Renewable Sources of Energy for Mitigation of Green-House Gases by tut53443

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									                 Renewable Sources of Energy for Mitigation of
                  Green-House Gases: Case Study of Thailand

                                 Prida Wibulswas
                        School of Energy and Materials
                King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Thonburi,
                                Bangkok 10140

ABSTRACT

Renewable energy supply including fuel wood, paddy husk, bagasse and hydro-
energy, in 1996 accounted for 28.8% of the total energy supply of 80.1 Mtoe.
Consumption of fuel wood amounted to 46.3 Mtons which represented an increase of
about 6.5% over the previous year. Fuel wood still remains the main source of
domestic energy supply in rural areas of Thailand.

The total installed power generating capacity in Thai sugar mills is estimated at 850
MW. Surplus baggasse could generates addjtional power of 109 MW. Cane leaves
and tops have Potential as fuels for an additional generation capacity of 240 MW.
Large par-boile'd and white rice mills use paddy husk to generate about 100 MW of
power for milling. An additional power generating capacity of 80 MW can still be
obtained in these large rice mills if the surplus husk is used as fuel. Cogeneration
plants in large palm oil mills use spent fibre and shells. With suitable energy
conservation measures, the total potential for power generation in the palm oil mills
could be over 19.7 MW.

After the ye-ar 2000, the total amount of green-house gases generated in Thailand will
exceed the world average value of 4.1 ton per capita in 1990. As biomass will still be
the main renewable source of energy in the country and its utilization practically
generates no net carbon dioxide emission, developmen! and utilization of biomass
resources such as fast-growing trees should be more rigorously promoted.

Hydro-energy resources in Thailand are still under-utilized owing to environmental,
social and political problems. However, development of run-off-river hydro-power
plants without large reserviors in the country should still be attempted, as hydro-
power plants do not generate green-house gases. Joint development of hydro-power
resources in Laos, Myanmar and Yunan to supply electricity to Thailand is a good
example on regional co-operation. Development of hydro-power plants on the Mae
Khong and Salween rivers should also be feasible. Several environmental and
political issues still remain to be solved.
Typical boiler and cogeneration system efficiencies were found to be about 62 and
59% respectively [4]. As the bagasse contains a high moisture content, energy loss
with water vapour amounts to almost 14% of the input energy [4]. With bagasse
dryers using boiler flue gas, the cogeneration system efficiencies of the sugar mills
could be increased by about 10% and about 2.7. Mtons of bagasse could be saved
annually from all the mills in the country [4].

Potential of Surplus Electricity Generation
In general, the boilers in sugar mills consume about 80% of bagasse. The remaining
20% are available for further production of electricity. Improvement of the
cogeneration systems in sugar mills may be achieved by using high-pressure boilers
and bagasse dryers. Based upon the total amount of bagasse produced in 1995 excess
electricity of about 80 MWe could be generated for export [5]. However, in 1996,
only 36 MWe were sold to the national grid [6].

It should also be mentioned that 5.9 Mtons of cane residue which consists mainly of
cane leaves and tops, are annually produced and wasted. A study indicates that at an
assumed cane residue price of USD 8/ton, the electricity production from cane
residue is estimated to be USe 3.2-5.2/kWh for a power plant of2.5-35 MW [7]. It is
also recommended that the cane residue should be utilized during off-milling season.
The total potential for electricity from cane trash generation could reach 240 MWe
[5].

OIL PALM WASTES

Analysis of Palm Oil Mills
STATUS     OF RENEWABLE   ENERGY   SUPPLY




BAGASSE

Analysis of Sugar Mills
Potential   of Surplus   Electricity   Generation




OIL PALM WASTES

Analysis of Palm Oil Mills
Potential for Surplus Electdcity Generation




PADDY HUSK

Analysis of Rice Mills
Potential for Surplus Electricity Generation




OTHER SOURCES OF BIOMASS ENERGY

Vegetable Oils




Fast-Growing     Trees
Municipal      Solid Wastes




Agricultural    Residues




HYDRO-ELECTRICITY
Hydro Electricity   Resources   in Thailand




Hydro-Electricity   From Neighbouring     Countries




SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY
CARBON   DIOXIDE   EMISSION   FROM COMBUSTION   OF FUELS
CONCLUSIONS   AND RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES

								
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