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1. The Romans TEACHER'S NOTES

WHAT DID THE ROMANS EAT? The Romans invaded Britain in AD 43. They introduced many fruits and vegetables to this country including nuts, vines, figs, walnuts and sweet chestnuts, cabbages, lettuces, endives, turnips, onions, garlic, coriander, sage, mint, thyme, leeks and radishes. Some vegetables, such as mallow, corn salad and fat hen, are no longer cultivated but have become wild plants. The Romans also imported olives, wine, pepper, ginger and cinnamon. WHAT EVIDENCE TELLS US ABOUT THE ROMANS AND THEIR FOOD? Bones and seeds recovered during excavations, letters written by Roman soldiers serving on Hadrian's wall, books and descriptions of feasts written around that time, paintings and mosaics.
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History: 8a

YOU WILL NEED: A selection of the foods mentioned above

! Ask the children to write an imaginary conversation in which a Roman soldier tries to convince a member of the Iceni tribe to try cabbage or radish for the first time. ! Ask the children to taste some of the foods introduced by the Romans. Ask them to imagine that they are Ancient Britons who have captured these foods from a Roman trader. Ask them to write a description of these new foods. ! Draw or make a Roman mosaic showing a scene from a feast. ! Try a recipe from a Roman cookery book:

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Ingredients: 700g dried peas (soaked overnight) 2 yolks of hard boiled eggs 45 ml honey 1 tsp (5 ml) anchovy essence 1 tbsp (15 ml) vinegar 1 tbsp (15 ml) wine (optional) 1 tbsp (15 ml) olive oil 1 pinch of each of ginger, lovage and pepper

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Peas Vitellus - from one of two recipe books written by M. Gaius Apicius who lived during the first century AD

This is what you do: Boil the peas until soft (90 minutes) Use a mortar and pestle to crush the ginger, lovage and pepper. Mix with the honey, anchovy essence, wine, vinegar and egg yolks. Put the mixture into a saucepan, add the olive oil and bring to the boil. Add the peas and stir. Puree of lettuce leaves with onion - from one of two recipe books written by M. Gaius Apicius who lived during the first century AD Ingredients: Lettuce 1/2 tsp (2.5 ml) bicarbonate of soda 1 chopped onion 1 tsp (5 ml) anchovy essence 1 tbsp (15 ml) wine (optional) 1 tbsp (15 ml) vinegar, 1 tsp (15 ml) olive oil 1 pinch of each of the following: pepper, lovage, celery seeds, mint, oregano. This is what you do: Put the lettuce into pan of boiling water containing bicarbonate of soda, simmer for 2 minutes then drain and chop. Use a mortar and pestle to crush the onion, pepper, lovage, celery seeds, mint and oregano. Put the mixture in a saucepan and add the wine, olive oil and anchovy essence. Cook gently for 30 minutes and then pour the mixture over the lettuce.

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2. The Tudors TEACHER'S NOTES

WHAT DID THE TUDORS EAT? The rich people ate boiled and roasted meat, poultry, fish, soups and bread. Raw fruit and vegetables were regarded with suspicion and their sale was banned during the plague of 1569. Trade with Europe resulted in some new fruits being introduced to the gardens and dining tables of the wealthy. These included apricots, raspberries, red and black currants, melons, oranges and lemons. Journeys of exploration led to the introduction of other fruits including potatoes, tomatoes, known as 'love apples', kidney beans and sugar. The rich were especially keen on sugar and tooth decay became a real problem. Queen Elizabeth was said to have black teeth. WHAT EVIDENCE TELLS US ABOUT THE TUDORS AND THEIR FOOD? There is lots of documentary evidence available from plays, books, estate papers, poems and paintings. Edward White published a collection of recipe books in the late sixteenth century.
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History: 10

! Try a recipe from a Tudor cookery book:

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Pears in syrup - from 'The Good Huswifes Jewell' by Thomas Dawson Ingredients: 1.4 kg pears 850 ml water 225g sugar 150 ml rosewater 1 tsp (5 ml) whole cloves 2 cinnamon sticks

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This is what you do: Bake the pears in a casserole dish for 1-1.5 hours (Gas mark 4, 180 C). Cool the pears and then peel them. Simmer a mixture of any juice produced by the pears mixed with the other ingredients. Add the pears and simmer for a few minutes.

Apple mousse - from ‘A Proper Newe Book of Cokerye’ Ingredients: 700g apples 3 tbsp water (45 ml) 2 egg yolks 2 tbsp rosewater (30 ml) 2 tbsp sugar (30 ml) 25g butter 1 pinch of ginger and cinnamon This is what you do: Core and peel the apples, soak them in water in a covered saucepan until soft. Blend the apples into a smooth puree and then place in a saucepan. Stir in the egg yolks, rosewater, sugar and butter whilst heating the mixture. Put the mixture in a dish and allow to cool. Sprinkle with cinnamon and ginger.

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3. The Victorians TEACHER'S NOTES

WHAT DID THE VICTORIANS EAT? At the beginning of this period, most people relied on the foods that were in season and available locally or those which had been pickled or preserved. Bread and potatoes were the most important foods and high prices and the invasion of potato disease brought starvation to Ireland, Scotland and parts of England. The expansion of the network of railways meant that fresh foods could be transported more easily over long distances. New techniques of bottling, canning and food processing were introduced. A cheap way of making ice was invented in 1861 and refrigerated transport became available in the 1880's. WHAT EVIDENCE TELLS US ABOUT THE VICTORIANS AND THEIR FOOD? The books of writers such as Jane Austen and Charles Dickens give us some idea of what different classes of people ate during Victorian times. There are also numerous cookery books.

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History: 11a

! Try a recipe from a Victorian cookery book: Boiled Salad - from Janie Ellice's Recipes 1846-1859 Ingredients: Beetroot Celery Potato

Brussels sprouts Cream Mustard

This is what you do: Boil the vegetables and slice them up neatly. Make a sauce with the cream and mustard and cover the salad. ! Ask the children to find descriptions of food in books written by writers from the Victorian era.

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4. Britain during World War 2 TEACHER'S NOTES
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Food rationing was introduced in 1939 and lasted until 1954. Imported food became scarce and people had to rely more upon locally produced goods. Many people joined the 'Dig for Victory' campaign and started to grow their own produce. The second World War diet produced a very healthy population.

! Try a recipe from Britain during World War 2: Orange Flavour Whip - from a Ministry of Food pamphlet, 1945 Ingredients: 450g tinned plums 2 1/2 tbsp (35 ml) dried milk 3 tbsp ( 45 ml) marmalade This is what you do: Mash the plums, dried milk and marmalade. Serve in small dishes topped with marmalade or custard. ! Imagine that you are a child who has just arrived at a new home having been evacuated. You are lying in bed in a strange room after a meal of orange flavour whip. Describe how you feel.

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History: 11b

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TAKING THE MESSAGE HOME:
! Ask the children to look at the foods stored at home and decide which would no longer be available if they could not be imported from overseas.

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