SCORM Case Study

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					  Converting SCORM 1.2
  Content to SCORM 2004
          Lessons Learned and LMS
               Demonstration
Rebecca Bodrero, CTC, Boise State University
Bill Bandrowski, CTC
Jason Haag, CSC/Naval Education and Training Professional
Development and Technology Center (NETPDTC)
               Background
• Information Security Warfare Systems (ISWS)
  – National Defense University (NDU)
  – CD-ROM based ISWS training for network
    security professionals
  – 4-5 hours of training on cyber attacks
• 1.2 Demonstration
        SCORM Conversions
• 1.2 Conversion (2003)
  – Documented instructional design, technical, and LMS
    issues
• 2004 Conversion (2004)
  – Document technical, instructional, and project
    management issues
  – Provide SCORM development community with sample
    content
  – Capture lessons learned for instructional designers,
    developers, and project managers
Instructional Goals & Objectives
• Define objectives
• Define desired learner experience
  – Develop logical activity tree
     ISWS Logical Activity
         Tree Part I                       Exit the course if all test scenarios have          Pre or posttest satisfaction
                                           been passed in the pretest or posttest.             maps to course level
                                                                                               satisfaction.

         TOC is not visible during
         Introduction and Pretest                                        ISWS                                                           Posttest is same as
                                                                                                                                        Pretest - except those
                                                                                                                                        passed during the pre-
                                                            User loops through                                                          test are skipped.
                                                            Attacks/Posttest infinitely until all
    Introduction                 Pretest                    objectives are satisfied.                      ISWS Content


                                     Q1
     User takes pretest
                                                          Introduction                  Attack Class              Attack Class               Posttest
     once only.
                                     Q2
     After pretest, TOC is
                                                                                          Attack *                   Attack *                  Q1
     built and content flows
     to first failed attack.
                                     Q3
                                                                                          Attack *                   Attack *                  Q2
     The pretest is no
     longer visible in the
                                     Q4
     TOC.
                                                                                          Attack *                   Attack *                  Q3

User forced through                  Q5
Introduction before                                  Each test scenario is a SCO and maps                                                      Q4
pretest. Intro is then                               to a single objective as well as single
available throughout                 Q6              attack.                                                    Attacks for which the
the Content section.                                                                                            objective has been             Q5
                                                     Passing the scenario during the pretest                    satisfied are not
                                                     or posttest results in satisfying the                      visible in the TOC.
  * See Next Page                                    associated objective.                                                                     Q6
ISWS Logical Activity Tree Part II


      Each attack is associated with a
      single objective.
                                                                     The Description
      If the objective is satisfied during
                                                                     shows the student
      the pretest or posttest, by passing
                                                                     how the specific
      the associated scenario, the attack    Attack*                 attack works.
      is not displayed in the TOC.

                                               -- Description
                                             Protection Safeguards        The different phases of an
                                                                          attack do not contain content,
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                                                          but provide context within the
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                                                          TOC to show the overall
      Trainees are able to                    Detection Safeguards        structure of the attack.
      navigate freely between
      attacks and safeguards                        -- Safeguard
      that are displayed in                         -- Safeguard
      the TOC.                               Assessment Safeguards              Safeguards are actual content
                                                                                items (assets). Since a single
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                                                                safeguard may be applicable
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                                                                to any number of attacks, they
                                              Recovery Safeguards               are reused throughout the
                                                                                course and are context
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                                                                neutral.
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                             Treatment Safeguards               Safeguards are purposely not
                                                                                named in the TOC, as they
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                                                                could provide the answers to
                                                    -- Safeguard
                                                                                test items.
         Lessons Learned

The learning curve for sequencing is
significant, even for those experienced in
previous versions of SCORM.
         Lessons Learned
Content examples are an efficient tool for
learning and assimilating SCORM,
particularly the more complicated aspects
like sequencing. They can also serve to
jump-start the development process by
providing source code.
          Lessons Learned

Determining the course structure is a
collaborative process that starts with logical
rules and gradually incorporates the
technical requirements related to SCORM.
         Lessons Learned

Adding context to otherwise context-neutral
content requires ingenuity.

Getting the exact sequencing behavior
desired may take a little creativity.
         Lessons Learned

Taxonomies can be designed to increase
potential flexibility and reusability.
         Lessons Learned

To take full advantage of sequencing
functionalities in SCORM, content needs to
be as granular as possible.
         Lessons Learned

Objectives, while responsible for providing
structure to the course instructional design
and the learner experience, can also
function as technical requirements.
          Lessons Learned
Content-free prototypes provide value by
creating efficiencies in the development of new
sequencing strategies.

Instructional designers and developers can
work in parallel.
         Lessons Learned

Navigation is no longer entirely at the
discretion of the development team, and
consideration must be taken to ensure
learners have a satisfying experience.
Product Demonstration

 RTE and Navy E-Learning
     Sequencing in the Manifest
Course Cluster: Objectives complete – exit
• Intro Cluster: forward only, attempt limit 1 – skip,
  isVisible = false
• Pretest Cluster: target objectives mapped to content,
  choice = false, forward only, attempt limit 1 – skip
• Mastery Cluster: Objectives complete – exit, not
  satisfied - retry
   – Second Intro: choice = true, always skip
   – Content Clusters: objective satisfied = skip, = hidden
      from choice
   – Posttest Cluster: forward only, objective satisfied =
      skip,
                                           Exit the course if all test scenarios have          Pre or posttest satisfaction
                                           been passed in the pretest or posttest.             maps to course level
                                                                                               satisfaction.

         TOC is not visible during
         Introduction and Pretest                                        ISWS                                                           Posttest is same as
                                                                                                                                        Pretest - except those
                                                                                                                                        passed during the pre-
                                                            User loops through                                                          test are skipped.
                                                            Attacks/Posttest infinitely until all
    Introduction                 Pretest                    objectives are satisfied.                      ISWS Content


                                     Q1
     User takes pretest
                                                          Introduction                  Attack Class              Attack Class               Posttest
     once only.
                                     Q2
     After pretest, TOC is
                                                                                          Attack *                   Attack *                  Q1
     built and content flows
     to first failed attack.
                                     Q3
                                                                                          Attack *                   Attack *                  Q2
     The pretest is no
     longer visible in the
                                     Q4
     TOC.
                                                                                          Attack *                   Attack *                  Q3

User forced through                  Q5
Introduction before                                  Each test scenario is a SCO and maps                                                      Q4
pretest. Intro is then                               to a single objective as well as single
available throughout                 Q6              attack.                                                    Attacks for which the
the Content section.                                                                                            objective has been             Q5
                                                     Passing the scenario during the pretest                    satisfied are not
                                                     or posttest results in satisfying the                      visible in the TOC.
  * See Next Page                                    associated objective.                                                                     Q6
                Conclusions
• Solid instructional design ALWAYS
• Advances in tools, knowledge, and application
• 2004 offers powerful capabilities
  – ROI will come from these added capabilities
  – Price is increased complexity
• 2004 is a robust specification that can advance
  ADL’s goals
Back-Up Slides
              Contact Information
Rebecca Bodrero, CTC, Boise State University
   360-782-5573
   bodrero@ctc.com

Bill Bandrowski, CTC
   360-782-5526
   band@ctc.com

Jason Haag, CSC/Naval Education and Training Professional
   Development and Technology Center (NETPDTC)
   850-452-1001 x1059
   jason.l.haag@navy.mil