and delivery of the Luas light rail system (including the ability to cover
       operating costs); and the way in which private sector partnerships and local
       development plans have been used to accelerate the delivery of transit-oriented
       development in Greater Dublin. These aspects are recommended for further detailed
       analysis in relation to the Sacramento TMP.


4.11   Montpellier is only a small, relatively dense city and in this respect is not directly
       comparable with Sacramento. However, the development of the LRT system and its
       combined transit/city shaping policy makes it unique amongst the peer cities that we
       have reviewed. Given the focus on the Blueprint, TOD and the need to shift from
       lifeline to lifestyle users of transit in Sacramento we believe that Montpellier will give
       some very different perspectives on the challenges being faced by Sacramento. For
       these reasons Montpellier is recommended for further, more detailed consideration.


                                                                                 TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

              Summary of Recommendations

4.12          Table 4.1 below provides a summary of the cities and key characteristics that are
              recommended for further investigation in Stage 2.


                                         Cost Recovery/                    Internal    Transit           Branding,
                                                          High Levels
                Transit Agency           Low Operating                    Structure/  Oriented          Marketing &
                                                          of Ridership
                                              Costs                      Governance Development         Information

                San Diego                         
                Portland                                                    
                Denver                                                      
                Vancouver                                                                   
                London                                                                                       
                Dublin                                                                       
                Montpellier                                                                                  


                         TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report




                        TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report




                             TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report




                                                                  TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

                                        CONTROL SHEET

Project/Proposal Name                    TMP Peer Cities Review – Stage 1 Report

Client Contract/Project No.

SDG Project/Proposal No.                 207593-A

                                         ISSUE HISTORY

Issue No.                     Date                   Details
1                             February 22, 2008      Draft for Client Review

Originator                      Ian Druce

Other Contributors              Jessica Booth, Alan Jones, Ian Wardley, Lucy Hayward

Review by                       Print              Ian Druce



Clients                                           RoseMary Covington, Joanne Koegel

Steer Davies Gleave:                              Contributors

                                                                                           Control Sheet