b6 – brain and mind - DOC

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					B6 – Brain and mind
B6.1 How do organisms respond to changes in their environment? A stimulus is: For example: Why do animals respond to stimuli? For example: (woodlice) Define… Receptor:

Effector:

Stimulus:

Response:

Receptors and effectors can form part of complex organs, for example: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the retina of the eye; _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in a gland; _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in a muscle. What does CNS stand for? Sensory neurons carry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from receptors to the CNS; Motor neurons carry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ from the CNS to the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. CNS is made up of the _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. It is connected to the body via the peripheral nervous system (_ _ _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ neurons). B6.2 How is information passed through the nervous system? What is a neuron? Label this (pg 183):

Axons are surrounded by a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, which _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the neuron from neighbouring cells and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ of transmission of a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. There are gaps between adjacent neurons called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. These work in the following way:

B6.3 What are reflex actions? Simple reflexes produce _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Example? The nervous pathway of a reflex arc looks like this:

Simple reflexes ensure that an animal will _ _ _ _ _ _ to a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in a way that is most likely to result in its _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, to include: 1. F 2. S 3. M Simple animals rely on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for the majority of their _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. A disadvantage of this is that these animals have difficulty _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to new situations. Some examples of simple reflexes in humans are: Newborn reflexes:

Pupil reflexes:

What is a conditioned reflex action? Give an example:

In a conditioned reflex the final response has no _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to the stimulus. Some conditioned reflexes increase the animal’s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , e.g. rejection by birds of caterpillars with particular colouring. In some circumstances the brain can _ _ _ _ _ _ a reflex response via a neuron to the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of the reflex arc, to include keeping hold of a hot dinner plate. B6.4 How do humans develop more complex behaviour? Mammals have a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ brain of billions of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that allows learning by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, including social _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. This happens during development as the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ between mammals and their _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ results in neuron _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ forming in the _ _ _ _ _. Learning occurs when these pathways become more likely to transmit impulses than others, therefore some skills are best learnt by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. We spoke about simple animals finding it difficult to adapt to new situations. Complex animals find this much easier due to the variety of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pathways in the brain.

There is evidence to suggest that children may only acquire some skills at a particular age, including language development in feral children. B6.5 How do we know about the in which the brain co-ordinates our senses? The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the part of the brain most concerned with i_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, m_ _ _ _ _ _, l_ _ _ _ _ _ _ and c_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. A variety of methods have been used to map the regions of the _ _ _ _ _ _, for example in studies of patients with _ _ _ _ _ damage, electrical _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and more recently, _ _ _ scans. Memory is: ______________________________________________________________________ It can be split into two parts, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Humans are more likely to remember information if: 1. They can see or impose a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on it, 2. There is repetition, especially over a _ _ _ _ period of time, 3. There is a strong stimulus associated with it, for example _ _ _ _ _ _, _ _ _ _ _, _ _ _ _ _ or _ _ _ _ _. Scientists have produced _ _ _ _ _ _ for memory but so far none of these have been able to provide an adequate _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. B6.6 How do drugs affect our nervous system? The synapses we talked about before are important in the effects of drugs on our nervous system. Some drugs and toxins affect the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of impulses across synapses. Serotonin is a chemical released at one type of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the brain. Serotonin releases feelings of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Lack of serotonin is linked to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Prozac is an _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ drug. It causes build up of serotonin concentration in the synapses in the brain. Ecstasy is similar to prozac. It blocks the sites on the synapse where serotonin is removed. The mood-enhancing effects of ecstasy (_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and feeling _ _ _ _ _ to other people) are due to the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in serotonin levels.


				
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