Individual Risk Assessment

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					West Mercia Local Resilience Forum

Individual Risk Assessment
Hazard / Threat Category Fire or explosion at an onshore fuel pipeline Hazard and Threat description, including scale
Up to 1km around site causing up to 100 fatalities and up to 500 casualties. Explosions would cause primarily crush / cuts & bruises, as well as burns – fires would cause predominantly burn-type injuries. Date of revision:

Sub- category Fire/Explosion. Risk reference no

H5 Next review date August 2010 Risk Rating: Low

August 2007 Impact: 2

Likelihood: 1


Overview of Hazard or Threat
Hazard: Failure or damage to holding vessel or associated pipe work resulting in release of product which is in turn ignited leading to a Fire or Explosion.  Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) can be found stored either under pressure or refrigerated.  Any failure in the pressure vessel will result in either the release of liquid or vapour.  Released liquefied product will increase in volume by 600% and will produce a large vapour cloud.  The National Transportation System (NTS) and any other industrial pipelines may be operating at pressures up to 42 bar.  Vapours are heavier than air and will track along at low levels therefore not dissipating.  Product stored in tanks is liable to “BLEVE” (Boiling-Liquid-Expanding-Vapor Explosion)which can cause damage over wide area


Key Historical Evidence
Explosion and Major Fire at Fuel storage depot in Hertfordshire. Minor injuries but major destruction of surrounding properties. The fire burned for several days before being extinguished using foam. Explosion sounding like a sonic boom wrecked a British-owned BP oil refinery. Explosion involving LPG at Conoco, third biggest British oil refinery at South Killingholme, near Immingham. 200 ft plume visible ten miles away. 22 December: Gas pipe explosion near A74 GlasgowCarlisle road. Burst caused North Sea gas to gush out of an 80ft crater at Palaceknowe. 13 January: Chemical plant blast at Abril Industrial Waxes factory, Pyle, near Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan
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Risk Reference No: WM H5

West Mercia Local Resilience Forum
1992 Aberdeenshire UK Fire/explosion 10 August: St Fergus explosion rocks Mobil gas reception point


The likelihood of a occurrence involving a fuel pipeline involving LPG, LNG or other onshore gas/fuel feedstock pipeline within the West Mercia area is relatively low. Whilst some installations are present within the locality they are well controlled under Regulations and are subject to regular inspection by air. Building and excavation work is prohibited in the vicinity of the pipelines but accidental damage is a risk as is terrorist activity. Any event involving ignition of and or explosion at installations may cause large scale injuries both to plant operatives and public – depending upon location. Likelihood Outcome Description Rating High impact event in a localised area – major incident scenario with high demands on medical services for intensive medical treatment for injured, 1 probable evacuation and temporary accommodation requirements. Possible large number of press and next of kin enquires.


Impacts Associated with event Primary:  Bringing situation under control  Incident Phase and Evacuation.  Large call on Cat 1 Responders  Impact on service delivery for affected Ambulance, Health Service delivery services and PCTs  Possible long term impact on fuel supply network.  Social and Economic impact for locality. Secondary:  Temporary Mortuary Requirements  Need for a recovery strategy and economic help to locality  Public need for information and advice  Shortage/Overstretch of key staff  Return to normal phase  Contamination of rivers and streams with possible longer term implications for ground waters.

Impact Scoring Health Social Economic Environmental

4 2 2 3

Overall Impact Score 2


Vulnerability and Resilience Installations have well developed and inspected regimes, they are well controlled and governed by the Health and Safety Inspectorate. Local Authorities have developed plans to respond to any events, these are rehearsed and tested regularly. Pipelines are marked and known to emergency services, the lines are inspected on a regular basis and control centres monitor flow and pressure, in addition the valve systems allow for isolation of affected parts.

Risk Reference No: WM H5

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West Mercia Local Resilience Forum


Overall assessment
Category H5 Fire or explosion at an onshore fuel pipeline Outcome description Impact Up to 1km around site 2 causing up to 100 fatalities and up to 500 casualties. Explosions would cause primarily crush / cuts & bruises, as well as burns – fires would cause predominantly burntype injuries. Controls in place:     COMAH Regulations HSE Executive Pipeline Inspections Pre-planning and contingency plans Inter-agency Joint Emergency Response Arrangements Sub -category Fire/Explosion Likelihood 1 Risk Low


Risk Reference No: WM H5

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Description: Individual Risk Assessment