What is �Appalachian Compact� by franklinr

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									        What is “Appalachian Compact”?

A compact formed by Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware
and West Virginia under the terms of the Low-Level
Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985.

• Exclusionary Authority
• Regional Facility
      Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW)
                 Classification

• NRC regulations (10 CFR Part 61) has specified a waste
  classification system for LLRW
• There are three (3) classes of LLRW: Class A, Class B
  and Class C
• The majority of LLRW is Class A waste
                                         Table 1
                                                                          Concentration,
                                                                             curies
                         Radionuclide
                                                                            per cubic
                                                                             meter
C-14..................................................................          8
C-14 in activated metal...................................                     80
Ni-59 in activated metal..................................                    220
Nb-94 in activated metal.................................                       0.2
Tc-99.................................................................          3
I-129..................................................................         0.08
Alpha emitting transuranic nuclides with
half-life greater than 5 years..........................                     *100
Pu-241..............................................................       *3,500
Cm-242.............................................................       *20,000
*Units are nanocuries per gram
                                  Table 2
                                                   Concentration, curies
              Radionuclide                           per cubic meter
                                                  Col. 1      Col. 2   Co.3
Total of all nuclides with less
than 5 year half-life....................... 700                 *       *
H-3.................................................. 40         *       *
Co-6................................................ 700         *       *
Ni-63...............................................   3.5      70      700
Ni-63 in activated metal................              35       700     7000
Sr-90...............................................   0.04    150     7000
Cs-137............................................     1        44     4600

*There are no limits established for these radionuclides in Class B or C
wastes.
            Status of Commercial LLRW
                 Disposal Facilities
1. Barnwell Disposal Facility in South Carolina
   • Accepts Class A, B and C wastes
   • Closed to out-of-compact (Atlantic Compact) waste
      in July 2008
2. Energy Solutions (formerly Envirocare) facility in Utah
   • Accepts Class A waste from the entire nation except
      the Northwest and Rocky Mountain compacts
   • Not a Regional Facility
3. Richland Facility in Washington
   • Accepts Class A, B, and C wastes from the Northwest
      and Rocky Mountain Compacts
   • Accepts radium sources from other compacts
      including the Appalachian Compact
       Closure of Barnwell and Survey of
     Appalachian Compact LLRW Generators
•   Conducted a survey of all LLRW generators
•   Only 29 out of 122 generators responded will be affected
•   On-site storage capacity varies from 5 yrs. (Government)
    to 20 yrs. (Medical)
•   No immediate adverse impact on the generators
              Key Issues-Future of LLRW
              Management and Disposal
•   Will commercial disposal capacity be available for Class B
    and C wastes?
•   Will Texas approve WCS application for a LLRW disposal
    facility?
•   Will Class B and C generators have access to DOE
    facilities?
•   Is central processing, packaging and storage a viable
    option?
•   Will NRC provide additional disposal flexibility via
    guidance or rulemaking?
•   Can the use of RCRA facilities be expanded?
•   Will there be new legislation to address this issue?
Industry’s Approach to Address Class B and C
   Waste Management and Disposal Issues

•   Ensure Safe and Secure Storage of Waste

•   Develop operational strategies to minimize B and C
    wastes

•   Investigate and identify additional disposal options and
    flexibility for B and C wastes
    Highlights of NRC Regulatory Issue Summary
       For Extended Interim Storage of LLRW
                    RIS 2008-12

Summary of Issues:
•    Storage is not a substitute for disposal
•    Waste should be stored in a form suitable for disposal
•    Stored waste packages should be protected from
     elements and from extremes of temperature and
     humidity
•    Storage should occur in an area that allows for ready
     visual inspection on a routine basis
                   Highlights (cont.)

•   Consider a real-time waste tracking system that allows
    the location of specific package(s) during emergencies
•   Evaluate the potential for deterioration of waste
    packages and be prepared to repackage waste if needed
•   Take measures to prevent or mitigate the adverse
    consequences of potential decomposition and chemical
    reaction
•   Determine if additional shielding or other actions are
    warranted to keep exposure As Low As Reasonably
    Achievable (ALARA)
•   Minimize exposure to workers
                    Highlights (cont.)

•   Store waste in restricted area to ensure security
•   Follow increased control and related NRC orders for
    materials of quantities of concern
•   Develop and maintain a strategy and timeline for
    disposition and/or disposal of waste
•   Estimate the life-cycle-cost of interim storage for overall
    budget consideration
•   Supplement information contained in the RIS with
    guidance provided by other authorities for waste
    containing hazardous component
     Authorization of Extended Interim Storage
             RIS 2008-12, Enclosure 1
•   Identification of waste to be stored
•   Plans for Final Disposition
•   Physical Description of Storage Area or Structure
•   Packaging and Container Integrity
•   Radiation Protection
•   Training and Qualifications
•   Financial Assurance
•   Emergency Preparedness
•   Security/Increased Control
NRC Position:

“As a matter of policy, NRC is opposed to any activity at a
nuclear reactor site which is not generally supportive of
activities authorized by the operating license or
construction permit and which may divert the attention of
licensee management from its primary task of safe
operation or construction of the power reactor.”

NRC Public Website for Generic Communications:
http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/gen-
comm/index.html

								
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