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802 Wine Encyclopedia 44p

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Wine Encyclopaedia

1. Wine Making 2. From Grape To Glass 3. The Red Grapes 4. The White Grapes 5. The Ten Basic Styles, Red 6. The Ten Basic Styles, White 7. Wine Glossary 8. Wine Tasting 9. Wine And Temperature For Serving 10. Wine And Alcohol Contend 11. Wine And Decanting 12. Wine And Health 13. Methode Champenoise 14. Champagne By The Bottle 15. Fortified Wine 16. Wine Service – White And Rose 17. Wine Service – Red 18. Wine Cellar Construction – Wine Storage

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1. Wine Making
Of the three colours of wine, white is the simplest of all to make , precisely because it has no colour. When the ripe grapes are harvested, they are brought to the winery And immediately de-stemmed and crushed to extract the first (and best) juice from them. After that, they are likely to be treated to a slightly heavier pressing and then the juice is separated off from all the solid matter, such as skins, pips, leaves, etc. The juice must be stored at low temperatures, to minimize the risk of spoilage through oxidation. While standing, any remaining minute, solid particles settle to the bottom and thus clarify the juice; the process can be speeded up artificially by subjecting it to centrifugal force. The fermentation of white wine takes place at much lower temperatures than that of reds, typically around 12-18°C/54-64° F, which means that it tends to be a fairly slow process. At some stage, the wine maybe be encouraged to undergo a secondary type of fermentation to the sort that turns grape juice into alcohol, this is called the ―malolactic fermentation”, and is useful for converting hard-tasting malic acid, with which grape juice is naturally abundant, into softer, creamier lactic acid. Some white wines are better off with a noticeable bite to them, and for those the winemaker will take positive steps to avoid a malolactic fermentation, usually by keeping the temperature low. The final decision is whether to bottle the wine as it is, or give it a period of aging in oak barrels, which adds spiciness and richness to the finished product. If so the wine may well be left on its lees (fermentation sediments) to acquire extra character, and a periodic stirring up of the settled gunge with a wooden paddle helps to maximize the effect. Before bottling the wine is generally subjected to a final filtration to ensure that it is absolutely bright and clear, but this has become a contentious issue in recent years, with some authorities feeling that it strips the wine of to much of its character Internationally used white grapes which have become most increasingly famous today are: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Riesling, Chenin Blanc, Gewuerztraminer, Viongnier and various members of the Muscat family. Making red wine is a more complicated process in that the grape juice has to be dyed. The skins of the grapes may be red (or deep purple) but their juice is as colorless as that of white grapes. The colour has therefore to be put into the wine by leaching it out of the skins. When the grapes have to been de-stemmed as well and crushed, and perhaps pressed as well, the mass of smashed skins and pips is left sitting in the juice. A period of cold soaking before the fermentation begins, is now common practice. It is thought to emphasize the wine’s fruitiness and to encourage the development of good ripe, fruit tannin which, which together with acidity, will give the wine the structure to age well. Red wine is fermented at higher temperatures than white wine: generally in the 25-30°C / 77-86°F range, although some reds are allowed to go higher than this. The mass of skins, known as pomance, is left in the fermenting juice. Of course its not doing any good merely floating on the surface, and so either the pomance is punched down manually a couple of times a day, or a device is used that pumps wine from the bottom of the vat over the floating cap of skins to give the fermenting juice the benefit of it. Malolactic fermentation is automatically carried out for the vast majority of red wines. After the fermentation the wine may be allow a further few days of sitting in contact with the skins, before they are removed and the wine transferred to its maturation vessel. This can be either stainless steel or oak, as in the case of white wine. Premium reds may be kept for a year or more in barrels in the wine cellar, during the course of which they may pick up more tannin (of a different kind, this time from the wood) and undergo a very gentle process of oxygenation. Some reds are meant to be aged by the buyer, others as the Spanish Riserva quality reds, have been aged and are intended to be drunk on release.

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Major international red grape varieties are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Shiraz or (Shyrah) and Grenache Grapes of importance in their homeland but with international reputations: Gamay of Beaujolais, Spain’s Tempranillo, Italy’s Sangiovese and Nebbiolo, California’s Zinfandel and South Africa’s Pinotage

Rose wine is basically a partially made red. It achieves its pale tint by virtue Of the fact that the skins of the red grapes are only allowed a short maceration In the juice (usually) less than 24 hours before being removed. Some pink wine is made as an off-cut of a serious red, in that a little of the juice is siphoned off after the maceration has begun, with the rest going on to turn into Fully fledged red. In the case of pink Champagne, a kind of cheat’s approach has been sanctioned by the French wine authorities. The colour is attained by simply adding a slug of ready-made red wine to the finished white. If that sounds a little sloppy for the product as illustrious as champagne, rest assured that it is Preferable to the coloring materials that were resorted to in the 19th century. The alternative method is to allow a short maceration period on the skins. Such as wine is said to have been saignee, or bled, but the technique is used for only about 2% of all pink champagne on the market. Although those who use it dispute the fact, the taste is essentially the same.

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2. From Grape To Glass

The “Ingredients” of Fresh Grape Juice per volume 73.5% 25% per volume 86% 12%

The “Contents” of Wine



0.13% 0.07%


Water carbohydrates, of which 5% - cellulose 20% - sugar organic acids, of which 0.54% tartaric acid 0.25% malic acid 0.01% citris acid minerals, of which 0.025% calcium; 0.01% chloride; 0.025% magnesium; 0.25% potasium; 0.05% phosphate; 0.005% silicic acid; 0.035% sulphate; 0.1% others such as iron, sodium, copper, aluminium, boron etc. tannin and colour pigments nitrogenous matter, of which 0.05% amino acids 0.005% protein 0.015% other nitrogenous matter mainly vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyrodoxine, nicotinic acid etc.

water alcohol (ethyl alcohol)




organic acids, of which 0.20% tartaric acid 0.15% lactic acid 0.05% succinic acid (plus traces of malic acid citric acid) carbohydrates (unfermentable sugar) minerals, of which 0.02% calcium; 0.01% chloride; 0.02% magnesium; 0.075% potassium; 0.05% phosphate; 0.05% silicic acid; 0.02% sulphate; tannin and colour pigments volatile acids (mostly acetic acid) nitrogenous matter, of which 0.01%amino acids 0.015% protein and other nitrogenous matter esters aldehydes higher alcohols mainly vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyrodoxine, nicotinic acid etc.

0.2% 0.2%

0.1% 0.045% 0.025%

0.025% 0.004 0.001% traces

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3. The Red Grapes
 Barberra A widely planted, wild-berryish Italian variety, at its best in Piedmont, where it is increasingly successful in blends with Nebbiolo and Cabernet. Also good in Argentina, California and Australia. Cabernet Sauvignon King of the Medoc and Graves ( in blends with Merlot ) and top reds from the New World, especially California, Chile and Australia. Eastern Europe and southern France ( Vin de pays ) have good value examples, and Spain is rapidly climbing aboard ( in the Penedes and Navarra ).The hallmark to look for is blackcurrant, though unripe versions taste like weeds and bell peppers. There are also great Italian Cabernets. Good New World Cabernets can smell and taste like fresh mint, but like the best Bordeaux, develop a rich, leathery ―cigar box‖ charcter. Carmenere A peppery-berryish grape once grown in Bordeaux And now almost only found in Chile and Italy. ( Ca del Bosco ) Grenache / Garnacha Freshly ground black pepper is the distinguishing flavour here, sometimes with the fruity tang of sweets. At home in Cotes du Rhone and Chateauneuf-du-Pape, it is also used in Spain ( as Garnacha ) in blends with Tempranillo. There are good ―bush‖ examples from Australia. Malbec Another peppery Bordeaux refugee, used in France ( for Cahors ) the Loire and Italy where it generally produces dull stuff. It shines however in Argentina and is finding a new home in Chile and Australia. Nebbiolo / Spanna The red wine grape of Barolo and Barbaresco in Piedmont now, thanks to modern winemaking, Increasingly reveals a lovely cherry and rosepetal Character, often with the sweet vanilla of new oak Casks. Lesser examples for earlier drinking tend to be labeled as ―Spanna‖.
Merlot The most widely planted variety in Bordeaux and the subject of (enthusiastic over - ) planting in California. In Bordeaux, where in some vintages it performs better than Cabernet Sauvignon, it is at its best in Pomerol, where wines can taste of ripe plums and spice, and in St. Emilion, where the least successful wines show the Merlot’s less lovable dull and earthy character. Wherever it is made, the naturally thin-skinned Merlot should produce softer, less tannic wines than Cabernet Sauvignon ( though some California examples seem to contradict this ) Pinot Noir The wild-rapherryish, plumy and liquoricey grape of red burgundy is also a major component of white and pink Champagne. It makes red and pink Sancerre, as well as light reds in Alsace and Germany (where it Is called ―Spaetburgunder‖ ). Italy makes a few good Examples but for the best modern efforts look to California, Oregon, Australia, Chile, South Africa and especially New Zealand (Martinborough , Felton Road ).








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 Pinotage Almost restricted to South Africa, this cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsaut can - though rarely and only in the hands, such as Kanonkop make berryish young wines that may develop rich gamey-spicy flavours . Poorer examples can be dull and ―muddy‖. Sangiovese The grape of Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and a host of popular IGT wines in Italy, not to mention ― new wave‖ Italian-style wines in California and Argentina. The recognizable flavour is sweet tobacco, wild herbs and berries. Syrah / Shiraz The spicy, brambly grape of the Northern Rhone ( Hermittage, Cornas etc. ) and the best reds of Australia ( Henschke Hill of grace and Penfolds Grange ) where it is also blended with Cabernet Sauvignon ( just as it was once in Bordeaux ). Marquis de Grinon has a great Spanish example And Isole e Olena makes a fine one in Tuscany. Increasingly successful in California and Washinton State and finally in South Africa. Surprisingly Good too, in both Switzerland and New Zealand. Tempranillo Known under all kind of names around Spain , including Cencibel in Navarra and Tinto del Pais in Ribeira del Duero and Tinta Roritz in Portugal, the grape gives Spanish reds their recognizable strawberry character. Often blended with Garnacha, it works well with Cabernet Sauvignon. So far little is used in the New World, but watch out for examples from Argentina and Australia.





Zinfandel Until recently thought of as California’s ―own‖ Variety, but now proved (by DNA tests) to be the same variety as the Primitivo in southern Italy. In California it makes rich, spicy, blueberryish reds ( see Turley and Ridge Vineyards ), ―ports‖ and often with a little help from sweet Muscat , sweet pink ― White Zinfandel ―. Outside California, Cape Mentelle makes a good example in Western Australia.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com 4. The White Grapes
 Chardonnay The worlds most popular and widely planted premium white Grape variety and the one whose name has become almost a Synonym for dry white wine, is surprisingly hard to define. The flavour of any example will depend enormously on the climate, soil and the particular type of clone. Burgundy the best California examples (Kistler, Peter Michael, Sonoma Cutter ), taste of butter and hazelnuts, lesser New World efforts are often sweet and simple and often very melony ( a flavour which comes from the clone ). Australians range from subtle buttery pineapple to oaky tropical fruit juice. Petaluma, Giaconda, Coldstream Hills and Leeuwin show how it can be done. New Zealand’s efforts are tropical, too, but lighter and fresher ( Te Mata, Cloudy Bay ) Elsewhere Chile is beginning to hit the mark, as in South Africa & Jordan. In Europe, look around southern France ( James Herrick ), Italy ( Gaja ), Spain, and Easter Europe, but beware of watery cheaper versions.  Chenin Blanc Loire variety with naturally high acidity that makes it ideal for fresh sparkling, dry and luscious honeyed wines, also raw staff like unripe apples. Most California Chenins are semi –sweet and ordinary South Africans call it ―Steen‖ and use it for cheap, dry and luscious sweet wines. There are few good Australians ( Moondah Brook ) or New Zealanders( Milton)  Gewuerztraminer Outrageous, oily-textured staff that smells of parma violets and tastes of lychee fruit. At its best in Alsace ( Zind Humbrecht, Leon Beyer, Schlumberger, Fallet ) where identically labeled bottles can vary greatly in their level of Sweetness. Wines that guarantee luscious sweetness will be labeled as either Vendange Tardive or the intensely sweet – Selection de Grains Nobles. Try examples from Germany, Chile, New Zealand and Italy too.

 Gruener Veltliner
Fast rising star, helped by the success of Austrian examples in tasting with white Burgund. Fleshy limey &capable of ageing  Marsanne A classic, flowery, lemony variety used in the Rhone in Hermitage, Australia (Chateau Tahblik & Mitchelton ) Southern France from Mas de daumas Gassac, Switzerland from Provins and innovative wines from California. At its Best, young or after 5 – 6 years.  Muscat The only variety whose wines actually taste as they are made of grapes, rather than some other kind of fruit or Vegetable. In Alsace, southern France and northeast Italy it is used to make dry wines. Generally though it Performs best as sparkling wine ( Moscatos and Astis from Italy and Clairette de Die Tradition from France ) and as sweet fortified wine. Look out for Beaume de Venise and Rivesaltes in southern France, Moscatel de Setubal in Portugal, Moscatel de Valencia in Spain and Liqueur Muscat in Australia.

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 Pinot Blanc / Pinot Blanco As rich as Chardonnay, but with less fruit. At its worst When over-cropped, it makes neutral wine. At its best,however ( also in Alsace ) it can develop a lovely cashew nut flavor. When well handled it can also do well in Italy, where it is known as Pinot Biancho( Jermann ) and in Germany, especially in Baden where it is called Grauer Burgunder. Look out for examples from Oregon ( Eyrie ), California and New Zealand.  Viognier A cult grape , Viognier was once only found in Condrieu And Chateau Grillet in the Rhone, where small numbers of good examples showed off its extraordinary perfumed, peach-blossomy character, albeit at a high price. Today however it has been widely introduced to the Ardeche, Languedoc-Roussillon and California and made with loving care. ( and often over-generous exposure in Oak barrels ). In Eastern Europe, Argentina and particularly Australia ( where Yalumba makes several good examples ) While examples of affordable Viognier are welcome, most lower-priced efforts are disappointing, because this is a variety that performs poorly when asked to produce too much wine per acre. Clones of this grape vary widely too.

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5. The Ten Basic Styles, Red
 Grapey young reds with individuality, not intended to mature Beaujolais is the archetype of a light red wine: Made to be drunk young, while it is still lively with fresh, grape flavor. BeaujolaisVillages is a better, stronger and tastier selection. Simple young Bordeaux, burgundy and Rhone reds, Cabernet from Anjou and Mondeuse from Savoie should have the same appeal. Similar Wines are now made in the Midi ( Corbieres Minervois, Roussillon St-Chinian ) by the Beaujolais technique of carbonic Maceration and also of most of the popular red grape Varieties: light wines to drink young. Examples are: Italy’s Valpolicella and Bardolino, Barbera and Dolcetto, and even Chianti, can be freshly fruity if they are caught Young enough. Fizzy red Lambrusco is a sort ofCaricature of the style. Spain provides few examples, although Valdepenas has possibilities and no doubt Will be made fresher in the future. The heat of the vineyards in California, Australia, South Africa and South America have proved inimical to this style of wine. Light Zinfandels and Gamays From California sometimes achieve it.

In its liveliness and vigour this is perhaps the safest and best All around class of red wine for mealtimes, appetizing with Anything from pate to fruit and often better than a more ―serious‖ or old wine with strong cheese, in mouthfuls rather than sips. For the same reason it is the easiest red wine to drink without food. It is usually best served cool. Ideal dishes include: pates & terrines, (including those made from vegetable),quiches, salads, hamburgers, ham, grilled meats, cheese and soft fruits as raspberries, plums or peaches.  Plain every day or “jug” reds These are unpretentious and anonymous blended wines with little body or flavor. French brands and country wines of Italy, Portugal or Spain, as well as California’s ―jug‖reds, come into the category. Often a slight sweetness remains in the wine to disguise its lack of body. Like the ―neutral‖ cheap whites, these are essentially wines for mealtimes, a healthy and stimulating accompaniment to almost Any homely food. They are always best served rather cool as drinks on their own there are improved by being iced and in summer ( as Sangria, with orange juice added ) and ―mulled On the stove with sugar and spices in winter. ( Gluehwein in Bavaria )

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com Examples are: Most inexpensive imports From southern, central and eastern Europe , North Africa, Argentina, Chile, South Africa and Australia are in the classes that follow.  Mature reds of light to medium strength and body This category includes most of the world’s finest Red wines, epitomized by claret ( red Bordeaux ) And most of the typical wines of Burgundy and the Rhone, although some of the greatest fall into the next glass, depending on the ripeness of the vintage. These wines need more care in serving than any others, since they often throw a deposit in maturing. They are wines for meat and game dishes with the best ingredients and moderate seasoning. Lamb, beef, veal ( also sweetbreads and tongue ) chicken, duck, partridge, grouse, pheasant are all ideal, although very gamey birds may need wines from the next category. Only mild chesses should be served with these relatively delicate wines. They need to be served at a temperature of between 15º C - 18º C to bring out their flavor. Examples are: Apart from the French wines they include thebest of Rioja & Penedes from Spain, Chianti Riservas, Tuscans such as Tignanello, Carmignano & Vene-Gazzu, Portuguese reds from Dao, Alentejo & Bairrada. Top California, Oregon and Washington Cabernet and Pinot Noirs. Australian Coonawarra and some Hunter Valley reds, Argentinian Malbec, Chilean Cabernet & Bordeaux Blends from New Zealand  Exceptionally concentrated, full flavored and powerful reds, usually but not always needed to mature. In Europe this category depends more on the vintage Than the producer. Wines that achieve this status Fairly regularly include Petrus in Pomerol, Chambertin and Corton in Burgundy, Hermittage and Chateauneuf-du-Pape ( Cote-Rotie ) is often in the previous category. Exceptional Roussillons ( not for maturing ) Barolo and Barbaresco, Brunello di Montalcino, Recioto Amarone from Valpolicella, Spanish Vega Sicilia, Pesquera and Priorato Portuguese Barca Velha, Dalmatian Posip and Postup. Well hung game and strong-flavored cheese are the Obvious candidates for these wines, although those in the appropriate price bracket are also excellent for BBQ’s and dinners.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com Examples are: California, Australia and South Africa find it hard not to make such big reds. Most of their best wines are carefully restrained in ripeness, but in California a number of wines especially Zinfandel, are made to be larger than life. Australia makes many such wines, especially in Victoria, Barossa and Southern Vales in South Australia. Top Shiraz such as Penfold’s ―Grange‖ and Henschke’s ―Hill Of Grace‖ are good examples  Fortified Wines Wines whose natural strength is augmented with Added alcohol, either during the fermentation to Preserve the natural sweetness ( as in port ) Or after they have fermented to dryness as a preservative ( as in sherry ).

Since the role of these wines is largely determined By their sweetness, which is at their maker’s discretion, all that can usefully be said is that dry versions ( whether of port, sherry, Madeira or their equivalents are intended as aperitifs, while sweet ones are used either before or after meals According to local taste and custom. The French, for example, prefer sweet aperitifs The Italian bitter ones, and the British who divide everything along class lines, some sweet and some dry. In all cases, small glasses are needed, because the alcohol strength is higher than that of table wine. Dry Sherry is always drunk with Tapas in Spain.It is one of the best wines for smoked eel and cuts the silky sweetness of fine Iberian ham. Old Oloroso sherry, whether dry or with added sweetness, is very good with cakes, nuts and raisins. Port, both vintage and tawny, is often drunk with Cheese. Madeira has a cake especially designed for it. Examples are: Other wines in this category include Spanish Malaga And Tarragona, Sicilian Marsala, Cypriot Commandaria French vins doux naturels and a host of wines, usually with borrowed names in the New World.

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6. The Ten Basic Styles, White
 Dry white wines of neutral, simple winey flavor

Among the cheapest wines, generally useful but too Plain to be exciting, or to be particularly pleasant as aperitifs without the addition of extra flavor (such as black currant or grenadine syrup) These wines are better with simple food, especially with strong-flavoured or highly Seasoned dishes as hors d’oeuvres, antipasto,fish stew, mussels, herrings & mackerel, salad Nicoise, red mullet, grilled sardines, terrines and sausages, curries & Chinese foods ( both of These are better with a little sweetness in the wine, like Australian Chardonnay or a Pinot Gris from Alsace. All should be served very well chilled at :About 8º C. Examples are: Most branded ―jug‖ whites: Entre-Deux-Mers,Gaillac, Muscadet Swiss whites such as: Fendant Italian whites such as :Soave, Verdicchio, Orvieto Secco, Frascati, Pinot Bianco & Pinot Grigio Most Spanish & Portuguese whites, European Welschrieslings, many Chenin Blancs and South African Sauvignon Blanc  Light, fresh, grapey white wine with fruity and Sometimes flowery aromas This is a category that has grown most in recent years at the expense of the dry whites. Modern techniques, especially cold fermentation, capture whatever flavour the grape has and add As little as possible. The very aromatic German-style grapes are nearly always in this or the sweet white wine category. All these wines make excellent aperitifs or refreshing betweenMeal or evening drinks, most of all in summer. Those with relatively high acidity are also good with many first courses, but are dominated by seriously savory dishes and lack the substance to be satisfying throughout the meal. Suitable Dishes to accompany them include: Poached trout, crab salad, cold chicken; they need slightly less chilling than the previous category. Examples are: German Qualitaetswein, Most Kabinetts and some Spaetlese Light French SauvignonFrom Bergerac and Touraine, Savoie whites ( Crepy, Apremont ) Portuguese Vinho Verde and Spanish Albarino.Certain California Chenin Blancs, Australian Rieslings, some New Zealand Sauvignons and English Mueller Thurgaus & Seyal Blancs and simpler Austrian Gruener Veltiners

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com  White wines with body & character, aromatic from certain grapes or with the bouquet or maturity Fine French dry whites all come into this category high flavor often makes them taste rich even when fully dry. Without food, these wines can be to assertive, they are best matched with a savory dish which is also rich in flavor and pale in colour, e.g. oysters, clam,lobsters and prawns, smoked fish, frog legs, snail, onion or leek tart, ballotines, prosciutto, salmon Turbot and other rich fish in butter, sauce Hollandaise or ―monte‖ butter-cream sauces; as Well scallops, poultry, sweetbreads and hard Swiss or German cheeses. Wines only should be lightly chilled ( 10º C – 13º C ). Examples are All good mature Chardonnays (e.g. white burgundies after two or more years, depending or their quality ). Their equivalents from California & Australia, Alsace Riesling, Gewuerztraminer & Pinot Gris, Sancerre and Pouilly Fume & Savennieres from the Loire. Exceptional Italian wines ( the best of Frascati, Soave Classico Verdicchio, Cortese di Gavi, Mature Rioja, Manzanilla sherry from Spain, Rulaender from Baden, Australian Semillons & dry Barossa & Coonawarra Rieslings with 3-4 years in bottle. 

Sweet white wines Varying from delicately fruity and lightly sweet to Overwhelmingly luscious, these wines are to be Sipped slowly by themselves and are rarely improved by food. Very rich and highly flavoured desserts, however Delicious, tend to fight sweet wines . Chocolate and coffee ones are fatal. The best choice is a French apple tart or raspherry tart / cake, crème Brulee, fruity sponge cakes and simple desserts which are not to heavy. Sweet wines are usually drunk after meals, but in France often as aperitifs, too. They should be served at 4º C - 6º C

Examples are The finest natural sweet wines are produced by the Action of ― noble rot‖. Sauternes and Barsac. As well the Beerenauslesen & Trockenbeerenauslesen From Germany. Tokaji Aszu best with Foie Gras, Sweet Muscats like those light ones from Asti in Northern Italy. Heavier Muscats are made in Languedoc and Roussillon, France and Sicily, east coast of Spain, at Setubal in Portugal, in Greece and Russia and best of all in northeast Victoria, Australia.

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Rose Wines Roses are usually workhorse, compromise wines of adequate quality, made by fermenting the juice of red grapes, very briefly with the skins, then separating it and making it like white wine. The great exception is pink Champagne, which, although generally made in the same way as still rose ( before undergoing a second fermentation in the bottle, is very highly sought-after. Few things are more delicious. Roses are best in summer with salads and on picnics, and the Provencal style with oily and garlicky or even oriental dishes . They have possibilities with such antipasti like artichokes, crudities, salami or taramasalata. Pink wines need to be served really cold, colder than most whites. If this is difficult to arrange, choose a light Red wine instead.

Examples are: Roses divide broadly into two camps: the light, Purply-pink, usually faintly sweet Loire style, and the drier more orange-pink, stronger, and more sun-burnt Provencal variety. Portuguese carbonated fizzy roses and Californian ―blush‖ wines fit into the first category. Tavel from the Rhone most roses from Spain and Italy are stronger and drier. A third group are Vins gris, red-grape white wines merely shaded with color, more grey than pink; and a fourth, pelure d’oignon ( onion skin ), which are very pale orange –brown. Both are made usually very dry, the gris more fruity, the onion skin more alcoholic  Dry white wines of neutral, simple winey flavor Among the cheapest wines, generally useful but too plain to be exciting, or to be particularly Pleasant as aperitifs without the addition of extra flavor (such as black currant or grenadine syrup) These wines are better with simple food, Especially with strong-flavoured or highly Seasoned dishes as hors d’oeuvres, antipasto, Fish stew, mussels, herrings & mackerel, salad Nicoise, red mullet, grilled sardines, terrines and Sausages Examples are: Most branded ―jug‖ whites: Entre-Deux-Mers, Gaillac, Muscadet Swiss whites such as: Fendant Italian whites such as : Soave, Verdicchio, Orvieto Secco, Frascati, Pinot Bianco & Pinot Grigio Most Spanish & Portuguese whites European Welschrieslings Many Chenin Blancs and South African Sauvignon Blanc

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7. Wine Glossary
ACID: One of the four taste sensations (along with salty, sweet, and bitter). Sometimes described as tart or sour, and found primarily on the sides of the tongue .gives live and freshness AFTERTASTE: The taste that lingers in the mouth after a wine is swallowed. Both the character (is it pleasant?) and the length of the aftertaste are considered. In general, the more powerful and the longer the aftertaste, the better the wine’s quality. ―Finish‖ is another term for aftertaste. ALCOHOL: gives wine its characteristic ―weight‖ APPELLATION CONTROLEE: Controlled appellation or place-name regulations for French wine regions. Abbreviated AOC See DOC for the Italian equivalent, and DO for the Spanish equivalent. AROMA: The smell of wine coming from the grapes themselves, and from the fermentation process (as opposed to bouquet, which develops from bottle aging). ASTRINGENT: Many red wines and some whites have a rough, harsh, puckery feel in the mouth (more tactile sensation than flavor), usually from tannin. AUSLESE (OUSE-lay-zeh): A sweet German or Austrian wine made from late-picked grapes. AUSTERE: Describes wines whose flavor is muted by tannins & high acidity; often a characteristic of young wines, whose flavor softens & develops with bottle age. AVA: Abbreviation for American Viticulture Area; legally designated wine regions in the US (e.g., Napa Valley, North Fork of Long Island) are called AVAs. BACKWARD: not ready to drink, need more bottle-age to mellow, black current and the smell and taste usually associated with cabernet sauvignon BALANCE: Harmony of a wine’s major components—fruit, acid, tannin, alcohol and, where applicable, sweetness—with no one part dominating or overwhelming the flavor profile. BIG: Describes a wine with rich, full flavors and aromas and/or full body. BLANC DE BLANCS: A white wine made from white grapes. A style of Champagne made from 100 percent Chardonnay. BLANC DE NOIRS: A white wine made from red grapes. BLACK CURRENT the smell and taste usually associated with cabernet sauvignon BODY: The tactile sensation of weight or fullness on the palate. The concentration of fruit, alcohol, tannin, and sugar all contribute to a wine’s body. BOTRYTIS CINEREA (Bow-TRY-tiss Sin-uh-RAY-uh): A mold known also as noble rot that forms on grapes, causing them to shrivel and become concentrated, and thus ideally suited for the production of sweet dessert wines such as French Sauternes (among others). BOUQUET: Technically, that part of a wine’s smells that develops after it is bottled. Since bouquet comes mostly with years of bottle aging, the term aroma is almost always more appropriate when discussing a wine’s smell. BRIGHT/BRILLIANT: The appearance of very clear wines, with absolutely no visible suspended particles. May be the result of heavy filtration, which also can remove flavor and aromatic components. BRIX (Bricks): A scale used by American winemakers, which measures the sugar level of grapes at harvest and/or of unfermented grape juice. BRUNELLO DI MONTALCINO (Broo-NELL-oh dee Mon-tahl-CHEE-no): A high-quality DOCG Italian red wine from the Tuscany region. BRUT (Broot): The driest style of Champagne or sparkling wine.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com BULK PROCESS: A speedy, large-volume method of making sparkling wines through a second fermentation-taking place in large tanks. Two by-products result: carbon dioxide gas (which gives the bubbles), and yeast sediment, which is filtered out before bottling. Using this bulk process is less expensive than the Methode Champenoise used for true French Champagnes and the highest quality sparkling wines. BUTTER a smell and taste often associated with rich, oaked chardonnay. CABERNET FRANC (Cah-burr-NAY FRAHNK): A red grape variety indigenous to France’s Bordeaux region. CABERNET SAUVIGNON (Cah-burr-NAY Sow-vee-NYOHN): The most famous red grape of France’s Bordeaux region, which also yields many of the great wines of California. CEDARY Cedar wood smell found in wines aged in new French oak CHABLIS (Shah-BLEE): The northernmost district of France’s Burgundy region; a wine made from Chardonnay grapes grown anywhere in the Chablis district. CHAPTALIZATION (Shahp-tuhl-eye-ZAY-shun): Addition of sugar to the grape juice before fermentation, to raise its post-fermentation alcohol content CHARDONNAY (Shahr-duh-NAY): The world’s most important and expensive white grape, now grown all over the world; famous as the exclusive component in all great French white burgundy wines. CHARMAT (Shar-MAHT): Another name for the bulk process of sparkling winemaking. CHATEAU (Shah-TOE): The French legal definition is a house attached to a vineyard having a specific number of acres, with winemaking and storage facilities on the property; most commonly used in Bordeaux. CHATEAUNEUF-DU-PAPE (Shah-toh-NUFF-dew-POP): A region in France’s southern Rhone Valley, and the red or white wine produced there. CHENIN BLANC (SHEN-in BLANC): A white grape indigenous to France’s Loire Valley, and also grown notably in the US and South Africa, where it is the most widely planted grape. CHEWY: A term used by some tasters to describe very full-bodied, tannic wines because, figuratively, one could not swallow them without chewing first. CHIANTI (Key-AHN-tee): An Italian red wine made in the Chianti region of Tuscany based primarily on the Sangiovese grape. CITRUSY: A wine with aroma and flavor elements reminiscent of citrus fruits. CLOSED referring to the bouquet, it means muted but promising, can also be in describing flavour CLOYING: Excessive sweetness in wine, to the point that it dominates the flavor and aftertaste, and lacks the balance provided by acid, alcohol, or fruit concentration. COARSE: used to describe texture, tannin in particular. COLD STABILIZATION: A clarification technique involving lowering the temperature to 32 degrees F for an extended period. The cold encourages the tartrates and other solids to precipitate, clarifying the wine. COMPLEX: A wine harmoniously combining multiple aromas and flavors is considered complex (as in cooking, with certain dishes and, especially, sauces). An attribute of the highest quality wines. COTES DU RHONE (Coat dew ROAN): The southern Rhone Valley region of France; also the regional wine from this district. CREAM: A style of Spanish sherry ranging from moderately to very sweet, usually enjoyed as an aperitif or with (or after) dessert.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com CRU (Crew): Literally translates as ―growth;‖ in practice, it refers to a specific vineyard plot or area. CRU BEAUJOLAIS (Crew Bow-zhow-LAY): The top grade of Beaujolais wine, coming from any one of ten designated cru villages in the Beaujolais region of CRUSH: A term used in the US for the harvest season or vintage. The act of crushing ripe grapes to begin the winemaking process. FLAT: Term describing a dullness or lack of flavor in wine, possibly due to low acid or use of poor-quality grapes. FLORAL: Having aromas reminiscent of flowers. A common descriptor for Riesling, Muscat, and Gewurztraminer. FORTIFIED: A wine whose alcohol content has been increased by the addition of brandy or neutral spirits (e.g., sherry, port). FREE-RUN JUICE: juice that flows from the crushed grapes before they are pressed. FRUITY: A wine marked by the distinctive aroma and taste of fruit, though not sweetness, with which it is often mistaken or confused. A wine can be both fruity and dry (having no sweetness or sugar). GAMAY (Gah-MAY): A red grape used to make Beaujolais wine. GENERIC WINE: Any wine named for a general category or type, as opposed to both varietal wines (named for a specific grape variety), and to proprietary name wines (given a brand name, e.g., Blue Nun). GEWURZTRAMINER (Guh-VERTZ-trah-mee-ner): A white grape grown in Alsace, Germany, and the US known for a ―spicy‖ quality (―gewurz‖ is German for spice). GRAND CRU (Grahn CREW): The highest quality classification for French Burgundy and Alsace wines. GRAN RESERVA (Grahn Reh-SAIR-vah): A Spanish wine that has had extra aging. GRAPEFRUITY: Characterized by grapefruit aromas or flavors; often associated with white wines from cooler areas and, particularly, the Sauvignon Blanc grape grown in some regions. GRASSY: Marked by an aroma of fresh-cut grasses; a fresh, distinctive, characteristic flavor of, especially, some Sauvignon Blancs. GRAVES (Grahv): A basic dry wine from the Graves sub-region of Bordeaux, France. HERMITAGE (Air-mee-TAHZH): A (usually) red wine made from the northern Rhone Valley region of France, based on Syrah. A tiny quantity of Hermitage Blanc (white Hermitage) is also made. HARD: A characteristic of firmness or harshness on the palate, usually from high acid or tannin. HARSH: Astringent, acidic or high-alcohol wines may be perceived as harsh on the palate. Some wines that are harsh when young lose this characteristic (and improve) with bottle age. HERBACEOUS: Having aromas or flavors reminiscent of herbs or other green vegetation. HOT: Wines high in alcohol which give a burning or prickling sensation may be described as hot. JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA (Hair-ETH deh la Fron-TEHR-ah): One of the towns in Andalusia, southern Spain, where sherry wine is made. KABINETT (Cah-bee-NETT): A German or Austrian wine made from grapes harvested at a modest ripeness level to produce a light, slightly sweet wine. LATE HARVEST: On wine labels, an indication that the grapes used was picked later, and at higher sugar levels, than for the normal harvest. As such, some of the grape sugar may not be fermented, resulting in a sweet wine. LEES: The sediment of yeasts, skins, and other grape solids left after fermentation. LEMONY: Often a flavor and aroma characteristic of high-acid white wines.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com LUSH: Wines with a rich, viscous tactile impression due to high alcohol or high sugar may be called lush. MACON, MACON-VILLAGES (Mah-CAWN Vee-LAHZH): A Chardonnay-based wine from the Maconnais region of Burgundy, France. Macon-Villages, the highest quality, can come only from certain designated villages. MADERIZED: A term describing wines that have lost their freshness and color brilliance, typically due to exposure to air (oxidation) and excessive heat MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION: A natural, secondary fermentation occurring in nearly all quality red wines and some whites, which converts sharper-tasting malice acid into softer lactic acid, reducing the wine’s total acidity. Malolactic fermentation is said to add aromatic and flavor complexity (a ―buttery‖ quality) as well as tactile softness. MARGAUX (Mahr-GO): A village in the Bordeaux region of France MEDOC (May-DOCK): A village in the Bordeaux region of France. MERLOT (Mehr-LOW): A very popular red grape indigenous to Bordeaux / France MEURSAULT (Muhr-SOW): A red (Pinot Noir grapes) or white (Chardonnay grapes) wine from the village of Meursault in Burgundy’s Cote d’Or. METHODE CHAMPENOISE (May-TUD Shahm-pen-WAHZ): The labor-intensive method for producing true French Champagnes and the highest-quality sparkling wines. The second fermentation that gives wine its bubbles takes place in each individual bottle. MOSEL-SAAR-RUWER (MOW-z’l sahr ROO-vehr): A German wine region famous for light-style Riesling wines. MOUTH FILLING: A wine with intense flavor and full body may be described as mouth filling. MUSCADET (Moos-cah-DAY): A light, dry wine from France’s Loire Valley made from the melon grape. MUST: The unfermented juice of grapes. MUSTY: A dank, moldy smell. NEBBIOLO (Neh-bee-OH-loh): The red grape used to make Italy’s most famous Piedmontese wines (Barolo and Barbaresco). NOSE: The olfactory sensation of a wine is its nose. This includes both the aroma (grape and fermentation smells), and the bouquet (smells coming from bottle age). NOUVEAU (Noo-VOE): The ―new‖ wine of the vintage—a style of light, fruity wine released within weeks after harvest. Beaujolais Nouveau is this early release from France’s Beaujolais region, and Nouveau-style wines are widely produced in other parts of France and the US. The Italian version is named Novello, also meaning ―new.‖ NV: Abbreviation for non-vintage. In the case of French Champagne, the signature, dry style of each Champagne house, made from a blend of vintage OAKY: Having the aroma or taste elements coming from exposure of the wine to oak, often through fermentation or aging in oak barrels. Both vanillin, a component of the oak itself, and toastiness, from charring the wood during barrel production, are common characteristics of oaky wines OXIDIZED: A wine with reduced freshness, aroma, and flavor due to excessive exposure to air. Oxidation may also cause browning of the color (much the way apples and other fruits brown when exposed to air). PAUILLAC (PAW-yak): A district in the Bordeaux region of France. PEPPERY smell of ground black pepper, especially in port and rhone wines PETILLANT - lightly sparkling PHYLLOXERA (Fill-OCK-seh-rah): A louse that attacks grape vine roots, eventually killing the vines.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com PINOT BLANC (PEE-noh BLAHN): A white grape grown primarily in the Alsace region of France, and widely in Italy (Pinot Bianco). PINOT GRIS (PEE-noh GREE): A white grape grown in France, the US, and widely Italy (as Pinot Grigio). PINOT MEUNIER (PEE-noh Muhn-YAY): A red grape, the most widely-planted in France’s Champagne region. PINOT NOIR (PEE-noh NWAHR): A fragile red grape that is difficult to grow; nearly all French red burgundy wines are made from 100 percent Pinot Noir. POUILLY-FUISSE (Poo-YEE fwee-SAY): The highest quality white Maconnais wine from Burgundy, France, made from the Chardonnay grape. POUILLY-FUME (Poo-YEE foo-MAY): A dry white wine made from Sauvignon Blanc, from the Loire Valley region of France. PREMIER CRU (PRUM-yay CREW): French Burgundy wines, made from specifically designated vineyards, of high quality. PROPRIETARY WINE: A wine that’s given a brand name like any other product and marketed as such (e.g., Mouton-Cadet, Opus One). RAISINY: Rich, concentrated, dried-grape taste and aroma, often due to the actual use of raisinated grapes to make the wine. RAW harsh impressions from alcohol, acid and tannin in immature wine rustic - coarse; a result of primitive or careless winemaking RICH describes flavour and texture RIPE a sweetness of flavour in wines made from very ripe grapes RESERVE: A term sometimes found on American wine labels. Although it has no legal significance, it usually means a better quality wine. RESIDUAL SUGAR: The percentage (by volume or weight) of unfermented grape sugar in a finished wine, which indicates its sweetness level. RHEINGAU (RINE-gow): A top-quality German wine region known for Riesling RHEINHESSEN (RINE-hessen): A large German wine region known for wines such as Blue Nun. RHEINPFALZ (RINE-faults): A German wine region recently re-named Pfalz RICH: A descriptor used to describe intensity in wine; may apply to concentrated flavor, high alcohol, sweetness, full body, or a combination of these. RIESLING (REES-ling): A white grape grown primarily in Germany, Alsace, France, and the US. RIOJA (Ree-OH-hah): A quality wine region in Spain. ROUND: A tactile sensation of richness and/or softness in some wines. SANCERRE (Sahn-SEHR): A dry white wine from France’s Loire Valley region, made from Sauvignon Blanc. SANGIOVESE (Sahn-joe-VEH-zeh): A red grape grown primarily in Tuscany, Italy. SAUTERNES (Soh-TAIRN): A sweet white wine from the Bordeaux region of France made from Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, and Muscadelle. SAUVIGNON BLANC (Soh-veen-yown BLAHN): A white grape grown primarily in the Loire Valley, the Graves and Sauternes regions of France, and in the US (where it is sometimes called Fume Blanc). SEKT (Sekt): The German term for sparkling wine. SEMILLON (Seh-mee-YOWN): A white grape grown primarily in the Graves and Sauternes regions of France and Australia. SHORT lacking in persistence of flavour on the finis

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com SMOKY the smell and/or taste to the wine SOFT: Describes wines without excessive acidity or tannin, which are, therefore, gentle on the palate. SOMMELIER (Soh-mel-YAY): The French term for cellar master or wine steward. SOUR: Wine that is so high in acid that it is out of balance. SPATLESE (SHPAET-lay-zeh): A white German wine made from grapes picked later than the normal harvest. STEWED like tea brewed too long: dull; vegetal smell; coarse; astringent SPUMANTE (Spoo-MAHN-tay): The Italian term for sparkling wine. SPRITZY: Wine with a light degree of carbonation or effervescence is described as spritzy. STRUCTURE: The tactile framework of a wine, created by the interplay of its major components: alcohol, acid, tannin, and fruit. Ranges from soft and delicate to firm. SULFUR: A natural by-product of fermentation, and a substance used in winemaking as a preservative, an antioxidant, and a sterilizing associate. SUPPLE soft and gentle, without being flabby SWEET: One of the four basic tastes perceived by the tongue, whereas other specific flavor components are perceived by the olfactory senses. SYRAH (See-RAH): A red grape grown primarily in the Rhone Valley region of France. TANNIN: A natural compound coming from the skins, seeds, and stems of grapes; also from wood casks used for aging. Perceived as a dry or puckery sensation on the palate. TART: The sharp, sour taste of acidity in wine. THIN: Describes a wine lacking body or flavor depth. TIGHT: Wines with a hard, tannic tactile impression may be described as tight. TIRED lacking freshness and zest. TRANSFER PROCESS: A modern, bulk process of making sparkling wines. TREBBIANO (Treh-bee-YAH-no): A neutral-flavored white grape grown widely in Italy and elsewhere. TROCKEN (Trah-ken): German for a dry wine. TUSCANY (TUSS-cah-nee): A high quality wine region of Italy. VANILLA the smell and taste most often associated with wines that have been aged in new oak barrels VARIETAL: A wine named for the predominant grape variety used to make it (e.g., Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon). VIN DE PAYS (Van duh Pay-EE): A French classification of wine less strict than AOC; increasingly widely used for varietal wines from the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France. VINTAGE DATE: An indication on a wine label of the year the grapes used to produce it was harvested. VITIS LABRUSCA (VI-tiss Lah-BROO-scah): A Native American grape species. VITIS VINIFERA (VI-tiss Vin-IF-er-ah): A European grape species encompassing most high quality wine grapes. VIOGNIER (Vee-own-YAY): A white grape from the Rhone Valley region of France. WOODY: Having the aroma or taste elements of wood casks used to ferment or age the wine. ZINFANDEL (ZINN-fun-dell): A red grape grown in California, often vinified into blush wine.

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8. Wine Tasting
  The secret of getting maximum pleasure out of wine is to remember that we smell tastes: It is our noses and the nerves high in the brain Behind the nasal cavity that distinguish nuances Of flavour – not our tongues, lips or palates. The mouth detects what is sweet, sour, salty, Bitter, burning, oily or astringent. But the colour and character of a flavour lie in its volatile compounds, which need the nose to apprehend them. Thus the procedure for tasting wine pivots around the moment of inhalation; The first sniff is crucial, since the sense of smell Rapidly wearies.

  

A wine tasting to be arranged and the necessary guidance provided. An ideal tasting glass is about 6 in ( 152 mm ) High and would hold 7 fl oz. ( 215 ml ). For tasting purposes it is usually filled only to about 1/5 of the capacity. The tall funnel shape is designed to capture aroma or bouquet, for the taster’s nose. See  The look of a wine can tell a lot. Assuming it isn’t cloudy (if it is, sent it back ), it will reveal its age and hint at the grape and origin.  Tilt the glass away from you over a piece of white paper Careful look at the precise colour, clarity and visual texture of the wine  Do this over a piece of white paper and look at the rim of the liquid. The more watery and brown it is, the older the wine Swirl  Vigorously swirl the wine around the glass for a Moment to release any reluctant smells.  Then continue to swirl the wine to volatize its aroma while you concentrate.  The glass should only filled about a fifth of its capacity It needs a long enough stem to keep the hand away from the bowl. Professional tasters often hold the glass by its foot. The thinner the glass, within reason, the better. Wine is tasted vividly from thin glass. Sniff  You sniff a wine before tasting it for the same reason you sniff a carton of milk before pouring its content into coffee.  The smell can tell you more about a wine than anything else.  When sniffing try to exclude all other thoughts and sniff.. First impressions are crucial and should trigger recognition.  When sniffing, take one long sniff or a few brief ones. Concentrate on whether the wine seems fresh and clean.  What are your first impressions, if the wine is fruity, which fruit does it remind you of. Is it spicy, herbaceous, sweet, dry, rich or lean?

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Vertical & Horizontal Tastings of the same wine from different Vintages are known as “ vertical”. Those of different wines of the same type in a single vintage are known As ―horizontal”. Sip
   


Take a generous sip, a third of a mouthful, suck air between your teeth and through the liquid and ―Chew‖ it so it reaches all parts of your mouth. Hold the wine in your mouth for a little longer to release as much flavour as possible Focus on the flavour, same impressions as before, is there just one flavour, or do several contribute to a ―complex‖ overall effect? Now concentrate on the texture of the wine, some like Chardonnay are mouth-coatingly buttery, while others – like Gewuerztraminer are almost oily. Muscadet is a good example with a texture that is closer to water. The final judgment comes when the volatile compounds rise into the upper nasal cavity. Spit


The only reason to spit a wine out – unless it is actively repellent – is to remain upright at the end of a lengthy tasting.  On the other hand, if what you want is the taste, swallowing is an indulgence; you should have 90 % of the flavour while the wine was in your mouth. Some tasters swallow a few drops to exercise the texture as the wine passes down the throat. Pause for a moment after spitting, is the flavour still there ? Remember: The ideal conditions for a testing are rather unattractively Clinical; a clean, well lit place without the suggestive power of Atmosphere, without the smell of wine barrels or distraction of friendly chatter – And above all without the chunks of cheese, ham, salami or bread

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9. Temperature

For Serving Wine

Domestic fridge temperature
Sweet Whites           Gros Plant, Muscats, Retsina 4 - 6º C Light Muscats 4 - 7º C Aligote 4.5 - 6.5º C Sparkling Wine, Sekt, Cava etc. 4.5 - 7.5º C Tokaji 5 - 6º C Eiswein, Vinho Verde 5 - 7º C Sauternes 5 - 7.5º C Sweet Loire Chenin Blancs 5 - 8º C Gewuerztraminer 5.5 - 8º C Muscadet, Frascati, Orvieto, Sancerre Pouilly, Sylvaner 6 - 8º C

Dry Whites    Johannisberg Riesling Non Vintage Champagne Fendant, Lambrusco, Barossa Riesling, South African Chenin Blanc, Yugoslav Riesling NZ Sauvignon Alsace Riesling Chardonnay, Vin Rose Chablis, Macon, Bordeaux Blanc Best Champagne, Fino Sherry German and Austrian Wines Soave, Verdicchio Beaujolais Nouveau California Sauvignon Blanc Amontillado, Montilla, Vin Jaune Hungarian & best German Whites Liqueur Muscats Best White Burgundies & Graves Best Sweet German Wines, Cream Sherry, Old Hunter Valley Whites Top Californian/Australian Chardonnays 6 - 9º C 6.2 - 8.8º C 7 - 9º C

  

7 - 9º C 7 - 9.5º C 7 - 10º C 8 - 10º C

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8 - 10º C 9 - 11º C 9 - 11º C 10 - 12º C

12 - 14º C

10 - 13º C

Light Reds      Chinon, Tawny Port, Dole Valpolicella, Valdepenas Cotes Du Rhone ( Red ), Barbera Midi Reds Corbieres, etc, Madeira Fiasco Chianti, Sicilian Reds ―Bull’s‖ Blood, Light Zinfandels 10 - 12º C 12 - 14º C 12 - 14º C 12 - 14º C 12 - 14º C

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Full Scale Reds      Red Bordeaux, Cahors, Madiran 14 - 16º C Californian/Australian/Oregon 14 - 18º C Pinot Noir Red Burgundy, Top Red Rhone 14.5 - 17º C Bandol 15 - 17º C Vintage Port, Fine Red Bordeaux 16 - 18º C Best California Cabernets & Zinfandel Top Australian Cabernet/Shiraz

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10. Wine And Alcohol Contend
                          German Kabinett French vin de table German Beerenauslese German Qualitaetswein German Auslese Beaujolais Bordeaux Cru Classe Red Bordeaux Chablis Premier Cru Beaune Alsace Riesling California Chardonnay Muscadet Montrachet Chianti California Zinfandel Chambertin Rioja Reserva Chateauneuf – du Pape Australian Shiraz Barolo Sauternes Chateau d’Yquem Fino Sherry Oloroso Sherry Vintage Port 8.0 – 9.0 9.0 – 12.0 9.0 – 14.0 10.0 – 12.0 10.0 – 10.5 10.0 – 13.5 10.5 – 13.0 11.0 – 12.0 11.0 – 13.0 11.0 – 13.5 11.5 – 13.5 11.5 – 14.5 12.0 12.0 – 13.5 12.0 – 13.0 12.5 – 16.0 12.5 – 13.0 12.5 – 13.0 12.5 – 12.5 12.5 – 14.5 13.0 – 14.0 13.0 – 15.0 13.5 – 15.0 15.0 – 16.0 18.0 – 20. 19.0 – 20.0

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11. Wine And Decanting
There is much debate about whether and when to decant wine; whether “breathing” is a good thing or not. Vigorous young vintages ( at 10 years, a poor 4-5 years ) Like Red Bordeaux, Cabernets, Red Rhones, Barolo and Barbaresco., Heavy Zinfandels, Australian Shiraz, Portuguese Reds and other similar tannic wines, decant at Least on hour before drinking and experiment with Periods of up to 6 hours. ―Young‖ red burgundy, Pinot Noirs and Spanish wines decant just before serving

1. Wine for decanting needs to be held in apposition near to horizontal as possible. The purpose of a wine basket is to hold a bottle in This position, while it is being opened prior to Decanting it. It should never be used for pouring Wine at the table 2. The corkscrew being used mostly is the Screw pull, which draws the cork up into itself With almost infallible ease. The worm is TeflonCoated, which means the cork can be drawn in a Single, screwing action. 3. Now pour the wine into the decanter in one Continuous movement, holding the bottleneck Over candle light, so that you can watch the Sediment . As soon as it approaches the neck, Stop pouring. 4. A special silver funnel has been devised which Has a perforated strainer in the base and a spout Curved sideways to prevent the wine from Splashing down the neck of the decanter

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12. Wine And Health
Better Red Than Dead? ―Wine is fit for man in a wonderful way, provided that it is taken with good sense by the sick as well as the healthy”. Hippocrates Savoir Vivre Around 2200 BC, a Sumerian clay tablet recommended wines for various ailments. In 1890, an Irish physician attributed the well-being of the French to red wine. A century later CBS television’s 60 miinutes “French Paradox‖ programme revealed that the Gallic wine drinkers were healthier than the Anglo-Saxons eetotalers. And , in 2003 the US government ban on references to the possible health benefits of wine on labels was finally lifted. Bottles of wine sold in America still have to carry strong health warnings – unlike bullets. White Wine And Lungs In early 2002, a survey of 1,555 New Yorkers by Dr. Holger Schunemann of the University of Buffalo uncovered an apparent link between the consumption of white wine and better lug functions. Antioxidants in the wine appear to prevent the creation of free radicals, harmful molecules that damage lung tissues. If further research supports these findings, white wine sales may get the boost red wine enjoyed when it was announced that it was good for the heart. Red Wine And Healthy Blood Numerous credible reasons have been given for the link between wine and health, including the simple fact that alcohol relieves stress that might otherwise cause disease. ( this would explain why moderate consumption of other alcoholic drinks also appears to be beneficial) However, a conference at the University Victor Segalen in Bordeaux in 2001 raised the possibility that the 200 phenolic compounds in red wine may be effective against a number of ailments, ranging from heart disease to cancer and Aids. Many of these compounds come from the skins and seeds that are used in making red wine, but discarded when producing white wine. White wine has a tenth as many as red Red Wine And Heart Disease According to the Universite’ de Borgogne researchers, people who daily drink up to four glasses of red wine have higher levels of HDL ( high density lipoproteins ) ―good‖ cholesterol that escorts ―bad‖ cholesterol away from the artery walls. Prof. Ludovic Drouet believes wine also acts against the furring of arteries because polyphenols aid cell profileration and hinder blood clotting. Heart attack victims are now advised to drink wine while convalescing. A report in the British Journal of Pharmacology additionally associated The relaxation of blood vessels and reduced blood pressure with red wine consumption. Resveratrol, anti-fungal compound found in high concentration in grape skins has been shown to improvethe lipid profile of volunteers drinking three glasses of red wine a day for two weeks. Resveratrol appears to be 20 times more powerful as an antioxidant than Vitamin E. Prof. Joseph Vercauteren of the University Victor Segalen in Bordeaux suggests that the phenolic compounds in red wine mop up damaging chemicals – free radicals – more effectively than Vitamin C and E because they are fat soluble. Wine and Aids Red wine may also be used to augment the treatment of Aids, according to Dr.Marvin Edeas of the Hospital Antoine Beclere in Clamart, who is studying the way the polyphenols rejuvenate blood. It may also be affective against diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia. Wine and Food Poisoning Wine of both colours counters both constipation and diarrhoea, while white wine in particular stimulates the urinanary functions. A 2002 Spanish study – published in Epidemiology – suggests wine may be effective against salmonella and possibly against hepatitis A, while according to an Oregon study it combats both salmonella and E. coli. It also kills cholera bacteria and combats typhoid and trichinella, the poisonous compound in ―bad‖ pork. One researcher Dr. Heinrich Kliewe, actually recommends that moderate amounts of wine can counteract some of the side effects of antibiotics

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Wine and Aging Marie Antoinette apparently used to wash her face in red wine to protect the skin against wrinkles, and a Bordeaux health spa ( at Chateaux Smith Haut Lafitte ) makes great use of extracts of grape seeds. Today , though most researchers are more concerned with the way antioxidants in red wine appear to inhibit the effects of degenerative oxidation, such a strokes. Wine may also offer protection against Alzheimer’s Disease; moderate wine drinkers in their 70’s and 80’s seem to be more alert. Wine and Viruses Apart from any beneficial effects of wine against the Aids virus, it may also combat other viruses. According research done in Canada, the polyphenols in tannic red wine are effective against such viruses as those that cause cold sores and may even act against genital Herpes 2. Wine and Pregnancy Despite the fears it arouses, the risks associated with drinking wine while expecting a baby are actually very low. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is rare outside the poorer inner cities of the US. In 1997 the UK Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists reported that up to 15 units of alcohol per week should do no harm to a foetus. Wine and Calories There is no difference in calories between a Muscadet and a red Bordeaux ( around 110 per glass ). More alcoholic wines such as California Zinfandels, Austrian Shirazes and some red Rhones, with strengths of 14 per cent will have more calories, while sweeter but less alcoholic German wines that weigh in at 9 per cent, have less than 80 calories. A Stanford University survey suggests the action of the wine on the metabolism somehow makes its calories less fattening. Wine and Strokes A 2003 Journal of the American Medical Association report described research at Tulane University linking moderate wine drinking ( 2-3 glasses daily) to an almost 30 per cent lower risk of stroke. Wine and Cancer Alcohol has been linked to rare occurrences of mouth and throat cancer – but only among smokers. In fact according to a British research team there are clear indications that red wine may act against cancer. The study found that a tumour cell enzyme called CYP1B1 transforms the resveratrol naturally found in red wine into piceatannol, which in turn destroys cancer cells. A separate study found that the amount of resveratrol in a glass of red wine killed human skin-cancer cells. Dr. Francis Raul of the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg believes that resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of human intestinal cancerous cells and the formation of tumours in mice predisposed to intestinal tumours. It is believed that action of wine on cancer cells may not be linked to its antioxidant properties, but to the way it acts on the basic process of cell division. Red wine is also rich in gallic acid, an acknowledged anti-carcinogenic. Wine’s role in reducing stress may help against certain forms of cancer. Hangovers All alcohol is hangover fare. The best way to avoid this fate is to drink plenty of water before going to bed. Vitamin B are useful on the morning after, as is toast with Marmite or Vegemite yeast paste. Otherwise go for refreshing orange juice mixed with mineral water. Wine and Allergies Red wine, like chocolate, can inhibit a useful little enzyme called phenosulphotransferase-P, or PST-P, which detoxifies bacteria in the gut. An absence of PST-P is linked to migraine, which is why some people complain of headaches after drinking a glass or two of wine. Other people have found that red wine is also associated with episodic skin allergies. Sufferers from wine related allergies may find that some of these conditions can come and go over time. Interestingly there also seem to be differences in the effects of particular styles of wine. Chianti, for example, is claimed to have lower amounts of histamines. So, while awaiting the results of further research into wine-related allergies, it may be worth sampling small doses of various kinds of wine.

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13. Method Champenoise
The traditional Methode Champenoise used in making Grandin Sparkling Wine is a process strictly controlled by French law. The words Methode Champenoise‖ Cannot be used on a bottle of French sparkling wine, Unless the stipulated procedure is followed: 1. The grapes are pressed and the juice must be used for fermentation to make still wine, this is traditionally a white wine without carbonation. 2. The still wine is bottled and to each bottle the ―dosage‖, a small amount of unfermented must and yeast is added. The bottle is corked and the dosage causes the wine to ferment again in the bottle. The bottles are stacked lying down for 8-12 months during the second fermentation. 3. A by-product of the fermentation is carbon dioxide Gas which cannot escape from the sealed bottle and goes into the solution with the wine. 4. Another by-product is sediment. It is removed by stacking the bottles upside down and turning them by a quarter every few days until the sediment reaches the cap, this turning process is called ―riddling‖. 5. The neck and cap are dipped into a solution, which freezes the sediment into a plug. The plug is ―discorged‖ and the bottle is topped off with a little finished sparkling wine and finally corked. This process is required by French law to take a minimum of 9 months; Grandin takes a total of 12 months Grandin started making Sparkling Wine with his Invented and approved Methode Champenoise in 1886. and is still made that way till today. Blind tastings were conducted by Arthur D. Little Company among 400 sparkling wine drinkers in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles. The results were impressive: Grandin was preferred over leading Spanish Methode Champenoise ( Freixenet & Cordoniu ) Importing wine category leaders. Grandin was preferred over Moet Chandon, the Importing Champagne category leader. Grandin was at parity with Korbel, a leading producer of U.S. Methode Champenoise Champagne production is the process used in the Champagne region of France to produce the sparkling wine known as Champagne. The traditional method is known as Méthode Champenoise. After primary fermentation and bottling, a second alcoholic fermentation occurs in the bottle. This second fermentation is induced by adding several grams of yeast (usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae although each brand has its own secret recipe) and several grams of rock sugar. According to the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée a minimum of 1.5 years is required to completely develop all the flavour. For years where the harvest is exceptional, a millesimé is declared. This means that the champagne will be very good and has to mature for at least 3 years. At this time the champagne bottle is capped with a crown cap. The bottle is then riddled, so that the lees settles in the neck of the wine bottle. The neck is then frozen, and the cap removed. The pressure in the bottle forces out the lees, and the bottle is quickly corked to maintain the carbon dioxide in solution.

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Grapes used for Champagne are generally picked earlier, when sugar levels are lower and acid levels higher. Except for pink or rosé Champagnes, the juice of harvested grapes is pressed off quickly, to keep the wine white. First fermentation The first fermentation begins in the same way as any wine, converting the natural sugar in the grapes into alcohol while the resultant carbon dioxide is allowed to escape. This produces the "base wine". This wine is not very pleasant by itself, being too acidic. At this point the blend, known as the cuvée is assembled, using wines from various vineyards, and, in the case of nonvintage Champagne, various years. Second fermentation The blended wine is put in bottles along with yeast and a small amount of sugar, called the liqueur de tirage, and stored in a wine cellar horizontally, for a second fermentation. During the secondary fermentation the carbon dioxide is trapped in the bottle, keeping it dissolved in the wine. The amount of added sugar will determine the pressure of the bottle. To reach the standard value of 6 bars inside the bottle, it is necessary to have 18 grams of sugar, and the amount of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is regulated by the European Commission (Regulation 1622/2000, 24 July 2000) to be 0.3 grams per bottle. The "liqueur de tirage" is then a mixture of sugar, yeast and still champagne wine. Aging on lees Wines from Champagne cannot legally be sold until it has aged on the lees in the bottle for at least 15 months. Champagne's AOC regulations require that vintage Champagnes are aged in cellars for three years or more before disgorgement, but most top producers exceed this minimum requirement, holding bottles on the lees for 6 to 8 years before disgorgement.


Bottles in a riddling rack After aging (a minimum from one and a half to three years), they undergo a process known as riddling (remuage in French), in which they are rotated a small amount each day and gradually moved to a neck-down orientation, so that the sediment ('lees') collects in their necks and can be removed.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com Disgorging Until this process was invented (reputedly by Madame Clicquot in 1800) Champagne was cloudy, a style still seen occasionally today under the label méthode ancestrale. Modern disgorgement is automated by freezing a small amount of the liquid in the neck and removing this plug of ice containing the lees. A cork is then inserted with a capsule and wire cage securing it in place.

The removal process is called "disgorging" (dégorgement in French), and was a skilled manual process, where the cork and the lees were rem oved without losing large quantities of the liquid, and a dosage (a varying amount of additional sugar) is added Bottle Aging
Even experts disagree about the effects of aging on Champagne after disgorgement. Some prefer the freshness and vitality of young, recently disgorged Champagne, and others prefer the baked apple and caramel flavors that develop from a year or more of bottle aging.

Vintage vs. Non-vintage
The majority of the Champagne produced is 'non-vintage' (also known as 'mixed vintage'), a blend of wines from several years. This means that no declared year will be displayed on the bottle label. Typically, however, the majority of the wine is from the current year but a percentage is made of "reserve wine" from previous years. This serves to smooth out some of the vintage variations caused by the marginal growing climate of Champagne, which is the most northerly winegrowing region in France. Most Champagne houses strive for a consistent "house style" from year to year (largely for reasons related to price-setting and successful marketing), and this is arguably one of the hardest tasks of the house winemaker. The grapes to produce vintage Champagne must be 100% from the year indicated (some other wines in the EU need only be 85% to be called vintage, depending on their type and appellation). To maintain the quality of non-vintage champagne a maximum of half the grapes harvested in one year can be used in the production of vintage Champagne ensuring at least 50%, though usually more, is reserved for non-vintage wines. Vintage Champagnes are the product of a single high-quality year, and bottles from prestigious makers can be rare and expensive. Sugar content Champagne's sugar content varies. The sweetest level is doux (meaning sweet), proceeding in order of increasing dryness to demi-sec (half-dry), sec (dry), extra sec (extra dry), brut (almost completely dry), and extra brut / brut nature / brut zero (no additional sugar, sometimes ferociously dry).

Wine faults
Several wine faults can occur in champagne production. Some that were prevent inearlychampagne production include yeux de crapauds (toads' eyes) which was a condition of big, gloppy bubbles that resulted from the wine spending too much time in wooden casks. Another fault could occur when the wine is exposed to bacteria or direct sunlight, leaving the champagne with murky coloring and a oily texture. [1]

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Mumm cellars in Reims

Champagne Capsules

There are various sizes of champagne bottles on the market and are used for different purposes and occasions:

Quarter-bottle (piccolo): from 0.187 L to 0.2 L In Clubs, usually as “Lady’s drink”


Half-bottle (demiboite): 0.375 L Sometimes for picnics, room service, boat trips etc


Standard bottle 0.75 L Regularly served worldwide for cocktail, celebration & dinner parties


Magnum: 1.5 L Available at bars at times


Jeroboam: 3 L Usually used only celebrations


Rehoboam: 4.5 L Usually used only for celebrations – for example, exhibitions, Ferrari races

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Methuselah: 6 L Salmanazar: 9 L Balthazar: 12 L Nebuchadnezzar: 15 L Melchior (also called Solomon): 18 L Sovereign: 25 L Primat: 27 L

14. Champagne By The Bottle

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         According to the champagne order the champagne glasses are placed on the table. The water goblet on the table is moved slightly to the left, to make place for the champagne glass. The champagne glass is then placed where the water goblet was placed in the original set up (above the large knife). In case of a guest having another drink, the champagne glass is placed to the right of the drink. The order of champagne is then picked up from the bar according to the K.O.T. Place the champagne in the wine bucket filled with half ice and a little water and a white napkin The wine bucket is brought into the restaurant with the unopened bottle of champagne in it and the wine bucket is to be fixed to the table. The bottle of champagne is taken out of the wine bucket, on to the folded white napkin and then the dripping water is wiped off. The bottle of champagne is presented to the host on the white napkin with the label of the champagne facing the guest. This is done from the guest’s left.

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While presenting the champagne to the host, the name of the champagne must be announced, e.g. ― this is your bottle of Dom Perignon, Mr. X Once approved by the host, the champagne is taken back to the wine bucket. The foil is removed from the bottle, put in the pocket of the server. The wire coil is unscrewed while the other hand is holding the bottle and the thumb is on top of the cork. When doing this, remember not to shake the bottle. Then the cork is taken out gently, without a sound. The cork is put in the wine bucket. The neck of the bottle is wiped with the white napkin and wrapped with the same. A little champagne is served to the host from the right hand side of the host, for tasting (the label of the champagne must be facing the host while serving). Upon approval, serve the ladies first, going clockwise round the table. All champagnes must be served from the right of the guest. Champagne must be poured half of the glass when serving (the bottle of champagne must not touch the rim of the glass while serving). When pouring champagne, towards the end, remember to twist the bottle slightly in order not to spill any droplets on the table. The remaining bottle of champagne must be placed in the wine bucket with the white napkin.

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        Whenever the wine glass is ¾ empty, the glass must be refilled with the approval of the guest, e.g. ―May I pour some more wine?‖ Once the bottle of wine is empty, it should be turned up side down in the wine bucket. Upon approval of the host, another bottle is to be opened and served. Waiters must have a thorough knowledge of Champagne. If the guest is not at the table, the champagne is not to be poured until the guest returns. When a bottle of champagne is replenished, it is to the host to taste with a new glass. In case the host changes the type of champagne, all champagne glasses must be changed for the new bottle of champagne. Note: The same procedure to be followed for sparkling wines.

Champagne is not served by the glass. In case of an order, the guest is informed and sparkling wine is served by the glass.

15. Fortified Wine

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There is one important difference between fortified difference between fortified wines and ordinary table wines. The former have all been strengthened with spirit. None of these types of wine could have existed before the discovery of distillation. In most cases, the creation of the classic fortified wines was a chance discovery made While trying to find ways of preserving ordinary wines. It wasn’t that same spark in Portugal once thought , ―Let’s add some brandy to our wines and see what they taste Like‖. The addition of spirit was intended to keep wines on the arduous sea voyages they had to undergo to their customers abroad. The days when chemistry of fermentation was not so well understood, wine was Often shipped micro-biologically unstable state. Its fermentation may have been interrupted by a sudden drop in the cellar temperature, as opposed to having run its Natural course. When such wines arrived at their destinations, it was found that they Had begun re-fermenting or, worse that they would re-ferment after being bottled. The yeasts that ferment in grape juice can only work as long as the amount of alcohol Generated doesn’t exceed a certain level, which is usually estimated to be in the range of 16 to 17% ABV. After that, they die off and the wine becomes stable. If you add a healthy dose of brandy or other spirit to wine that has apparently finished fermenting, you raise the level to such a degree that the yeasts are killed off. The normal strength of unfortified table wines is in the region of 11 to 13% ABV. But 15 % Is the starting point for fortified wines and the can be fortified to a maximum of 22% putting them not far off the strength of the average liqueur. Each of world’s classic fortified wines has its own particular method of production. The majority are made from white grapes, the most notable exception being port, most of which is red. The tend to be sweet, but don’t have to be: fino and manzanilla sherry are the driest Of the dry. Most of them contain only wine and grape spirit, but in the case of vermouth and relating products, a whole bunch of aromatizing ingredients ( familiar to us from some Of the herbal liqueurs ) creates a style that is halfway a fortified wine and a liqueur. Be the time of the 19th century has dawned, most of these wines were seen as premium Products. Vintage port and Madeira, in particular, were as highly acclaimed as claret and burgundy. Since that time a progressive decline has taken place, as international tastes in wine Have tended towards the dry and light end of the spectrum, and away from the sort of sinew-stiffening brew to be sipped by fireside on winter nights. Despite that there will always be a place for the traditional fortified wines. They are unique styles of wine.

16. Wine Service – White & Rose

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Mise en place: - Wine cooler on stand or on table with underliner & napkin - Service -Wine linen napkin - Paper napkin - B/B plate for cork - Screw pull with small knife        Bottle in wine cooler with ice, water and Service napkin is brought to the table Present the bottle, which rests on a napkin and on the left hand to the guest form the left side, in a way whereby he / she can read the label With the knife or foil cutter remove the cap with a clean cut. Clean the cork with a paper napkin Open the bottle with a screw pull, ( don’t drill through the cork completely, otherwise cork segments will drop down on the wine ) Clean the bottle neck with napkin Present the cork, the guest might have a look And brief sniff

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Fold the bottle now into the service napkin, Whereby the label should be visible From the right side, pour the host for tasting If the wine gets the guest’s approval, pour for the Rest of the diners, ladies always first and finally The host.

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White & rose wine glasses are filled to a 1/3, in order for the bouquet to develop fully. Now put the bottle back into the wine cooler And fold the napkin over the bottle neck

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17. Wine Service - Red
Mise en place: - Dessert plate w napkin - Service napkin ( linen ) - Paper napkin - B&B plate - Pull screw, foil cutter - Drop stop  Presentation and opening is handled the same way as with white and rose wine, with the difference that The red wine bottle is not folded in a service/wine napkin. Hold the bottle with the right hand, the wine napkin With the left hand to remove drops from the bottle neck. Or Set a napkin bow around the bottle neck, which will function as drop stop. Red wine glasses are filled up to a ¼ and balloon glasses only to cover the bottom to fully develop its bouquet. Set the bottle on the plate with napkin on the table Or on the side table ( gueridon )

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“ Chambrier “
   That means to bring wine bottles, which are taken from the cellar to room temperature. Soon enough one puts the bottle in a room which has the requested temperature. Especially aged red wines are treated this way. Very old red wines are taken already from the cellar a day .before

18. Wine Cellars – Construction & Storage

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1. Proper Construction Wall & Ceiling Framing: Wine cellar walls should be built using standard 2 x 4 or 2 x 6 construction Methods and ceiling joists. The general rule for a cellar is, that the thicker the walls and the better the insulation factor, the better the cellar remains at a consistent temperature. Vapor Barrier: A vapor barrier is required if a climate control cooling unit is installed to keep The cellar at the correct temperature. 6 mill. Plastic sheeting is applied to the hot side of the cellar walls. All walls and the ceiling must be wrapped in plastic for a complete vapour barrier. Insulation: Insulation is required on the walls and ceiling of the cellar. Standard ―Fiberglass‖ Or ―Rigid Foam‖ insulation is normally used in cellar construction. Blown-in Insulation or liquid foam that hardens, can also be used. It is very important that all walls and ceiling be insulated to keep the cellar temperature as consistent as possible during the various seasons. Wall & Ceiling Coverings: The interior wall and ceiling covering is determined by the decor theme of the cellar. Often drywall (green board) is applied and the painted ( always use latex paint ) to match a colour theme of the cellar. It is also very common to apply wood panelling material to the walls and/or ceiling of the cellar. This panelling is normally the same wood species as the racking material, that makes for a very uniform look throughout the cellar. Stone or granite may also be used as a wall of covering material. Cellar Doors: An exterior grad ( 1-3/4 ) door must be installed as a cellar door. It is important that weather stripping is attached to all four sides of the door jamb. A bottom ―sweep‖ or threshold is also needed. The door must have a very good seal to keep the cool cellar air from escaping out of the cellar. One of the most common problems with cooling units running continually is, due to not sealing the door properly. Solid core doors or doors with a full glass insert are most often used. Glass doors must have at least double pane, tempered glass. Climate Controlled Systems: All the room preparations described above are very important. One can follow all these instructions to the last detail, but if one not chooses the proper cooling equipment, the cellar will not maintain the proper temperature and humidity levels. Thus the valuable wine collection could be permanently harmed. A cellar must keep a temperature of about 53-58 degrees and humidity of about 50-70 percent. There are several types of cooling equipment. Important criteria are as follows: - size and layout of the cellar - the number of bottles to be stored - geographic region of the country - direction of the sun hitting exterior walls - glass doors or windows One should consult an expert who can specify the correct cooling system, because there is no simple way to size units yourself. 2. Temperature

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Wine is like a living, breathing organism. It interacts with its environment, Vulnerable to conditions over which it has no control. A seemingly inert bottle of wine undergoes hundreds of chemical reactions, desirable to oenophiles only if they occur under the right conditions. The same chemical reactions can very easily become a collector’s worst enemy. Temperature is the principle determining factor of how and to what degree these chemicals reactions take place, thus the importance of strict temperature control in a wine cellar. Customarily, a constant 55°F (13°C) is the ideal temperature at which to store the wine. Some sources claim that this value stems from the temperatures of the caves where wine was traditionally stored in France. Different experts assert that temperatures ranging from 50°F to 60°F are acceptable as long as the temperature remains constant. Frequent and rapid fluctuations in temperature can be detrimental to the proper aging of wine. For example, wine can be easily be ruined during transport; just one hour in a hot trunk can produce the same amount of chemical reactions that occur over weeks in a properly stored bottle. Storing wine at the ideal temperature allows it to undergo chemical reactions at a rate that produces desirable changes in composition and flavour. Chemical reactions occur with more frequency as temperatures rise, adding wine more rapidly at higher higher Values. Not only will higher temperatures age wine morequickly , they may produce undesirable chemical reactions that occur with less frequency, or not at all, at lower temperatures. Some of the unfavourable effects of heat damage include an unpleasant Taste or odor, premature browning or a brick edge in a young wine. A wine cellar is like an ecosystem, constantly inn flux; like the wine that it stores, it is susceptible to the effects of the environment that surrounds it. During summer months, heat can flow into a cellar through the ceiling, adjacent basement rooms and the soil. A cellar’s climate can be affected by even an hour’s worth of breath, a door left ajar, or a light left turned on. Proper climate control measures are imperative to success of any wine cellar and represent the most important component in a cellar’s construction. 3. Wood After climate control, the most important component in wine cellar construction is probably the racking system responsible for holding bottles. Wood and more specifically redwood, has long been a favored material used by racking manufacturers And cellar engineers. Wood’s beauty, availability, versatility and durability make it an optimal building material for use in such systems. The popularity of redwood in wine cellar applications traditionally stems from the practice of wine making in Northern California, where redwood trees grow in abundance and were used to make wine vats, barrels, bottle racks and just about every other construction for which wood was useful. Redwood is a great material to use in cellaring wines due to its excellent strength-to-weight ratio, decay and shock resistance, easily workability and insulating properties. Another advantage of using redwood is that it can be left untreated – its warm and glowing natural beauty eliminates the need to use any finishes or strains.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com Proper functionality should be a concern when choosing a wood variety for wine racks, but in essence, the pure aesthetics of a racking system are what matter most. As long as a good climate control system is installed, there should be no need to worry about the decay-resistant properties of naturally durable wood species. More important than the wood used to built a wine racking system is the quality of the racking system’s construction. There should be plenty of airflow between the Racks to prevent moistures built-up and they should be built to fit the needs of a collector who stores regular bottles, magnums and cases of wine. In summary, a wine cellar should be beautiful. It should be shown off to friends. Function without form is no fun, so proper care should be given to insure that the racking system complements the overall style of the cellar. Your investment should be protected, but why not enjoy it in the meantime? 4. Humidity The aging of wine is intricate process , requiring the harmonious balance of numerous Interrelated factors. If this balance is neglected, an unfavourable combination of the components can be adversely affect the quality of vintage wine. One of the many concerns when cellaring wine is the relative humidity level of its storage area. Humidity levels that are too high can result in the growth of mold, which ruins wood, cork stoppers, labels and other paper surfaces. On the other hand, collectors must worry dying out and excessive evaporation of wine in drier spaces. The rapid growth of mould occurs at relative humidity levels of 80% or more. Especially for those who actually cellar the cellar, late spring and early summer offer the greatest threat to high humidity and mould development. Although high levels do not affect wine directly, that hard-to-get-rid-of mould can ruin a gorgeous cellar and destroy the labels of the most highly prized and coveted vintages. After all, the pleasure derived from a fine vintage comes not only from its palatable consumption, but also from the satisfaction reaped when guests’ turn their gazes toward a thirtyyear old bottle and approvingly inspect its label. In terms of maintaining the quality of wine, collectors should be more concerned about the deleterious effects of low humidity levels, which dry out corks and increase rates of evaporation. Excess amounts of oxygen-rich air replace precious drops of fine vintages during evaporation process and destroy them through premature aging. During the winter months, one must remain especially alert, as the moisture capacity of air increases with temperature. Of course, even wines in the best of care will suffer minor levels of evaporation and develop some ullage, but collectors must be very careful lest their favourite vintages virtually disappear and age before their time. Storing bottles on their sides is a preventive measure to keep corks from dying out; however one must still take care to ensure that the air side of the cork is protected from humidity levels. Impeccably good taste means nothing if accompanied by disregard and negligence in the care of stored wine. The best way to avoid an embarrassing and disappointed wine inauguration is to take careful precautions in the construction of a wine cellar. Any effort and resources applied at the start of a wine cellar project to ensure proper humidity levels will more than compensate for themselves by safeguarding your wine assets in the future. Careful monitoring will also prove invaluable in the long run. Any serious collector should invest in a hydrometer to measure the relative

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com humidity level of a cellar, even if the cellar already comes with a sophisticated climate control system. Relative humidity levels can vary greatly in the smallest of spaces, a condition that Generates the need to measure the humidity levels of multiple places in the same cellar. Acceptable relative humidity levels fall between 60 and 80 %. One can never be too careful when it comes to fine wine, which constantly comes under assault by the element. Wine is sensitive to even the most minor fluctuations in environmental factor, just as relative humidity levels are subject to significant change as a result of variations in the atmospheric conditions of the cellar. Simply breathing in a cellar releases water vapour into the air, as does burning a candle or breaking a bottle of wine. The moral of humidity’s story is to constantly remain aware of the conditions in your cellar. The effort employed now will save much grief and frustration in the future.

5. Light Among the many dangers that threaten aging wine, light is another potential enemy. Ultraviolet light includes chemical reactions that can cause hydrogen sulphide compounds to develop in wine – affecting the wine’s aroma, flavour and structure – and can also promote premature aging. Another undesirable effect of light is the onset of copper haze, or cupric casse in white wines. Although the look of natural light is preferable in any space, for optimum storage conditions, windows should not be included in the design of a wine cellar. If this cannot be avoided however, UV resistant windows are available. Otherwise, be sure to keep the windows shaded from the sun or the wine stored away from the light. In addition to the potential dangers of natural light, one must also consider the effects Of artificial lighting systems on wine. Installing a lighting system is an important aspect of wine cellar construction and in formed choices can prevent problems in the future. In general, lights with low wattage are probably the best choice for a wine cellar because strong light can promote some wine diseases. Fluorescent light is typically not a good choice because it emits UV rays. Collectors should also be wary of incandescent Lights that produce a lot of heat and can significantly increase the temperature of a wine cellar. If using recessed lightning, extra caution should be taken with the installation, as improper installation can allow heat and humidity leaks. Good habits and conscientious use of lights can offset some of the dangers of light to wine. Lights should never be left on for extended periods of time. As long as lights are consistently used sparingly ( dimmer), any kind of light will do. There are certain preventive measures one can take to ensure that lights are not left on unwittingly. One option includes installing lights that run on a timer. Another includes the installation of An indicator light, usually red or an alarm that will serve as a reminder that the wine cellar lights have been left on. Wine in clear bottles is most susceptible to the effect of UV light. While dark or green bottles do offer more protection, they do not prevent the onset of ―light-struck‖ flavours

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com That result from light-induced chemical reactions. White or sparkling wines are most Sensitive to light and should be stored in the darkest part of the cellar. As with other dangers to wine, the undesirable effect of light can be avoided through careful planning and attention.

6. Vibration There is no consensus among the experts about the effects of vibration on wine. Some claim that excessive vibration can affect the aging progress, while others say its effects are only of concern prior to consumption. Vibration occurs in noisy areas, anywhere near running motors and storage space close to roads. Refrigeration units are also prone to vibrate under the influence of their motors and many of these are marketed as containing vibration-resistant shelves. Although it is known for certain whether vibration affects wine’s chemical processes, vibration does stir up the contents of aging wine and hinders the settling of sediments. In order to ensure that wine has settled properly, one should simple stand a bottle up several days before consumption. Other ways are, placing a bottle in a 45° angled wine stand to compact the sediment to one side of the bottle and decanting before serving without placing the bottle upright. Sediments do not taste good and their presence in a glass can ruin any properly aged vintage. Wine should be stored in a way that does not require one to shuffle bottles around in order to get to the desired choice. For this reason and for general convenience, it is important for collectors to consider their racking needs and plan accordingly. For those collectors who do not purchase wine by the case, diamond bins can be a Nuisance, not to mention a potential danger to wine bottles. Installing single bottle racking will decrease the chances that bottles will be broken as a result of excessive Re-arranging and shuffling. 7. Restaurant Marketing And Display Display can pay. By creating an environment that announces a serious wine program, Patrons are encouraged to consider wine more seriously as they select their entries. Wine display is as much form as it is function. With a beautiful wine display – be it visible wine storage cabinets or a number of large-format wine bottles – the restaurant Is making a statement that ―this dining experience should include wine‖. Wine should be viewed as integral to the dining experience. Every dinner should include wine. Recent years have witnessed a tremendous growth in consumer interest in all types of Beverages. Evidence is the increased interest in wine ranges from soaring readership Of major wine publications. The consumer is ripe; there is a real thirst for knowledge about and experiences with spirits.

Oriental Hospitality Consultants – OrientalHospitality.com Wine tends to be most romantic and it has the most universal appeal. Wine sales are usually much higher percentage sales than beer or cocktails, depending of course as well on up-selling. A wine cellar dining experience is just one more level of experience. The objective is to bring people back, to built repeat customers. To offer them the same experience, but maybe in a different manner. You can create programming that complements the integrity of the environment – organize an event paired with a wine expert, tasting events or five-course meals paired with wines. Some restaurants are offering tasting portions of wine, or establishing bar areas Dedicated solely to wine. While these virtual altars to wine are at base a merchandising technique , savvy isn’t enough to make a restaurant owner successful. Knowledge is critical and staff training comes increasingly important as guest expectations rise. The number one barrier to selling wine is lacking of staff comfort. In any given restaurant, therefore, it is hoped that one or two people who work with the bar will have passion for wine that will help them become the experts and leaders of the restaurant wine program. At the upper end of the service chain a restaurant may provide a wine steward or sommelier. There are two kind of sommeliers. One is the classically trained wine expert, who chooses wines for the guest that will best enhance the dining experience. This type of sommelier provides a very useful service in helping guests who want to learn or who need validation in their selection. The other kind of sommelier is the one who consults with guests. This sommelier or wine steward will quiz guests about what kind of wines they usually buy or drink, then will derive a direction from the guests’ responses about recommendations to make. Not only are the recommendations of this inquisitive type of sommelier usually spot-on, but this professional is growing and learning about consumer needs.

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