"Case Study For Tertiary Level"
The Transitional Life of Riley McKinley Riley McKinley is a sixth grade student who is disrupting not only his learning, but the learning of his classmates. His teacher, Mrs. Ware has asked the Behavior Support Team (BST) to help his determine the function of Riley’s disruptions so she can develop an intervention before Riley’s behaviors are out of control. Riley verbally disrupts, shows physical aggression, and throws items from time to time. Riley has a mild learning disability. Background Riley is a sixth grade student with mild learning disabilities. His teacher, Mrs. Ware, has requested assistance because Riley’s behaviors are impeding not only his learning, but the learning of others in the classroom. Prior to meeting with the Behavior Support Team (BST), Mrs. Ware and Mrs. Clark the speech teacher did a record review to determine if there was any information in his records that would shed light on Riley’s target behaviors. The BST has been assembled. The PE teacher, Speech and Language Pathologist, Assistant Principal, Counselor, Paraprofessional, the Learning Resource teacher, Mr. and Mrs. McKinley, and a second sixth grade teacher have joined Mrs. Ware in a BST meeting. Mrs. Ware gave some background information on Riley to the group. Riley’s learning disabilities are in the areas of reading. He does well in Math and any hands on activities. He quits easily if an assignment involves reading and spelling. There are two other students in the classroom with learning disabilities, with a total of 17 students in the class. Riley has several good friends that he plays with at recess. 1 The team asked Mr. and Mrs. McKinley about their home life and if they could shed some background information on Riley’s life. Mr. and Mrs. McKinley identified that Riley is the youngest of three children and that both of his sisters are much older with one in high school and one in college. Riley does not have to do much around the house because his sisters tend to “baby” him and do his chores for her. Mrs. McKinley works full time in a high stress position as a stock analyst and Mr. McKinley travels frequently out of state for his business. The McKinley’s admitted that mornings are very hectic with everyone going in different directions and that Riley’s lack of organizational skills causes him to frequently have a “bad” morning. Mr. and Mrs. McKinley are willing to assist the team with any plans they devise to help Riley with his behavior problems. Mrs. Ware defined the behavior problems that Riley was having in the classroom. The team decided that it was very important to define the behaviors in measurable and observable terms. The behaviors are listed below: Throwing objects A physical object leaves Riley’s hands and lands at least six inches from Riley. Disruptive outburst A loud verbal sound or words come from Riley that disturbs the learning environment. Physical aggression Any part of Riley’s body comes in contact with another person with force. 2 Defining Behaviors and Collecting Data After defining the behavioral terms of the target behaviors the team wrote a key of possible: Contexts Antecedents Behaviors Consequences And student reactions These keys were put on an Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence (ABC) form so the team could duplicate the ABC form for Mrs. Ware to use to collect ten days of data for Riley’s behaviors. This way the same contexts, antecedents, behaviors, consequences, and student reactions are measured the same way each day for ten days. It is important to have at least ten occurrences of a behavior in order to determine the function of that behavior. Ten days will likely result in at least ten occurrences. The team was taught how to fill out the charts and behavior data are collected for ten days. The following ten pages are the results of ten days of data collection. This data will be analyzed to form a behavioral intervention plan. Mrs. Ware agreed that she and Mrs. Phillips, the paraprofessional would collect the data since they both spent the majority of time with Riley. Should any behaviors occur during 3 specials, Mrs. Phillips would be there to record the behaviors. The team agreed to meet again in 11 school days to analyze the data and determine the function, or the reason behind Riley’s behaviors. Analyzing Data Eleven days later Mrs. Ware met with the team to show them the data that was collected. The BST looked at the ten pages of data and began analyzing it. One person read off the data while another person tallied the analysis forms. A third person figured the percentages and then the BST were ready to discuss the data. Here are the ten days of data that they collected: click here (once this opens you can print off the sheets to read them) The following are the analysis tables that the BST filled out based on the data collected: Data Analysis: Student Riley Case Days of Data 10 (count the total number of days that data was collected) Total Number of Incidents 32 (count the total number of incidents during the data collection) Average Number of Incidents 3.2 (count the total number of incidents and divide by the number of days data was collected) Average Length of Incident 406/32 = 12.69 approximately 13 minutes Percent of Day Engaged in Behavior 4200 total minutes (420 (add the total number of incident minutes divided by the per day) 406/4200= 9.6% total number of possible minutes and multiply by 100) The team looked at the beginning time of each incident and marked the 30-minute time frame in which the incident began. 4 TIME OF DAY Tally Ratio % INVOLVED Your schedule would be based Total tallies/total incidents 15/32 x 100 on the child’s day example: 15/32 8:30-8:59 111111 6/32 19% 9:00-9:29 111111 6/32 19% 9:30-9:59 0/32 0% 10:00-10:29 1 1/32 3% 10:30-10:59 0/32 0% 11:00-11:29 0/32 0% 11:30-11:59 0/32 0% 12:00-12:29 11111 5/32 16% 12:30-12:59 1 1/32 3% 1:00-1:29 1111 4/32 13% 1:30-1:59 0/32 0% 2:00-2:29 1 1/32 3% 2:30-2:59 0/32 0% 3:00-3:30 11111111 8/32 25% Next the BST tallied the number of incidents on each day of the week to determine if there was a pattern to the behaviors based on day of the week: Day of week Tally Average incidents per day MONDAY (2 ) 11111111111 5.5 TUESDAY (2 ) 111 1.5 WEDNESDAY ( 2) 111 1.5 THURSDAY (2 ) 111111 3.0 FRIDAY (2 ) 111111111 4.5 Next the BST wanted to look at the context to determine if there was a pattern there: Context Letter Tally Ratio % involved Group Time a 111111111111 14/32 44% 11 Individual b Time Reading c 111111 6/32 19% Math d 11111 5/32 16% 5 Spelling e 1 1/32 03% Social Studies f Science g Home Room h Lunch i 111111 6/32 19% Outside j The BST tallied the behaviors that occurred. They asked if there were any behaviors that the BST did not have enough information on to make a hypothesis. Behaviors Tally Ratio % INVOLVED Throwing Objects 11 2/32 6% Disruptive Outbursts 1111111111111111 20/32 63% 1111 Physical Aggression 1111111111 10/32 31% Then the BST looked at the Antecedents to see if the things that were happening prior to the behavior incidents were maintaining the behaviors: ANTECEDENTS Letter Tally Ratio % INVOLVED Transition A 1111 14/32 44% 1111 1111 11 Choice Given B Redirection C Instruction/Directive D 111 3/32 9% New Task E 1111 8/32 25% 1111 Routine Task F Physical Prompts G Teacher Attention to H 1111 7/32 22% others 111 Told “NO” I Close Proximity J Interaction K The BST thought it might be interesting to see if behaviors could be paired with certain antecedents: 6 Letter A B C ANTECEDENTS Throwing Disruptive Physical Objects Outbursts Aggression Transition A 11111111111111 Choice Given B Redirection C Instruction/Directive D 111 New Task E 1 1111111 Routine Task F Physical Prompts G Teacher Attention to H 11 11111 others Told “NO” I Close Proximity J Interaction K The team also thought it might be interesting to see if certain behaviors were paired with certain consequences. Letter A B C Consequences Throwing Disruptive Physical Objects Outbursts Aggression Choice Given A 111111 Redirection B 11111111 Discussion C 1 11 1 Personal Space Given D Changed Activity E 11 Peer Attention F 1 1 Verbal Reprimand G Physical Prompt H Time Out I 1111111111 The team wanted to see if certain consequences stop the behavior effectively. Unless the answer is “A” (stopped) the behavior was considered to have continued. Consequence Letter Tally Student reaction % effective Stopped Continued Choice Given A 111111 11111 1 83% Redirection B 11111111 111 11111 38% 7 Discussion C 1111 11 11 50% Personal Space Given D Changed Activity E 11 11 0% Peer Attention F 11 11 0% Verbal Reprimand G Physical Prompt H Time Out I 1111111111 11111 11111 50% After they tallied the number of consequences and the number of times the behavior stopped or continued in each column the BST did the following: Add up the total tallies beside each consequence. Add up the number of stops and the number of continues in each row. Divide the total stopped by the total number of tallies in each row and that is the percent of effectiveness during this behavioral observation. Intervention Based on Function Now that the team had a good idea of the function of Riley’s behaviors they could fill out a Competing Pathways Form and brainstorm some ideas to teach Riley replacement behaviors. The team knew they needed to fill out a Competing Pathways Form for each function that the BST discovered from the data analysis. Since one of Riley’s functions was escape and one was attention they needed to fill out two forms. Together, the BST brainstormed replacement behaviors and desired behaviors for the target behaviors that occurred with those two functions. Mr. and Mrs. McKinley agreed that Riley used attention-seeking behaviors at home and that they would implement the same techniques at home. They also decided to help Riley get more organized each evening and weekend so that he was ready to go out the door and have a smooth transition each morning. 8 Everyone agreed that they needed to label Riley’s appropriate behaviors and to give him attention for those appropriate behaviors. The BST also determined that Riley needed to have planned breaks so he could escape from his work from time to time without having a target behavior. See the chart below for all of the ideas the team brainstormed. 9 Competing Pathways Chart Maintaining Consequence Desired Behavior Attention- positive Following class routine Setting Event Triggering Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Transitions Attention- even if it’s negative- You will want to ignore and R+ the alternative B Disruptive outbursts Alternative Behavior Antecedent Function Modifications Choose at Attention- positive Brainstorm ideas least one with group Being the class messenger One on one time with another teacher class leader of class schedule journal activity that is shared after weekend and before weekend planning 10 Competing Pathways Chart Maintaining Consequence Desired Behavior Confidence in ability- attention Independent for good work work Setting Event Triggering Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence New skill or Physical individualized escape aggression instruction time Alternative Behavior Antecedent Function Modifications Choose one Planned escape Brainstorm ideas with group Teach secret signal for help. I need a break card Individualized instruction. Token economy paired 11 Summary Statement • 1. When this occurs… (Describe circumstances/antecedents) • When Riley has _____________________ • 2. the student does… (describe target behavior) • He has a disruptive outburst • 3. to get/to avoid… (describe consequences) • To _________________________________________ Summary Statement: When the teacher’s attention is diverted to others, Riley has verbal outbursts to gain teacher attention. Summary Statement • 1. When this occurs… (Describe circumstances/antecedents) • When Riley has _____________________ • 2. the student does… (describe target behavior) • He shows physical aggression • 3. to get/to avoid… (describe consequences) • To _________________________________________ Summary Statement: When Riley is introduced to new tasks he uses physical aggression to escape the new task. Implementing the BIP Mrs. Ware took the suggestions of the BST back to the classroom. She implemented the following: She taught Riley a secret signal of moving his name tag to the left side of his desk when he needed a break. This way Riley could tell Mrs. Ware that he didn’t understand the new task and needed a break until Mrs. Ware could come over and 12 give him some individualized instruction. Mrs. Ware and Riley made a deal that Riley would look at a book until Mrs. Ware could get to him. For transitions, Mrs. Ware implemented several ways for Riley to get more attention in a positive way: o She paired Riley up with a morning mentor, the speech teacher, who would meet with Riley each day for 10-15 minutes and talk about what he did the night before and what was on his agenda for the day. This helped him transition from home to school. o In the afternoon, Riley met with the same speech teacher to show her the agenda and talk about what homework he needed to get done that evening. The speech teacher would compliment him for filling out his agenda book and talk about any situations that arose during the day. o Mrs. Ware also made sure that she kept a running agenda on the board so that Riley knew what activities were coming next. It’s been three months since the interventions started. Riley’s teacher reports that she has had so few disruptive outbursts and no physical aggression that she had almost forgotten that this had ever been a problem. Riley still visits the speech teacher in the morning and afternoon. Although the BST could fade this activity, the speech teacher feels she has built a relationship with Riley and could circumvent any future problems by keeping the relationship going. 13