PLACEMENT EDUCATORS HANDBOOK BScMSc (pre-registration by luckboy

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									PLACEMENT EDUCATOR’S HANDBOOK BSc/MSc (pre-registration) Occupational Therapy Physiotherapy

Allied Health Professions School of Health Sciences University of Southampton

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

FOREWORD
The Practice Placement Organising Team has designed this handbook for those who work with learners on the Allied Health Profession preregistration programmes at the School of Health Sciences, University of Southampton. We describe those organisations providing practice based education as placement providers and the practitioners who deliver the practice-based component of the programme as placement educators. The purpose of the handbook is to provide information in a “user friendly” way to enable placement educators to fulfil the expectations and responsibility of this role. Learning outcomes and assessment forms for all practice placements are included to enable placement educators to see how the expectations and requirements of learners progress throughout the programme/s. It is sub-divided into sections: Programme Structure and Curriculum, Support and Education, Roles and Expectations, and Placement Information. The final section includes general information given directly to our learners prior to commencing their practice placements. Effective communication and liaison between placements providers, placement educators, learners and school staff is essential in establishing a sound-working baseline. We hope this handbook facilitates this communication and look forward to working with you. Useful Contact Number: Frances Duff Practice Placement Assistant 023 8059 7041 Educator Website: http://www.sohp.soton.ac.uk/PracticeEducators

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CONTENTS PROGRAMME STRUCTURE AND CURRICULUM Core Values …………………………………………………………………………… Structure and Curriculum …………………………………………………………... Approach to Learning …………………………………………………………. Educational Focus ……….…………………………………………………………. Personal Development Planning ………………………………………………… Practice Placement ………………………………………………………………….. Structure of Practice Placement ………………………………………………… PLACEMENT EDUCATOR SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT What do we offer you? …………………………………………………………. Evaluation …………………………………………………………………………… PLACEMENT EDUCATOR ROLES AND EXPECTATIONS What do we expect from you? …………………………………………………. Supervision ……………………………………………………………………………. Dealing with important issues ………………………………………………….. Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………. Placement Assessment …………………………………………………………… PLACEMENT A-D INFORMATION Level I Placement Information …………………………………………………… Placement B, C and D ……………………………………………………………. Study time and Tutorials ……………………………………………………………. Placement B ……………………………………………………………………………… Placement C ……………………………………………………………………………… Placement D ……………………………………………………………………………… GENERAL INFORMATION Preparation for placement …………………………………………………………….. Insurance & Safety ……………………………………………………………………… Lone Working Position Statement …………………………………………………….. Accident & Incident Reporting …………………………………………………….. Sickness …………………………………………………………………………………….. Reporting Mental Health Concerns ……………………………………………. Contact Numbers ………………………………………………………………………. 5 5 5 6 7 9 10

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APPENDICES Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Academic Year Structures ……………………………………. Placement Consent to Treatment …………………………… Registration ……………………………………………………… Learning and Support – Locality Contact …………………… Educator Development Programme …………………… Accreditation ……………………………………………………… Learners with Disabilities ……………………………………. Placement Assessment Calculation …………………... Additional information for Physiotherapy placements ….. Progression of Professional Skills ……………………………. Common Abbreviations …………………………………….. Placement Accommodation/Travel Claims …………... 32 37 38 40 42 44 45 46 47 50 52 56

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CORE VALUES
In partnerships with the placement providers, the School is dedicated to the development of innovative practice based learning experience for allied health professional learners. The School acknowledges this partnership as essential because of the interdependence between theory and practice within professional programmes. The School is committed to developing independent, confident and proficient practitioners who have the capability and capacity to take a leading role in patient/client care and make a difference to practice in a diverse and changing health and social care system. Inter-professional team work is embedded into practice placement descriptors and is an expectation of all practice placements. In order to ensure that practice based education is a key element of the professional programmes and that it accurately reflects current practice, emphasis is placed on consultation between academic educators, placement providers and placement educators.

PROGRAMME STRUCTURE AND CURRICULUM
The School of Health Sciences provides interdisciplinary educational programmes. Occupational therapists and physiotherapists emerge as distinct professionals from their programmes. The School has chosen a modular curriculum as its base for learning, which means the programmes are made up of a series of freestanding modules of study. These modules are linked together to form a coherent programme and each have clearly designed, achievable learning outcomes and assessments. Within all the pre-registration programmes there are two types of modules: Joint Modules - learners receive common core teaching, but theory and activities are specific to professional groups. Profession Specific Modules – learners engage in separate subject areas. Also included is the Common Learning Programme, where Inter-professional Learning Units [IPLU] are incorporated at all levels of the programme. These units are a core educational component for all pre-registration health professional programmes at both Southampton and Portsmouth Universities. APPROACH TO LEARNING A student-centred approach places importance on activity, discovery and independent learning. Learners are expected to be active participants in the learning process, with their thoughts, ideas and contributions required at all stages and in all environments in which learning occurs. Learners are supported in developing the aptitude, confidence and skills to function as autonomous learners, increasingly encouraged to engage in independent, self-directed learning as they progress through their qualifying programme and into professional practice. Learners are helped to recognise the scope and need for transferring knowledge and skills across different stages, elements of learning and practice based environments. They develop the capability and capacity to engage in this process, and the skills to continue this process throughout their professional life.

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Self-directed learning is strongly emphasised, however, learners are not totally independent in learning as each professional programme has specific outcomes to achieve. Learning outcomes have been developed to clarify these professional expectations and learners are responsible for demonstrating achievement of each set of learning outcomes prior to progressing on the next level. Educational Focus Level 1 Modules focus on biological and psychological sciences, professional foundations skills and their application. Learners develop basic skills, reflect on their own experience and develop learning strategies in the context of professional practice. The development of analytical thinking and basic research skills is essential for their own studies, and self management and time management are addressed to assist them with planning and organisation of workload. They develop key skills relevant to professional practice; from communication to basic interventions. Level 2 Modules build upon these foundations skills. The focus is on clinical management skills and partnerships in health and social care which are designed to prepare learners for the range of professional practice. Practice placement experience is scheduled in two 6 week blocks [10 week blocks for part time placement], so that learners can reflect on both their academic work in the practice based environment and can appraise and integrate their practical experiences into subsequent learning in the School. Learners also develop the skills to motivate and empower patients/clients and explore how statutory and ethical frameworks influence the management of patients/clients. Level 3 Modules focus on complex clinical management, leadership, management, innovative practice and research. As learners progress towards qualification they understand their role within the health and social care systems and can function effectively and efficiently. Their practice placement(s), at level 3 consolidates and extends their knowledge and expertise to the level of practice required of a newly qualified therapist. They contribute to professional knowledge by investigating practice/evidence base and present their findings in an organised manner. See appendix I for Academic Year Structure.

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PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING (PDP)
The Schools student-centred approach is reinforced through the use of PDP. This process enables learners to link theory to practice and practice to theory, through the use of evidence based clinical development records (CDR) and/or portfolios. The aim is to develop autonomous learners and to provide a framework for capturing learning experiences across the whole curriculum. The School’s PDP activities currently assist learners to make essential links between theory, practice and personal learning in all the AHP programmes through specific activities, such as: • Peer review activities where experienced learners (level III) act as mentors to novice learners (level I) and carry out specific tasks related to the development of learning outcomes and reflective skills. The focus is on how level I learners can best prepare for practice placement B. Experiencing the mentor role assists level III learners to develop mentoring skills which can be transferred into the workplace and the experience is recorded in the their CDR/portfolio. The peer review process is continued at level II. Learners work in pairs/triads, they act as mentors and assist each other to develop learning outcomes in readiness for practice placement C, where these learning outcomes are then negotiated and implemented with their placement educator in the workplace. Learners are encouraged to engage in reflection and recording of practice placement experiences throughout all levels of the programme (CDR/Record of Experience). Reflective skills are informally and formally incorporated into the learning outcomes of academic modules and/or practice placement. Academic and Personal Review system with personal tutors, which is structured and supported with a documented process; encourages autonomous, self-directed reflection on academic and practice placement experience and further develops the partnership between learner and academic educator.

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The intention is to: • • • enhance learners capacity to reflect, plan and take responsibility for their learning, increase learners awareness of how learning takes place and what different learning strategies are trying to achieve, provide a structure for learners to explore how to learn in different contexts and to transfer such learning into situations throughout their personal and professional life, encourage learners to make essential connections between theoretical foundations, good practice and personal learning experience, utilise learning contracts linked to academic and practice placement modules to develop learners ability to be self-directed, autonomous and reflective practitioners,

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•

promote the use of action plans where learners analyse their learning needs, identify learning outcomes to develop skills, incorporate activities to achieve the outcomes and methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the plans, identify professional related skills and competencies which can be recorded and assessed, assist learners to articulate and evidence their competencies and demonstrate proficiency, improve the quality of interaction between learners, academic educators and placement educators.

• • •

In the new programme PDP will become progressively integrated into the work learners achieve across academic modules and practice placements. Information about this will be posted on the Educator website on a regular basis.

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PRACTICE PLACEMENT
The School “is committed to developing competent, reflective practitioners who are equipped with a range of professional and interpersonal skills to work in a diverse and changing health care system” and recognises that practice placement has a fundamental role to play in this process. The pattern of practice placement normally complies with the sequence established within programmes, though this may be adapted for those learners engaged in a negotiated route. The School’s capacity to develop versatile patterns and duration of placements, and the allocation of learners to new areas of work is essential. To achieve maximum continuous integration of theoretical and practical knowledge, learners experience placements throughout the levels of the programme, thus enabling theory to consistently inform practice and practice to inform theory. Learners have the opportunity to integrate theory with practice, develop a range of professional skills and learn to work with different team members. They explore how their own attitudes and values fit within those of their profession and identify their own ethical and moral position within the boundary of their profession’s rules and guidelines. The purpose of placement is to ensure learners are able to: • integrate theory with practice, develop a range of professional hands-on clinical skills and learn to work effectively within different multi-professional teams, explore how their own attitudes and values fit within those of their profession and identify their own ethical and moral position within the boundary of their profession’s rules and guidelines.

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Over a minimum of two and maximum of six year period (depending on the learning pathway) the School, in collaboration with placement providers/educators offers learners a range of practice based experience as directed by the professional bodies. Each practice placement has specific learning outcomes and assessment criteria that reflect the developmental and progressive nature of each qualifying programme. These learning outcomes are identified within module profiles and criterion based assessment is carried out at all levels of practice based education. Criterion within each assessment are written in a manner which places increased demands on learners in terms of their knowledge and performance, which may be a guided, prompted or an independent process.

Programme schedules/timetables can be found in appendix I. Policy on Consent to Treatment can be found in appendix II.

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STRUCTURE OF PRACTICE PLACEMENT
On the full-time programmes the School expects that learners will work for the same time per week as the normal contracted hours of a full-time therapist. This will include the half-day study period. The hours recorded for a placement are the normal full-time contracted hours of a therapist under Agenda for Change, i.e. 37.5. Days lost through sickness or absence should be recorded on the assessment form. Part time learners may undertake placements on a part time basis. Where this is the case this will be negotiated individually between the placement provider, placement co-ordinator and learner. On part-time placements learners will normally work three days a week and the hours per week will be equivalent to 0.6 of the full-time hours, i.e. 22.5. Placements are undertaken on a continuous basis as a single module of study and are divided into blocks of varying length, usually five to ten weeks throughout the three levels of study (or equivalent if part time). Each placement has its own learning outcomes and assessment criteria that reflect the developmental nature of the course. Placement A focuses on learners’ observation and reflection about the role of the occupational therapist, physiotherapist and other key health workers. The learner completes one week (depending on pathway) in a practice area. The duration of Placements B – D, vary from five to ten weeks full-time. To achieve maximum continuous integration of theoretical and practical knowledge, learners experience practice based education throughout the all levels of the programme; thus enabling theory to inform practice and practice to inform theory. For example: Physiotherapy Level 1 learners study profession specific modules in which they explore the theoretical and scientific basis of physiotherapy practice and develop general manual skills in preparation for Placement B. During Placement B, learners apply the skills learned and thus further increase their expertise. These experiences together serve as a foundation for clinical context and clinical management modules studied in Level 2. During these modules learners reflect on their earlier practice based experiences and build on them in preparation for Placements C1 and C2. Experience is gained in following areas of Physiotherapy: • • • • Neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation Acute Care including the management of cardio-respiratory problem Neurological rehabilitation Non-acute care involving the management of patient/clients in a non-acute setting

Learners are allocated to placements to ensure experience in all the core areas of practice and in a range of acute and community based environments.

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Occupational Therapy Learners study Foundation and Principles of OT Practice in level 1, during which they develop skills for a variety of client groups. These skills are applied during Placement B and are foundation skills for clinical modules, ‘Therapeutic Processes in Mental/Physical conditions studied in Level 2. This process of initial exploration in School and application and elaboration during practice placements, followed by reflection and further investigation in School is continuous for all learners throughout the programmes. Experience is gained in the following areas of Occupational Therapy: • • • Physical practice – acute or community contexts Mental health/learning Disability practice – acute or community contexts Social Services or Intermediate Care

Learners are allocated to placements to ensure experience in all the core areas of practice and in a range of acute and community based environments.

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SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT
OVERVIEW OF WHAT WE OFFER? The School develops effective and efficient relationships with placements providers and placement educators in the following ways: Registration: To ensure information reaches placement educators. (Appendix III) Locality Contacts and visits: Academic educators establish and maintain contact with practice placements and placement educators within specific geographical areas. There is a commitment by the Locality Contact from school to visit learners and placement educators during each graded practice placement. (Appendix IV). Briefing Sessions: A half day workshop which is held prior to each placement to allow new placement educators working with our learners to understand the philosophy of the School and practice the assessment process prior to having their first learners. (Appendix V). Educational workshops: A series of workshops are regularly run to facilitate the professional development of placement educators and promote good standards of practice. (Appendix V). Out Reach Workshops: Organised to meet local needs, with a focus on current practice placement issues, and provide the opportunity for placement educators and academic educators to meet. (Appendix V). Accreditation: The School implements the APPLE (COT) and ACE (CSP) accreditation systems in collaboration with the professional bodies. (Appendix VI). Placement Educator website: The website provides information on issues pertinent to practice education, e.g. courses, events, items of interest; plus provides access to resources to assist you in your role as practice educator.

http://www.sohp.soton.ac.uk/PracticeEducators

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EVALUATION The School is keen to develop an effective system for evaluating practice placement. This involves the supervisor, locality contact and learner in the following: Learner – Supervisor Feedback (During the placement) The evaluation form is designed to assist in the feedback process between learner and supervisor throughout the placement. This form is sent out with the official assessment report form, but need not be returned to the School with the final report. It is for your own information and development. Locality Contact keeps a central record of their visit[s] to a placement. Placement Educator provides feedback to the School through their locality contact (during and after placement). Learner Feedback (after the placement) Learners are debriefed on their return from placement. They identify and discuss their experience in peer groups. The focus for this debriefing is threefold; • how the programme has prepared them for their clinical experience; • how they have prepared themselves and • the experience of the placement itself. They provide feedback to the School about the placement and subsequently the School reports back to the providers either on request or through annual statements. Each year, the practice placement team is engaged in activity to explore one or more aspects of practice, e.g. the use of locality contact visits, preparation of learners for moving and handling, models of supervision, placement allocation models. These investigations give the School valuable information that can be used to enhance the practice based placement.

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PLACEMENT EDUCATOR ROLE AND EXPECTATIONS
WHAT DO WE EXPECT FROM YOU? The School has high expectations of practice placements. The following expectations are based on the standards of practice currently provided by the College of Occupational Therapists and the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Placement providers who accept University of Southampton AHP learners on placement are expected to provide placement educators, who fulfill the following criteria, with the requisite facilities in which to carry out their role: • • • • • • has sufficient experience and expertise to facilitate learners’ professional development, registers professional details with the AHP-School placement database, e.g. place of work, clinical field, learning experience offered. has attended an initial briefing session to familiarise themselves with the curriculum and assessment process, provides sufficient information to assist learners to comply with the objectives of the placement, is responsible for the personal and professional development of learners for the period of the placement, assists learners to identify and overcome personal and professional obstacles, unexpected incidents and generally how to cope with the pressures of the workplace, creates a learning environment which promotes the development of learners’ professional competence at the appropriate level, has sufficient experience and expertise to assist learners to fulfill the objectives of the practice placement, ensures the quality of the learning experience for learners, follows the guidelines provided by the School in the assessment of learners’ knowledge, performance and professional competence.

• • • •

The School is prepared to support placement educators in the skill development process through Locality Contacts and the Educator Development Programme.

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SUPERVISION
The School expects that a named placement educator will be overall responsible for a learner although more than one or a team may share the responsibility for the personal and professional development of the learner/s during the period of the placement. This involves the provision of support and encouragement on a regular weekly basis and assistance in how to deal with the pressures of clinical work. In order to achieve good standards of practice it is expected that placement educators understand the concept and principles of supervision and apply these when developing a working relationship with the learner. The following instructions have been given to the learners: A supervision relationship is possibly the best way of ensuring that you have the opportunity to reflect on your development as a trainee professional. You will have a named placement educator in each of your practice placements, although other members of the clinical team may facilitate much of the placement learning. The supervisor will normally be a qualified therapist who has responsibility for meeting with you regularly, e.g. once a week, on a one-to-one basis to discuss and reflect upon the content and process of your work and to provide you with feedback and support. The placement educator may have responsibility for more than one learner. The format and style of supervision will depend upon the preference of your supervisor and yourself. This may also be influenced by the requirements and limitations of the clinical area. You will find that your supervisor will adopt different roles, and will focus on a variety of issues during each placement. Firstly, there will be an educative element where you will explore therapeutic interventions with patients/clients, e.g. why and how you carry out clinical work. Secondly, you will need support and encouragement to cope with the pressures of dealing with disease and distress and discussion with your placement educator could be an important outlet for your own feelings and emotions. Finally, your supervisor will be managing the clinical situation in order to ensure that your work is appropriate and falls within defined standards of care for patients/clients and the service. You will need to draw up an informal agreement or learning contract with your supervisor about the most effective approach or balance of approaches to adopt. It is your responsibility to let your placement educator know what your needs are. Supervisors notice many things, but may need some assistance in understanding your position. The School is flexible in the supervision model adopted and supports the use of part time placement educators, shared supervision or multi-student models, e.g. two or more learners to one placement educator. Supervision by other professionals in emerging areas of practice for designated periods of time can also be negotiated with the School. See information on dealing with Learners with Disabilities in appendix VII.

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DEALING WITH IMPORTANT ISSUES
The majority of learners develop steadily during their practice placements. A motivated learner, with assistance from their placement educator, has relatively trouble free experiences and successfully overcomes any problems as and when they occur. However, a small percentage of learners experience great personal and professional difficulties, often when least expected, as a result of exposure to the pressures of clinical work. The reality that practice placements do not always run smoothly is brought to learners’ attention during placement preparation sessions and in their placement handbook. The following instructions have been given to learners: There may be times when you and your supervisor do not agree on a particular professional issue which might be stressful or anxiety provoking. Try looking at the issue from your supervisor’s point of view within the context of that particular setting – local factors can affect how particular things are done or presented. Listen to feedback without being defensive. You may find that you have two ways to approach an issue whereas before you had only one. On the other hand, you may have to agree to differ, as some aspects of professional practice rest on opinion rather than verifiable fact. It only needs to become a big issue if it conflicts with your own duty of care to a particular patient/client. You must not do what you believe to be harmful, or cause harm by anything which you leave undone. This situation is very rare, and we need to hear from you as soon as possible should it ever occur in your placement. It is not feasible to prepare learners for every eventuality. However, placement educators need to be aware of a range of issues so that the symptoms can be recognised quickly. These 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. important issues might include: a learner’s apparent lack of interest or commitment, a learner’s lack of ability and possible failure to reach the required standard, shortness of time available for a learner to modify his/her performance, how a learner copes with disease and distress, an under/over confident learner, a learner who demonstrates unprofessional or unsafe behaviour, how a learner copes with personal and family issues alongside clinical work, a learner who is frequently off sick, withdrawn or extremely tired/fatigued.

Learners at any stage of training are affected and often a key to dealing with situations is prompt action by placement educators. This places great demands on supervisors’ time, energy and confidence, and it is recommended that they establish a personal support network, either within the department/clinical team or through the School’s locality contact system. The School needs to be kept informed of any problems as early as possible so that assistance and support can be offered in good time.

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ASSESSMENT
The School believes that placement experience should contribute towards the degree classification for all learners. This ensures that the professional expertise component of the programme is valued and acknowledged alongside its academic based studies. The School expects placement educators to follow the guidelines provided in the assessment of learners’ knowledge, performance and professional competence. This involves assisting the learner to attain and develop their competence in the clinical area, recognising competence and appraising the learner’s performance through continuous and summative assessment. In addition to normal everyday contact, placement educators are expected to meet formally (e.g. once weekly – dependant on the profession) with their assigned learner, in order to give feedback on progress to date. This ensures that the learner is aware of his/her progress and can realistically set goals and objectives for the following week. This ensures the early identification of baseline strengths and success in practice, but most importantly potential weaknesses or problems. This allows time for the development of strategies to address issues along the way and if continuous feedback is clear, with a written report at half way, the full-time report should not be a surprise to the learner. It is recommended, indeed expected where more than one member of the team is involved, that placement educators consult colleagues and the other members of the clinical team before finalising half way/full-time reports. The School can provide support and advice to learners and supervisors throughout the process. The School does not require a copy of the half way report, though it is essential to contact the School if the learner is experiencing difficulty. The half way grade should be noted alongside the full-time grade and the final report forwarded to the Practice Secretary within one week of completion of the placement. The following instructions have been given to the learners: Assessment of your performance by your placement educators is an integral part of practice placement. Its purpose is to ensure that you are developing your professional skills and are operating competently within the practice based setting. Much of the feedback will be informal, e.g. instruction whilst in action, regular supervision sessions and discussion of cases. The formal assessment is seen as an extension of this learning process and will take place at least twice during the placement, i.e. half way and full-time reports. For these assessments, the practice placement assessment forms will be used. Should the situation arise whereby a learner is judged to have failed a practice placement or component of an assessment for whatever reason, he/she is allowed to re-sit the practice placement and/or component once more. Should a learner fail this re-sit practice placement, he/she is normally withdrawn from the programme.

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PLACEMENT ASSESSMENT FORMS
The following instructions have been given to the learners: Copies of the assessment forms that will be used by the placement educator on placement to grade you are available on the Placement Blackboard site. Please refer to the different placement headings for the relevant assessment form. Each placement educator is sent a form for you 2-3 weeks before the placements are due to commence, however, a small number of forms do not arrive with the correct person.

If this happens to you, please contact the Placement Assistant (023 8059 7041), who will send out a new form. Copies of the forms are also available on the Practice Educator website that the placement educator will have access to. Let us know if there has been any change in detail in your placement, i.e. location or named placement educator.
Please remember to ensure your name is on the form and it must be signed by both yourself and the Placement educator. The original signed form should be returned to the Placement office by post by the placement educator. Only one set of final grades will be given for each placement. If you have more than one placement educator, even if the placement is split into two distinctive parts, the Placement educators will collaborate in agreeing the final grades. There are some occasions when the 10 week placement undertaken by Occupational Therapists is split between totally different sites and/or specialties. In these cases the placements are treated in the same way as Physiotherapy D Placements. If this is the case it is expected that the arrangements will have been agreed between the Placement educator and the School OT Placement Co-ordinator prior to commencement of the Placement.

If, in exceptional circumstances, you are given your assessment form to return to the School, please ensure that you hand it in or post it to the Placement Assistant, IMMEDIATELY the placement has finished. We cannot record the successful
completion of a Placement until the assessment form is received. You may make a copy of your completed assessment forms for your own records. Your placement educator may be able to do that for you at the end of the placement. Assessment Report forms are constantly being updated, most current version will be found on educator website: http://www.sohp.soton.ac.uk/PracticeEducators The contribution of each practice placement assessment contributes directly to the academic achievement of the learner. The process by which this grade is calculated can be found in appendix VIII.

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LEVEL 1 – PLACEMENT A
INTRODUCTION TO PLACEMENT A EXPECTATIONS Placement A consists of 1 week of observation towards the end of Semester 1, Year 1(pro-rata part time) This placement gives the learners an opportunity to relate the communication strategies and professional frames of reference they have learned in their first semester to what happens in the practice based setting. The learner spends the majority of the time directly observing their placement educator. The important part of the feedback at this stage is advice on strategies for settling into new areas and developing a professional approach to patients/clients and colleagues. It is envisaged that the learner will observe professional roles within the team in order to assist learners to make best use of foundation and applied academic modules and inter-professional unit (IPLU) work. The learner can and should be used in the same way as an Assistant during this placement. They should also have the opportunity to observe another professional in action so that they can explore and compare professional roles. The assessment report focuses on the learner’s ability to observe and communicate, with opportunity for the supervisor to advise on the learner’s future practice. OBJECTIVES The learner fulfils the placement learning outcomes by: observing the role and activities of the placement educator identifying and developing his/her own role within the team setting: carry out daily tasks and assist patients/clients and team members as directed by the supervisor establish professional relationships with patients/clients and team members as necessary to carry out learning objectives discuss observations and findings with the supervisor find and follow safety policies and procedures used in the placement

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PLACEMENTS B, C AND D
INTRODUCTION These placements provide the opportunity for learners to develop professional and clinical skills. A similar assessment report has been devised for use in all the placements, with emphasis placed on safe practice, interpersonal skills, clinical skills and management skills. The wording of the assessment reports has been graded in a way that reflects the expected growth and ability of the learner. Physiotherapy learners must aquire skills and experience in the core areas of physiotherapy practice, and in acute and community environments i.e. Musculoskeletal, Acute/Respiratory care, Non-Acute care and Neurology. These placements are divided into five or six week blocks [or their part-time equivalent] according to the programme concerned. It is important that Occupational therapy learners acquire a balance of practice experience of mental health/learning disability and physical specialities within hospital, community and social services settings. CASE STUDIES During each placement (B, C and D) learners prepare a written case study on at least one patient/client or research a topic. This provides reference material for use in School, an example of treatment or intervention or the evidence base within that particular area. It provides evidence of the learners’ understanding of the needs of the patient/client, appreciation of the occupational therapy/physiotherapy process and the evidence base, the skills involved, and a grasp of the place of occupational therapy/physiotherapy within the operation of a multidisciplinary team. The learner may be required to present a summary of the case study or the chosen topic within the placement to colleagues and/or other staff. Whilst this may seem daunting, it gives the learner further experience of public presentation and an opportunity to discuss issues with other therapists. It might be a useful means of discussing current practice or sharing their view of patients/clients needs. Each area has its own needs and requirement for layout of the study. Therefore, one fixed method would be inappropriate. However, these are some content guidelines for a case study. Each case study includes: • demographic details such as age and sex • social background such as social network, socio-economic markers, cultural setting • history of presenting problem – what does the patient/client see as the difficulty and how did he/she come to be in contact with occupational therapy/ physiotherapy. • current interventions by others, such as medical and social work staff • assessment, including process of collecting data and formulating problems planning intervention • intervention • outcome of intervention • current status and future plans • other agencies and their involvement/influence The above are not necessarily section headings, but will feature in the content. Content may include items not covered above. The learner also relates information to modules covered where possible.

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STUDY TIME AND TUTORIALS
On full-time placements learners need time to reflect on their experiences. Therefore it is recommended that one half day per week, or equivalent, be allocated for personal study. This provides opportunity for background reading, planning, preparation and evaluation. Study time should be included and recorded as part of the learner’s total working hours. Learners are expected to manage their own study time, however guidance from placement educators about relevant topics and resources such as libraries or quiet rooms where they can work is appropriate. The School favours learners’ involvement in seminars, lectures and in-service education held within the practice based environment. Profession specific tutorials by placement educators effectively increase learners’ knowledge and understanding and are much appreciated by learners. The format and frequency of study time and in-service education is at the discretion of the placement educator.

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PLACEMENT B
Progress in performance: During this placement, the learner progresses from observation of the role of the supervising occupational therapist/physiotherapist/podiatrist to participation in the work of the supervising occupational therapist/physiotherapist/podiatrist. OBJECTIVES 1. Safety The learner: • follows the Health and Safety policies used by the placement; • contributes towards providing a safe environment for patients/clients, carers and the general public; • plans, where reasonable, how to deal with the risks affecting a patient/client in carrying out a therapeutic programme. 2. Interpersonal Skills The learner: • is aware of a range of communication needs among different patients/but needs guidance in meeting these needs; • begins to relate theoretical knowledge and teaching strategies to the therapeutic situation; • keeps accurate records of clinical intervention as requested and under supervisory guidance; • communicates effectively with other team members under supervisory guidance. 3. Clinical Skills The learner: • collects information and carries out patient/client assessment with; guidance from the supervisor • shows ability to discuss with the supervisor the assessment method, assessment findings and possible development of an action plan; • uses supervisor guidance to implement the action plan, as far as it is reasonable and safe for the learner to do so; • shows regard for the patient’s/client’s position in respect of privacy, dignity and personal needs; • shows ability to discuss with the supervisor the outcome of the action plan implementation and, where appropriate, the implications for future action or discharge. 4. Management Skills The learner: • takes his/her share in the daily tasks of the placement with guidance as necessary; • shows insight into when he/she needs help from the supervisor or other staff; • presents a professional appearance and behaviour which facilitates the therapeutic objectives towards which he/she is working; • organises himself/herself to be in the right place at the right time, appropriately prepared for the task in hand; • shows an awareness of the policies and procedures operating in the placement in as far as they have an obvious effect on the patients/client with whom the learner is in contact.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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PLACEMENTS C1 & C2/PLACEMENT C Progress in Performance: During this placement, the learner progresses with this patient/client group from participation in the work of the supervising occupational therapist/physiotherapist to taking responsibility for his/her own caseload. OBJECTIVES 1. Safety The learner: • follows the Health and Safety policies used by the placement • contributes towards providing a safe environment for patients/clients, carers and the general public • plans, where reasonable, how to deal with the risks affecting a patient/ client in carrying out a therapeutic programme. 2. Interpersonal Skills The learner: • uses, where possible, the patient’s/client’s own perceived requirements of the learner therapist to foster a therapeutic relationship • relates different teaching strategies/approaches to the needs of different groups (patient/client groups, carers, public) • keeps accurate, appropriate records of clinical intervention • uses knowledge of therapeutic progress to participate appropriately in team decision making 3. Clinical Skills The learner: • shows an integration of current experience with prior learning • routinely collects information and carries out patient/client assessment with some prompting as necessary • shows an understanding of the reasons for assessment method choice, and the implications of assessment outcomes for planning intervention • implements action plans with the supervisor prompting as necessary • shows regard for the patient’s/client’s position in respect of privacy, dignity and personal needs • relates outcomes of therapeutic intervention to modification of action plans, recommendations for future action, or formulation of plan for discharge. 4. Management Skills The learner: • routinely shares in the general tasks of the placement • develops an appropriate balance between confidence in own abilities and recognising when assistance is required • maintains a professional approach which facilitates an appropriate working relationship with patients/clients and other team members • identifies and begins to use appropriate personnel, service and resources available to patients/clients • demonstrates attention to relevant policies and procedures used within the placement.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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PLACEMENT D OBJECTIVES 1. Safety The learner: • follows the Health and Safety policies used by the department; • contributes towards providing a safe environment for patients/clients, carers and the general public; • plans, where reasonable, how to deal with the risks affecting a patient/client in carrying out a therapeutic programme. 2. Interpersonal Skills The learner: • varies his/her approach to suit the needs of each individual – patient/client, carer, other team members, and the public; • uses teaching strategies appropriate to the needs of the individual patient/client, carer, other team member, and the public; • maintains accurate, appropriate records of clinical intervention using these to share relevant information with the patient/client and the multidisciplinary team, in keeping with the professional duty of confidentiality; • operates as a full and effective member of the multidisciplinary team. 3. Clinical Skills The learner: • shows an integration of current experience with prior learning; • uses information collected and assessment outcomes to plan therapeutic intervention; • demonstrates ability to justify choice and use of particular assessments and therapeutic interventions; • involves the patient/client and/or carers in clinical decision making whenever practicable; • shows regard for the patient’s/client’s position in respect of privacy, dignity and personal needs; • evaluates the outcomes of intervention, modify or close the action plan as appropriate and implement a plan for discharge where appropriate. 4. Management Skills The learner: • routinely shares in the general tasks of the placement; organises own time and patient/client contact time; • identifies and uses personnel, service and material resources available to the client; • shows awareness of costs involved in planned interventions and relates individual patient/client need to financial resources available to the service; • identifies and uses resources for personal learning and clinical support within the service; • demonstrates an appreciation of the impact of relevant legislation on service operation. Additional information on Physiotherapy placements can be found in appendix IX. Additional information about learner progression can be found in appendix X. Notes on medical abbreviations can be found on XI.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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GENERAL INFORMATION
PREPARATION FOR PLACEMENTS Compulsory sessions held prior to the learners beginning practice placements cover topics such as Moving and Handling, Health and Safety, professional behaviour and expectations. This work is closely linked to professional practice and, in addition, learners are expected to prepare themselves by carrying out background reading about the patient/client group and treatment techniques. The following instructions have been given to the learners: “The modules you complete in School form the major part of your preparation for placements. For instance, your professional skills will be tested in your first year and you will need to pass (i.e. demonstrate your competence in those skills) before you can progress to your first major practice placement, which is Placement B. When you know the type of placement you are going to, you will do some background reading about that particular patient/client group, team members’ roles, relevant techniques of assessment, and professional intervention.” For Placements B, C and D: “At least 2 weeks before you are due to go on placement, write to your supervisor introducing yourself and asking whether there is any particular preparation you can make. Your supervisor will be able to give you further details about accommodation, facilities on site, any special uniform requirements and anything unusual about travel arrangements. The School should have this kind of basic information to give you, but it is always possible that changes have happened which we do not know about and so it is useful to ask the supervisor in advance whether there is anything he/she wants you to know!” For all learners: “Check in your letter, or with your supervisor if necessary, what time you are expected to arrive on the first morning. After that first morning, you will be expected to follow the pattern of hours set by the supervisor, which may include evening sessions if that is normal for the area. If your personal responsibilities preclude this, let your tutor know in your personal review.” ACCOMODATION DURING PLACEMENT Information related to accommodation during practice placement and learner travel claims can be found in appendix XII.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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INSURANCE Learners are covered by University insurance when they are at the University and in the practice placement setting as long as they are undertaking activity for which they have been trained and under the supervision of their practice placement supervisor. The practice placement provider has been asked to agree to accept vicarious liability for the actions of the learners whilst on placement. The agreement is recorded as part of the service level agreement with the practice placement provider. SAFETY The School recognises the importance of safe practice and incorporates this aspect directly into the practice placement assessment report. These issues are discussed during the clinical briefing sessions and the School ensures that learners: • are instructed in current moving and handling techniques • attend Health and Safety lectures • are instructed in first aid and basic life support • are advised to receive clear guidance, during practice placement induction, of the consent for treatment policy, lone working policy, accident and incident reporting policy (including needle stick injuries if appropriate to the placement) and have clear comprehension of their role as a learner in adhering to them within the placement setting • are responsible for their own car insurance and safe travel when travelling to Placements The following instructions have been given to the learners: “Never attempt anything in the practice setting for which you have not been trained or in which you do not feel confident of a safe outcome for your patient/client. Likewise, never disregard an instruction from your supervisor. Follow the policies and procedures used by the department in which you are on placement. Rehabilitation is a risky business for your clients – someone who is learning to walk again after a stroke is clearly at greater risk of falling than he/she was before the stroke. Part of the professional judgement you will be learning is to balance risk against benefit and to manage risks as safely as possible for your patients/clients. Especially in the early stages, your supervisor will be more aware of the risks inherent in the activities you undertake with your patients/ clients and his/her instructions will be protecting you as well as the patient/ client. It may be that your supervisor believes you have practised a technique when you have not. If you are asked to do something with a patient/client which is strange to you, then refuse politely and explain why. Your supervisor can practice it with you and then you can carry out his/her instructions. You are covered by insurance for accident, but what has been outlined above is negligence – a much more serious matter which leaves both you, and possibly the School, open to legal retribution. It must also be obvious that we cannot allow a learner who has shown him/herself to be negligent to continue on the course. This passage is not supposed to instil you with fear and dread of ever touching a patient/client, but it is necessary to be clear that you have responsibility to play your own part in ensuring the safety of the patients/clients in your care.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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Finally, you are required to attend certain health and safety sessions during the first year, which will ensure that you are prepared, for instance, for moving and handling safely. These sessions are compulsory and we cannot allow you into the clinical setting without having done them. The sessions comprise: • Clinical briefing; including resuscitation and lone working policy advice • Health and Safety & Moving and Handling. Finally, insurance cover for yourself comes through the University and the Professional bodies. If you take a car out on practice, the insurance cover does not extend to this. Do not take patients/clients out in your car and, if you use it to get yourself to your destination and/or to carry equipment, check that your own car insurance covers this.” LONE WORKING POSITION STATEMENT Lone working is an integral part of clinical work for many therapists. Learners undertaking their placements may have the opportunity for lone working. However, the individual learner must be assessed to be competent on all skills (communication/clinical/managerial) required to undertake lone working, and be confident in their knowledge and implementation of the local lone working policy. Risk assessment should be carried out according to local policy. It is therefore not expected that learners will undertake lone working in the initial weeks of their placement. ACCIDENT OR INCIDENT ON PLACEMENT Accidents or incidents may occur despite your best efforts as a supervisor and compliance with risk assessment/management implementation. Each placement setting will have clear policies and procedures to follow in the event of an accident or incident (including “Needlestick injuries”). The Placement Assessment form front page makes specific reference to any accident or incident and requests that you forward all completed forms with the assessment form. Where an accident or incident has occurred in response to unsafe practice or requires the learner to take a period of sick leave please inform your locality contact as soon as possible. The following instructions have been given to the learners: “If you are involved in an accident or incident on placement, please take advantage of any staff member in the immediate vicinity but make sure your supervisor knows as soon as possible. There will be policies and procedures to follow to manage and record the incident. Follow the guidance given by your supervisor. You will be required to complete the organisation’s ‘Accident/Incident’ form. This is normal practice for all staff and learners within a health and social care organisation. A copy of the completed form will be forwarded to the clinical practice office for our records and so that we can ensure your and future learner’s safety. Your supervisor has been made aware of this requirement.”

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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SICKNESS The School ensures that learners have clear guidelines to follow should they become ill during placements. Learners are expected to inform their placement educators immediately they become ill and provide a self- certificate for the first 6 days. A doctor’s certificate is required from the 7th day. This is sent directly to the placement educators, who then forward this to the placement secretary at the School. Learners may require emergency health care whilst on placement resulting from, for instance, an accident at work. Serious and sudden need can be dealt with through the local casualty department (e.g. cuts and fractures). In some cases, work related health problems may be dealt with by the local Occupational Health Department. However, health care needs may be less dramatic or serious but still an issue (e.g. infections) during practice placements. Learners may need to see a GP. For this reason, during the 6 and 12 week placements learners will be expected to sign on as visitors with the GP practice nearest to their accommodation. The following instructions have been given to the learners: “Hopefully, you will go through this course in a hale and hearty condition. However, you will be in contact with a number of infective agents with which your immune system is unfamiliar – the problem with hospitals is that they are full of sick people, with a few infective agents that are beyond anyone’s system to combat. There are some things you must do to safeguard yourself and others: 1. Co-operate with the initial medical check up – you have got to be safe to go out on practice. If you have any problem which could affect your safety, patient/client care during placement, or requires extra planning on placement, see your course leader about sending a health and special requirements note to your placement educator. 2. You must have been vaccinated for Hepatitis B (etc). It is unlikely you would catch any of these things, but take the maximum precautions available to minimise any episodes of illness. 3. In areas where you may come into contact with some of the more untreatable conditions, such as HIV, there will be procedures to contain the infective agent and to protect you. FOLLOW THEM. 4. In some areas, even a slight infection can be dangerous to others. If you feel off colour, let your supervisor know, so that he or she can decide if you are safe to continue that day. If you are told to leave the area, then just go. We ensure that you have more than the minimum hours and it will take a long absence to put you in danger of needing a further placement. Assessment will take your absence into account and each situation will be judged on its own merit.” Should you fall sick, you need to let your supervisor know that same working day. For the first 6 days you need to fill in a self-certification form that your supervisor will return to us. From the seventh day you will need a doctor’s certificate that your supervisor will send on to us.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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If the sickness is serious enough to warrant medical attention, we would like to hear directly from you as well as receiving the medical certificate from your supervisor. Call the Practice placement Secretary on 023 8059 7041. It may be that your supervisor falls sick. Your supervisor’s manager is the first in line of call. In your first placement you will need daily supervision, but as your course progresses there will be flexibility about how much time you can spend alone and what tasks you can undertake. However, you must always have access to a qualified therapist. It may be that your supervisor’s manager or a delegate member of staff can Reorganise your programme to deal with the situation. If the situation looks set to continue for some time or it is not possible to reorganise your programme to cope, we would like to hear from you and your supervisor’s manager. Again, call the profession specific administrator.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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REPORTING MENTAL HEALTH CONCERNS The Department of Health published “Mental Health and Employment in the NHS” in October 2002. School guidance has been developed from the Department of Health’s document and the University of Southampton’s “The Management of Acute Mental Health Emergencies”. The University of Southampton published its Mental Health Policy in 2002. One of the principles is “to ensure that all employees and learners who experience mental health difficulties are treated fairly, sensitively and with respect, and are offered the support that they need to deal with their particular situation. The School of Health Professions and Rehabilitation Science has a responsibility under the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 to avoid discriminating against learners with disabilities, including mental illness. If a learner’s behaviour gives you cause for concern, do not worry about whether you are qualified to decide whether or not they have a mental health condition; your concern is sufficient cause, so contact the university locality contact immediately either by telephone or through the education office on 023 8059 7041 or sohpcpot@soton.ac.uk. Also contact your Occupational Health department for local assistance. It is the responsibility of the GP with whom the learner is registered to provide professional support and care in incidents of mental illness. Whilst learners are advised to register with a local GP for each placement of more than 6 weeks duration, their compliance with this advice may be limited. If you consider the learner is showing signs of an acute mental health emergency you should attempt to discover the identity of the learner’s GP, and, where this is known, report your concerns to the GP. Alternatively contact your Occupational Health department immediately and report your concerns to the locality contact immediately. Whilst you should limit the amount of information you reveal to external sources in order to protect the learner’s confidentiality, it is entirely appropriate to inform services of any information that may be relevant to their evaluation of the situation. Do not contact the learner’s family or friends unless specifically requested to do so by the learner in person. The Duty of Confidentiality under the Data Protection Act 1998 is limited by the Duty of Care that we have to learners and staff. The duty of care takes precedence where there are serious concerns about an individual’s mental or physical health or for the safety of others to serious risk from that person. The University recognises an acute mental health emergency may consist of any of the following: • The person is considered to be an immediate danger to themselves • The person is considered to be an immediate danger to others • The person is exhibiting extreme distress • The person is neglecting their own health (e.g. neglecting medication, self care or failing to eat adequately) such that they may trigger a crisis lease contact the University if you have any concerns and for further advice.

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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TO ALL OUR PLACEMENT EDUCATORS:
We look forward to working with you in the future. If you have any queries regarding this handbook or practice placements in general, please do not hesitate to ring the School on 023 8059 7041 Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy Or email sohpcpot@soton.ac.uk. Practice Organising Team have designed this handbook should you have any queries please contact us on 023 8059 7041 • • • • • Jani Grisbrooke/Teresa Job OT Practice Placement Organiser/s Steve Ryall, PT Practice Placement Organiser Crissi Gallagher, Coordinator Educator Development Programme Felicity Hargreaves, Placement Educator Development and Training Coordinator and Accreditation Adviser, Quality & Enhancement, NESC SC SHA Frances Duff Practice Placement Assistant, Accommodation Bookings

All can be contacted via 023 8059 7041 Placement Educator Website:

http://www.sohp.soton.ac.uk/PracticeEducators

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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APPENDIX I

ACADEMIC YEAR STRUCTURES

BSc Physiotherapy (Full time) Semester 1
Foundations of Health Sciences Year 1 Foundations of Physiotherapy Practice IPLU1a Clinical Management (Neuro & NMS) Year 2 Clinical Management (CVR & SCG) Complex Clinical Management Year 3 Health Care Futures and Innovations IPLU3a Placement D1
Placement D2

Semester 2
Applied Health Sciences

Placement A

Principles of Physiotherapy Practice IPLU1b Integrated Clinical Management

Placement B

Placement C1

Partnerships in (public) Health & Social Care IPLU2

Placement C2

Research Module Leadership & Management
IPLU3b

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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APPENDIX I ACADEMIC YEAR STRUCTURE

BSc Occupational Therapy (Full time) Semester 1
Foundations of Health Sciences Year 1 Foundations of Occupational Therapy Practice IPLU1a Therapeutic Process (Physical) Year 2 Therapeutic Process (Mental Health) Complex Therapeutic Engagements Health Care Futures and Innovations IPLU3a Placement C1 Placement A

Semester 2

Applied Health Sciences Principles of Occupational Therapy Practice IPLU1b Integrated Therapeutic Process Partnerships in (public) Health & Social Care IPLU2

Placement B

Placement C2

Research Module Placement D1
Placement D2

Year 3

Leadership & Management
IPLU3b

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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APPENDIX I

ACADEMIC YEAR STRUCTURE

BSc Physiotherapy (Part time) Semester 1
Foundations of Health Sciences Year 1 IPLU1a Foundations of Physiotherapy Practice Clinical Management (Neuro & NMS) Placement A IPLU1b
Principles of Physiotherapy Practice Partnerships in (public) Health & Social Care

Semester 2
Applied Health Sciences

Placement B

Year 2 Year 3

Placement C1 Year 4 Clinical Management (CVR & SCG)

Integrated Clinical Management

Placement C2

IPLU2

Complex Clinical Management Year 5 Health Care Futures and Innovations IPLU3a Placement D1

Research Module Leadership & Management
IPLU3b

Placement D2

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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APPENDIX I

ACADEMIC YEAR STRUCTURES

BSc Occupational Therapy (Part time) Semester 1
Year 1 Foundations of Health Sciences IPLU1a Year 2 Year 3 Foundations of Occupational Therapy Practice Therapeutic Process (Physical) Placement A IPLU1b

Semester 2

Applied Health Sciences

Placement B

Principles of Occupational Therapy Practice Partnerships in (public) Health & Social Care

Placement C1 Year 4 Therapeutic Process (Mental Health)

Integrated Therapeutic Process

Placement C2

IPLU2

Complex Therapeutic Engagements Year 5 Health Care Futures and Innovations IPLU3a Placement D1

Research Module Leadership & Management
IPLU3b

Placement D2

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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APPENDIX I

ACADEMIC YEAR STRUCTURES

MSc Physiotherapy Semester 1 Semester 2
Foundations of Physiotherapy Practice Year 1 Clinical Management (40) IPLU2 Integrated Clinical Management (20) Year 2 Critical Inquiry Project Protocol (10) Placement 3 & 4 Complex Clinical Management (50) Placement 4 & 5 Placement 1 &2

IPLU3

Year 3 Critical Inquiry Report & Presentation (60)

Placement 6

Updated by clg3, May 2009.

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APPENDIX II

PLACEMENTS: CONSENT FOR TREATMENT
The following advice has been given to the placement Educator regarding consent to examination (assessment) and treatment of patients/clients based on department of Health guidance. Consent, by patients/clients, to examination and treatment is a core principle underpinning clinical practice. The Health Professions Council outlines in its Standards of conduct, performance and ethics. Your duties as a registrant: 2003, that “You must get informed consent to give treatment (except in an emergency)”, and since the incorporation of the European Convention of Human Rights into English Law as the Human Rights Act, treatment without informed consent is a potential breach of the act under article eight. Informed consent suggests that all and/or complete information has been provided including all possible outcomes of any intervention that is proposed. Whilst this may be the intention, if challenged the information given may be incomplete and therefore open to possible litigation. Recent Department of Health advice to all professions has suggested a change in terminology from informed consent to valid consent. Patient’s/clients have a fundamental legal and ethical right to determine what happens to their own bodies. Valid consent to treatment is therefore absolutely central in all forms of healthcare. The Department of Health states that consent is a patient’s agreement for a health professional to provide care. For consent to be valid, the patient/client must: • • • Be competent to take the particular decision Have received sufficient information to take it; and Not be acting under duress

The patient/client’s actual consent to examination or treatment is only the end point of the whole consent process. This process includes the provision of information, discussion and decision-making. The health professional carrying out the assessment or treatment is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the patient/client is genuinely consenting to what is being done. If the process of seeking consent is to be a meaningful one, refusal must be one of the patient/client’s options. A competent adult is entitled to refuse any treatment, except in circumstances governed by the Mental Health Act 1983. The situation for children is more complex and you should refer to the Department of Health’s Seeking consent: Working with children. Patients/clients need sufficient information before they can decide whether to give their consent and if a patient/client is not offered as much information as they reasonably need, and in a form they can understand then their consent may not be valid. It is a health professional’s own responsibility:

37

• •

To ensure that when they require colleagues to seek consent on their behalf they are confident that the colleague is competent to do so; and To work within their competence and not to agree to perform tasks which exceed that competence.

Where learners are asked to seek consent to treatment it is therefore the responsibility of the Placement Educator to ensure that the learner is competent to do so. The Department of Health has issued a number of guidance documents on consent that are available at www.doh.gov.uk/consent and should be reviewed in conjunction with the regulatory and individual professional bodies’ guidance.

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APPENDIX III REGISTRATION All qualified practitioners are eligible to register with the School. This includes experienced practitioners, novice practitioners and part-time staff. The Registration can be viewed either as: • expressing an interest in being a placement educator, with a commitment to working with learners in the future; • confirmation of a wish to take responsibility for being a placement education in the immediate future. REGISTRATION IS NOT ACCREDITATION Interest in Practice based Education: Practitioners who initially express an interest in practice placement can register as a placement educator at any time. Placement Educator: Practitioners who register as a placement educator should discuss this with their line manager, practice based team and/or placement provider, prior to contacting the School. This enables line managers/team to advise and support their development as placement educators as part of their CPD appraisal and personal development plan. Placement educators who work directly with our learners are expected to register, as this ensures that information is automatically forwarded to them. The Placement Educator’s Handbook can be accessed through the Practice Educator website. All registered placement educators, whether experienced or not, are invited to become accredited with the School and are assisted in using their prior learning and experience in the process. All placement educators can register by completing the registration form and forwarding this to the Placement Secretary, Allied Health Professions, School of Health Sciences, Building 45, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17

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APPENDIX IV

LIAISON AND SUPPORT DURING PRACTICE PLACEMENT
LOCALITY CONTACT Practice placements cover a large geographical area. This area has been subdivided into localities and contact between the School, placement educator and learner is maintained and guidance provided throughout practice based placements by an identified academic educator (Locality Contact) during the period of the practice placement. In some localities, practice placements are provided for both occupational therapy and physiotherapy learners. A locality contact from the School, will be assigned by the Practice placement Coordinators from each profession. In line with the School’s student-centred approach, the locality contact is available to respond within reason to learners expressed needs for information and intervention, such as: telephone/email discussion of issues, visiting learners and placement educators during placements and sharing problem solving methods related to practice based experience. The allocation of locality contacts to geographical areas establishes a clear liaison and support network between the School and the practice placements. This promotes the development of existing practice placements and ensures that the School develops new placement opportunities in response to changing patterns of practice. Locality Contacts consider: • issues related to the clinical area, whether practice placement and/or placement educator are able to meet and maintain the required standards in practice based education, such as: levels of experience, skills, creation of an environment conducive to learning, ability to adapt to and keep abreast of developments and work effectively within workplace constraints.

and are: • accessed by placement educators who wish to problem solve in relation to any aspect of practice based education, learner development and assessments. This includes providing dates and information with regards to the academic programme, advice on managing learning activities and creating a learning environment, plus opportunities for training and development provided by the School.

Locality Contacts target and visit specific learners, placement educators and practice placement when: • learners have specific needs identified, such as: overseas learners, disabled learners, those who need additional support as a result of bereavement, learners who are repeating practice placement having failed to progress previously, placement educators clearly signal that the learners performance is below the standard required for the level of training reached, placement educators need support, guidance, training and advice, there is a need to monitor and audit the practice based learning experience.

• • •

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During communication with learners, Locality Contacts might check the learner’s: • • • • • adherence to the self-directed principles adopted by the School, professional attitude towards, and appreciation of, the patient/client group needs and their role within the service and/or clinical team, successful development of a constructive working relationship with their placement educator, personal health, social contact and general well being, e.g. manageability of traveling, financial circumstances, living conditions, coping strategies for dealing with academic work pressures whilst on practice placement.

The Locality Contact manages these responsibilities in a number of ways: • telephone interviews and email contact, • discussion of learning needs and facilitating links to be made with appropriate learning opportunities, e.g. through placement educator website, centrally led support systems for learners within the University of Southampton, initiating liaison and information sharing with appropriate academic/support service staff and practice based manager, as and when necessary, formally meet with placement educator/s and learner/s during placement.

• •

Locality Contacts make professional judgments through negotiation with learners, placement educators and placement providers about the need for, and timing of, a formal visit within the context of the practice placement. Please call the practice placement secretary or email - sohpcpot@soton.ac.uk for general enquiries.

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APPENDIX V EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLACEMENT EDUCATORS Occupational Therapist and Physiotherapists who work with the learners in practice placements have varying levels of experience and training in practice based education and subsequently have different development and education needs. All need opportunities to familiarise themselves with the Schools philosophy and assessment approach in preparation for facilitating and assessing learners. In addition there is a need to encourage both new placement educators, and those with wider experience, to develop their skills further. With this in mind the School presents the following educational programme: Placement educators are required to attend an introductory Briefing Session, normally prior to working with their first learner. This half day session covers basic information on the learning philosophy and assessment. Through the use of hypothetical learner examples participants explore assessment documentation, how to deal with expectations of learners at different levels and cope with learners who are struggling to progress. An agreed approach to using the assessment form is promoted to facilitate consistency. Briefing sessions are carried out in both academic and locality settings as is deemed appropriate by those involved. Briefing sessions are run regularly throughout the academic year and are scheduled prior to each practice placement block. In addition a Novice Workshop is carried out for prospective placement educators who plan to take their first learner. This one day workshop is an extended briefing session and is repeated on a number of occasions throughout the academic year. Placement educators who attend this workshop are not required to attend a briefing session prior to the placement as this information is covered as part of the day. Time is given to exploring the expectations and role of the placement educator in more depth as part of guided preparation for working with a learner. A series of workshops (6 full days, repeated twice during an academic year) provide opportunity for placement educators to look in-depth at issues related to the placement educator role and are available to both inexperienced and experienced placement educators. The workshops are designed to cover the major development areas of: Supervision, Learning and Teaching and Assessment. Placement educators are grouped together in order to share ideas and experiences, to pick up tips and practical tools to use with learners in practice based settings. Placement educators can choose to attend for the whole series of workshops, or select specific workshops which they believe best suit personal learning needs. The workshops can be completed in any order and over an extended time scale. These workshops are currently attended by all the allied health professions. An Accreditation Workshop (one full day, repeated throughout the academic year), where placement educators are encouraged to fulfill six learning outcomes and become accredited with their professional bodies (Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, College of Occupational Therapists). Placement educators are introduced to the standards and learning outcomes and make a positive start in the process of gathering evidence. Those who go on to successfully submit an application and evidence portfolio are entered onto the national data base for accredited placement educators (see section 2.9). All workshop activities/experiences are linked to the Health Professions Council (HPC) Continuous Professional Development (CPD) guidelines for re-registration and assist placement educators to prepare for this process. All professional groups gain

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guidance on preparing, collecting and submitting evidence acquired from their experience as a placement educator. They are encouraged to describe how this experience can be used to meet the required standards and to explore learning needs and develop action plans related to this role. Comprehensive workbooks related to each workshop are provided. These act as both a record of participation during the session and provide additional theoretical information to support the development of the clinical educator role. Workbooks contain extensive references, tips on specific coping strategies and practical tools that can be implemented with learners during the practice placement, e.g. essential core skills, observation checklists and grading performance tools. Participants experience the use of these tools and plan how these will be implemented with learners on a day to day basis. Workbooks can then be used by participants, and peers/ colleagues, on their return to the workplace. The workshops are predominantly held at the University of Southampton, with additional ‘Outreach’ workshops being provided off site in particular locations depending on demand and availability of staff and facilities. The School encourages placement providers to develop education programmes within localities and offers assistance with organisation, facilitation and teaching. Placement providers are encouraged to arrange multi-professional sessions wherever possible within teams and services which reflect practice and the School’s philosophy of joint working. Additional workshops/seminars provided within trusts and departments are seen as complementing any programme provided by the School. For example, Placement Educators are encouraged to access development opportunities that are carried out within and across professions, e.g. ‘Supporting Dyslexic Students’, and/or, ‘Supporting Disabled Students’ workshops which are provided by multi-professional academic members of the School of Health Sciences and the Learning Differences Centre, University of Southampton. All aspects of this programme and an on-line booking system can be accessed through the Educator website:

http://www.sohp.soton.ac.uk/PracticeEducators/

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APPENDIX VI ACCREDITATION Although participation in an accreditation process is not compulsory for allied heath professionals at this time, the School offers this opportunity to all placement educators. The accreditation system is designed to meet the standards for practice based education laid down by the professional bodies, Accreditation of Clinical Education (ACE: CSP) and Accreditation of Practice Placement Learning and Education (APPLE: COT). In accessing this system placement educators gain national recognition of their contribution to practice based education and also demonstrate competency in CPD that can be used for re-registration purposes (HPC). The School has taken up the Experiential Route offered by both professional bodies. This means that working directly with learners and making use of the educational support network on offer enables placement educators to work towards achieving the outcomes in an integrated way. The School’s Educator Development Programme workshops underpin both the HPC standards and the professional body’s accreditation process. The Accreditation System focuses on the following Learning Outcomes: 1. Describe the role and identify the attributes of an effective practice placement educator. 2. Apply learning theories that are appropriate for adult and professional learners. 3. Plan, implement and facilitate learning in the practice placement setting. 4. Apply sound principles and judgment in the assessment of performance in the practice placement setting. 5. Evaluate the learning experience. 6. Reflect on experience and formulate action plans to improve future practice. The standards are a useful resource for therapists who are involved in educating learners, regardless of whether they choose to become accredited or not. As recipients of practice placement, learners are expected to take an active part in the process and the School values their contribution. As the placement educator role demands great flexibility in practice, so these guidelines should be used flexibly, with individuals working at their own pace and level of development. Placement educators who elect to fulfill these learning outcomes are required to provide evidence from their work with learners that demonstrate their effectiveness. Those who are able to do this successfully are awarded accreditation status and are registered centrally with their professional body. Accreditation status is acknowledged by all allied health schools in the United Kingdom. Information and application forms can be found on the Educator Website:

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APPENDIX VII LEARNERS WITH DISABILITIES
The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) describes a disability as: ‘Any condition which has a significant adverse and long term effect on the person’s ability to carryout everyday tasks’. Disability can be categorised as, mobility difficulties, visual/hearing impairments, learning difficulties, autistic spectrum disorder, unseen disability (epilepsy, diabetes) and mental health difficulties. The act covers a range of areas including employment, education and access to goods and services. Therefore organisations such as NHS/Social Services and universities have a duty to promote equality of opportunity, to eliminate discrimination of any kind and must make ‘reasonable adjustments’ to support identified individuals. Adjustments and support is needed for those with specific needs in both academic and practice based learning. Adjustments must be made throughout the whole process from pre-admission selection through to completion of programmes which satisfy professional standards and regulation. These individuals must demonstrate that they are ‘Fit for Practice’ and must meet all the learning competencies and skills in a similar way to other students. This presents a range of challenges to placement practice educators. 1. students have different levels of awareness of their own needs & areas of practice 2. strategies in one setting are not always transferable into another setting 3. complexity of providing support and learner achieving independence 4. lack of confidence and fear of failure for all concerned 5. practical everyday pressures may appear to be more difficult, e.g. remembering complex information under pressure, handling unexpected incidents, multi-tasking, communicating information accurately, making the best use of time, coping with the pace of work and keeping to deadlines, organising and prioritising work, maintaining stamina and avoiding fatigue, learning routines and procedures quickly, coping with change and unfamiliar challenges. STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING DIFFICULTIES The British Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia in the following way: ‘… as a combination of abilities and difficulties that affects the learning process in one, or more, of reading, spelling and writing. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas such as speed of processing, short-term memory, sequencing and organisation, auditory and/or visual perception, spoken language and motor skills. It is particularly related to mastering and using written language, which may include alphabetic, numeric or musical notation’. Dyslexia can affect many areas of learning and dyslexic people often spend far longer on all aspects of study. It should not be forgotten that dyslexic people will have many strengths as well as weaknesses. Services for students: Screening assessment, full assessments, assessment of current difficulty & advice on disabled students’ allowance, individual academic study skills & tutorials. Source of information: The Learning Differences Centre (LDC) Southampton University, www.dyslexia.soton.ac.uk

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APPENDIX VIII

PLACEMENT ASSESSMENT CALCULATION

Conversion of grades to placement mark: • Grade for each section: The criteria grades are given a weighting consistent with the following and the average of each section is calculated to provide a ‘mark’ for the section. A = 75, B = 65, C = 55, D = 45, E = 20

‘Mark’ for each section = No. of Ax75 + No. of Bx65...etc No of criteria graded • • • Overall placement mark is calculated by averaging the three section ‘marks’. In the event that the overall mark is 75, ie. the student has gained ‘A’s in all criteria, the placement mark awarded will be increased to 85. The grade for a placement is awarded according to the following: A = 70 and over, B = 60 – 69, C = 50 – 59, D = 40 – 49, Fail see below

Placement Failure The student is deemed to have failed if, at the end of the placement, either: (a) (b) In section 1 - the student is marked as ‘No’, i.e. is unsafe in any of the criteria. If more than one of the Sections 2, 3 and 4 have three or more criteria graded at E

In the event of one section being failed, i.e. grade E, and therefore awarded a mark equivalent of 20, the mark recorded will be the average mark or 40 whichever is the higher.

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APPENDIX IX ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PHYSIOTHERAPY PLACEMENTS It is not expected that you will be exposed to all common conditions, use all the usual physiotherapy interventions or be exposed to every type of context in which patients are managed. The priority is to ensure that you are familiar with and competent in the principles of assessment, planning, management and evaluation relevant to the area so that you can apply them in new and different situations in the future. As a consequence, these skills can be developed in a range of different contexts as long as there is exposure to a sufficient number and range of symptoms/problems/cases. The following gives a guide as to what that could include and what opportunities the learning experience could provide in each particular area of practice. PLACEMENT B – Neuromusculoskeletal 1 (6 Weeks) You will normally work with adult patients with simple musculoskeletal problems. You may work in in-patient or out-patient settings or both, e.g. T&O, orthopaedics, M/S outpatients, rheumatology [or Elderly Care, General Rehab for part-time students]. You should develop and apply a variety of assessment, planning, treatment and evaluation skills, and may involve treatment approaches that include: Joint mobilisation, Soft tissue techniques, Muscle strengthening, Electrotherapy, Gait re-education, Pain relief. Part-time students will only be able to use the approaches you have covered in year 1 of your programme. Your approach is to involve the patient throughout the therapeutic process in order to achieve an optimal functional outcome. Opportunities for you to broaden your experience are welcomed. These may include: • attendance at theatre (orthopaedic procedures) • attendance at orthopaedic clinics, both uni- and multi-professional • involvement with paediatric orthopaedic patients • participation in home visits or other community interventions • involvement with related professional groups PLACEMENT C1, C2, D1 and D2 These placements provide you with a variety of clinical experience. C Placements consist of two distinct blocks of 6 weeks each, named C1 and C2. The C1 Placement occurs in the first semester and C2 in the second semester of the second year, normally after Easter. The D Placements are two distinct blocks of 5 weeks each, named D1 and D2. These are two consecutive placements. The Placement D1 occurs at the end of semester 1 and D2 at the beginning of Semester 2 in the third year. PLACEMENTS C1 AND C2 – Acute/Non-acute/Neuro (6 weeks each) [may include neuromusculoskeletal 1 for part-time students] During C Placements, you will experience any two of the following: Acute – Cardio –respiratory care OR Non-acute care/Special Client Groups OR Neurological Rehabilitation * See Definitions below for detailed information

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PLACEMENTS D1 AND D2 – Neuromusculoskeletal 2/Acute/Non-acute/Neuro (5 weeks each) One of these will be Neuromusculoskeletal 2; the other will be the one of the following that you haven’t yet completed: Acute – Cardio –respiratory care Non-acute care/Special Client Groups Neurological Rehabilitation DEFINITIONS NON-ACUTE CARE/SPECIAL CLIENT GROUPS You will work with patients in any of a range of settings, e.g. community hospital, rehabilitation unit, school, hospice, residential home, domiciliary, or with specialist client groups such as Older People, Learning Disabilities, Mental Health, Palliative Care/Oncology, Paediatrics, Women’s Health etc. You will learn to adapt and vary your core skills to suit the context and/or client group. These may include: modification of assessment/treatment techniques according to the environment or client group; education, advice and support to patients/clients and carers; multidisciplinary working/networking in the community setting or client group; personal safety during community based practice or with the particular client group. NEUROLOGICAL REHABILITATION It is not expected that you will be exposed to all common conditions, use all the usual physiotherapy interventions or be exposed to every type of context in which patients with neurological conditions are managed. The priority is to ensure that you are familiar with and competent in the principles of neurological assessment, planning and management so that you can apply them in new and different situations in the future. As a consequence, these skills can be developed in a range of different contexts as long as there is exposure to a sufficient number and range of symptoms/problems. NB: Normally it is expected that you will be exposed to adults with neurological problems but it may be combined with experience of other client groups, e.g. Paediatrics. 0 Experience: Neurological rehabilitation focuses on diseases and trauma to the Central Nervous System i.e. the brain and spinal cord. Your learning is about the management of symptoms and not conditions i.e. an understanding of spasticity within the context of different conditions e.g. MS, CVA, spinal cord injury, brain injury. Learning also focuses on the movement disorders associated with neurological symptoms and how therapists can re-educate normal movement patterns. The main neurological symptoms you have been taught are concerned with upper motor neurone syndrome i.e. central nervous system disease/damage. These include spasticity, flexor/extensor spasms, dysynergic movement patterns, associated reactions, weakness, loss of dexterity. Management of conditions is taught broadly as acute and progressive again within the context of its application to symptoms.

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On placement it is important that you assess and treat a variety of neurological symptoms but not necessarily a variety of conditions. Physiotherapy skills to include: Assessment skills relative to: Impairment - Activity measures; Participation Management - Goal setting: Therapeutic techniques; Working within the MDT Evaluation- Standardised tests: Appropriate outcomes ACUTE - CARDIO RESPIRATORY EXPERIENCE This experience will be achieved in a variety of specialty areas and client groups e.g. Surgical, Medical, Cardio-thoracic, Pulmonary Rehab, and ICU/HDU. It is not expected that you will be exposed to all common conditions, use all the usual physiotherapy interventions or be exposed to every type of cardio-respiratory context. The priority is to ensure that you are familiar with and competent in the principles of cardio-respiratory assessment, planning and treatment so that you can apply them in new and different situations in the future. As a consequence, these skills can be developed in a range of different contexts as long as there is exposure to a sufficient number and range of cases. The following gives a guide as to what that might include, what you should achieve and what opportunities the experience might provide. Conditions to experience: Some of the following • Obstructive: COPD, Asthma, Bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis • Restrictive: Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pneumonia, pleurisy, chest infection, and post major surgery • Respiratory failure Type 1 and II Physiotherapy skills to include 1. Assessment skills: subjective, and objective. • How to analyse the findings from assessment, the interpretation of arterial blood gases, chest X rays and auscultation. • Clinical reasoning • Outcomes and evaluation of treatment 2. Clinical skills: Positioning, • Mobilisation, • Active cycle of breathing techniques • Manual techniques; percussion, shaking and vibrations • Mechanical ventilation IPPB, CPAP and NIPPV - if accessible • Suctioning and manual hyperinflation techniques - if accessible. NEUROMUSCULOSKELETAL 2 - Out-patients You will work with adult patients with increasingly complex and multiple musculoskeletal problems as a result of pathology or trauma; these should include spinal conditions. You should build on skills acquired earlier, and develop your skills in detailed assessment and differential diagnosis of spine and peripheral joints, modification of techniques in view of underlying pathology, modification of techniques due to presentation of multiple problems.

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APPENDIX X

PROGRESSION OF PROFESSIONAL COGNITIVE, PERCEPTUAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS
Cognitive Behaviours Level I You are expected to: Show knowledge and understanding of material which is required to meet the objectives and Begin to apply that knowledge and understanding in appropriate situations. Level II In addition to the above, you are expected to: Show application and analysis of your knowledge and understanding and Begin to evaluate material appropriately. Level III In addition to the above, you are expected to: Evaluate and synthesise theoretical concepts and practical actions in therapeutically positive ways. What this means in practice is that you are expected to justify your arguments and courses of action and are able to create individual solutions to patient/client problems based on what you have learned. Perceptual Behaviours Over the 3 years your understanding of what an therapist is changes. Level I You are expected to: Recognise and discuss issues related to Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy practice. You can: Describe and justify profession specific behaviours. Level II Your appreciation and valuing of your professional role deepens. You: Modify your approaches and behaviours in line with professional codes of conduct. Level III Your attitudes and behaviours demonstrate your valuing of the professional role you have adopted. You: Identify with profession specific tasks and Discriminate between those that are appropriate to you and other health professionals.

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Psychomotor Behaviours Level I You are expected to: Choose and organise an activity and Demonstrate a pattern of skills that make up that activity and Explain what you are doing, with some guidance. Level II You are expected to perform practical skills with Less guidance and supervision You are expected to Begin to adapt or alter the skills according to variations in the clinical situation. Level III You are expected to: Vary your practical skills to suit the clinical situation, and Combine skills to achieve a desired result. You can begin to create/build on new skills to suit a particular situation. The criteria against which you are assessed are very similar at each level, however, on the assessment forms the progression between levels is shown by the following change in language which is indicative of the level of competency you should reach by the end of the placement: Level l “With guidance from the placement educator” implies that the learner is an active participant in the process (whether it be decision making or skilled activity), however the lead has come from the placement educator. Level ll “With prompting from the placement educator” implies that the learner has taken the lead in the process (whether it is decision making or skilled activity) but has needed assistance from the placement educator in the refinement and clarification of the idea or activity. Level lll “Independently” implies that the learner carries out the process independently (whether it is decision making or skilled activity). The placement educator may give supportive feedback during the process but does not direct the learner in any other way. The weighting of the marks given to each assessment is gradually increased over the programme. You can find on the assessment sheets themselves the instructions for marking which placement educator receive [See Placement Blackboard site]. In addition to these instructions, placement educator will have attended a briefing session that includes practice in marking performance and using these forms.

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APPENDIX XI

COMMON ABBREVIATIONS
RELATED TO PATIENT/CLIENT TREATMENT
ASL CT Scan CPA DBEs Depot DXR EC ECT EXS FET GA HT ICT ILT I/R Mobs M/P Alternate Side Lying Computerised Tomography Care Programme Approach Deep Breathing Exercises Long Acting Injection Deep X-ray Elbow Crutches Electro Convulsive Therapy Exercises Forced Expiratory Technique General Anaesthetic Hydrotherapy Intermittent Cervical Traction Intermittent Lumbar Traction Infra Red Mobilisations Megapulse MRI MUA NFAR POP PSWD ROS SCT SLT SQ SWD TCI TH TLC Vibs XROA 2:1 2:2 2:3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Manipulation Under Anaesthetic No Further Action Required Plaster of Paris Pulsed Short Wave Diathermy Removal of Sutures Static Cervical Traction Static Lumbar Traction Static Quads Short Wave Diathermy To Come In Through Hip Tender Loving Care Vibrations X-ray on Arrival To be supervised all the time To be supervised every 10 mins To be supervised every half hour

RELATED TO DRUG THERAPY
AC BD MAOI Nocte NSAID OD Before Meals Twice Daily Monoamine Oxidaze Inhibitor At Night Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Once a Day/Overdose PC PRNc QDS TDS TTO TTO's After meals As Required 4 Times a Day 3 Times a Day To Take Out To Take All (Drugs on discharge)

RELATED TO LIMBS
AE AFO AMP AMP AK AKA ATNR BE BK BKA DHS DIP EKC FFD FOSH FROM FS FWB IDK Above Elbow Ankle Foot Orthosis Amputee Austin Moore Prosthesis Above Knee Above Knee Amputation Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex Below Elbow Below Knee Below Knee Amputation Dynamic Hip Screw Distal Interphalangeal Early Knee Class Fixed Flexion Deformity Fall on outstretched hand Full Range of Movement Frozen Shoulder Full Weight Bearing Internal Derangement of Knee IRQ MCP NOF NOH NRS NWB PIP PWB SLL SLR SOA SOF SOH TA TAQ THR TK TKR # #NOF #NOH Inner Range Quads Metacarpo-phalangeal Neck of Femur Neck of Humerus Night Resting Splint Non Weight Bearing Proximal Interphalangeal Partial Weight Bearing Straight Leg Lift Straight Leg Raise Swelling of Ankles Shaft of Femur Shaft of Humerus Tendon Achilles Toes, Ankles, Quads Total Hip RePlacement Total Knee Total Knee RePlacement Fracture Fractured Neck of Femur Fractured Neck of Humerus

IKC IP

Intermediate Knee Class Inter Phalangeal

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RELATED TO PEOPLE, DEPARTMENTS AND SERVICES
AA AA ADAS ADL ADNS ADS A&E ALAC ASW ATC BAOT B-I-L BMHCT BNF BRI CAB CEO CHC CM CMHT CMO CPA CPN CRUSE CSSD CSW DADL DFG DH DLA DLF DN DNA DRO DSS DWA ECU ENT EPH FRCPsych FRCS GP HCO Attendance Allowance Alcoholics Anonymous Alcohol & Drug Advisory Service Activities of Daily Living Assistant Director of Nursing Services Alzheimer’s Disease Society Accident & Emergency Artificial Limb & Appliance Centre Approved Social Worker Adult Training Centre British Association of Occupational Therapists Brother-in-Law Bath Mental Health Care Trust British National Formulary Bristol Royal Infirmary Citizens Advice Bureau Chief Executive Officer Community Health Council Care Manager Community Mental Health Team Chief Medical Officer Care Programme Approach Community Psychiatric Nurse Bereavement Counselling Central Sterile Supply Department Community Support Worker Domestic Activities of Daily Living Disablement Facilities Grant Day Hospital Disabled Living Allowance Disabled Living Foundation District Nurse Did Not Attend Disablement Resettlement Officer Department of Social Security Disabled Working Allowance Environmental Control Unit Ear, Nose & Throat Elderly Peoples Home Fellow of Royal College of Psychiatrists Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons General Practitioner Home Care Organiser HH HV HV ITU LA MCSP MDM MIND MOBAC MOW MSW NSF NSF OAP OPD OT PADL PCT Pt PT Reg Relate RG RHA RICE RMN RNHRD RTS RUH SCM SHO S-I-L SR SS SSD ST SW SWAN W/C WRVS WZWF Z/F ZWF Home Help Health Visitor Home Visit Industrial Therapy Unit Local Authority Member of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapists Multidisciplinary Meeting Organisation advocating support of mentally ill Age Concern Meals on Wheels Medical Social Worker National Schizophrenia Fellowship National Service Framework Old Age Pensioner Outpatients Department Occupational Therapist Personal Activities of Daily Living Primary Care Trust Patient Physiotherapist Registrar Marriage Guidance/Relationships Remedial Gymnast Regional Health Authority Research Institute Care of Elderly Registered Mental Nurse Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases ("The Min") Raised Toilet Seat Royal United Hospital State Certified Midwife Senior House Officer Sister-in-Law State Registered Social Services Social Services Department Speech Therapist Social Worker South Wansdyke Advice Network Wheelchair Women's Royal Volunteer Service Wheeled Zimmer Walking Frame Zimmer Frame Zimmer Walking Frame

RELATED TO TESTS PERFORMED TO AID DIAGNOSIS
A+P ABG AFB CSF ECG EEG ESR FBC Hb HPC Anterior Posterior Arterial Blood Gases Acid Test Bacillus (for TB sputum specimen) Cerebro Spinal Fluid Electro Cardiograph Electro Encephalograph Erthrocyte Sedimentation Rate Full Blood Count Haemoglobin History Present Condition LP Lumbar Puncture MFT Mental Function Test MTS (AMT) Mental Test Score (Abbreviated Mental Test) MID Multi Infarct Dementia PEF Peak Expiratory Flow PMH Past Medical History SDAT Senile Dementia of the Alzheimers Type SH Social History TDQ To Direct Question

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LFT

Liver Function Tests

ULTT

Upper Limb Tension Tests

RELATED TO BLADDER AND BOWEL
BO MSU PR Bowels Open Mid Stream Urine Per Rectum PU PV UTI Pass Urine Per Vagina Urinary Tract Infection

RELATED TO DIAGNOSIS
A AAB AD AF AVF BPn Ca 2o CABG CAF CCF CDH CF CFS COAD CP CS CVA DS DVT EMI ESN HI ISQ JCA LD LVF MH MI Assessment Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Alzheimers Disease Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Ventricular Failure Bronchiopneumonia Cancer Secondaries Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Chronic Airflow Limitation Congestive/Chronic Cardiac Failure Congenital Dislocation of Hip Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease Cerebral Palsy Cervical Spondylosis Cerebro Vascular Accident Disseminated Sclerosis Deep Vein Thrombosis Elderly Mentally Ill Educationally Sub Normal Head Injury In Status Quo Juvenile Chronic Arthritis Learning Disabilities Left Ventricular Failure Mental Handicap Myocardial Infarction MID MLD MND MS NAI NIDD NIDDM OA P Parks PD PE PID PMR PND PUO PVD RA RTA Rx SAH SLD SOL TB TE TIA URTI Multi-Infarct Dementia Mild Learning Disabilities Motor Neurone Disease Multiple Sclerosis Non Accidental Injury Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Osteoarthritis/Arthrosis Plan Parkinson’s Disease Parkinson’s Disease Pulmonary Embolus Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Polymyalgic Rheumatic Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnoea Pyrexia of Unknown Origin Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatoid Arthritis Road Traffic Accident Treatment Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage Severe Learning Disabilities Space Occupying Lesion Tuberculosis Tennis Elbow Transient Ischaemic Attach Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

RELATED TO FACTS RECORDED DURING EXAMINATION OF PATIENTS/CLIENTS
BP C CNA CNS c/o CPM D DA DH DNA DOA DOB DOD D/V D+V E ECR FH Blood Pressure Continue Could Not Attend Central Nervous System Complained Of Continue Present Management Discharge Doctors Appointment Drug History Did Not Attend Date of Admission Date of Birth Date of Discharge Domiciliary Visit Diarrhoea & Vomiting Expired Extra Contractual Referral Family History LTM NAD NAH NBI NFA O OA PERLA PMH PNS POMR S SD SH SOA
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Long Term Memory Nothing Abnormal Discovered or No Apparent Deformity/Difficulty Not at Home No bony injury No Fixed Address Objective On Examination Pupils Equally reacting to light & accommodation Past Medical History Peripheral Nervous System Problem Orientated Medical Records Subjective Self Discharge Social History Swelling of Ankles

FUA GOF HPC ISQ LBP LOC LT

Follow-up Appointment Gone off Feet History of Present Condition In Status Quo Low Back Pain Loss of Consciousness Light Touch

SOB SOBOE STM TCI TIA TID TOD UTA

Shortness of Breath Short of Breath on Exertion Short Term Memory To Come In Transient Ischaemic Attack Transferred Inside District Transferred Outside District Unable to Attend

COMMON MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
a Ante Anti Arthro Cardio cf Dys Haem Hemi Hydro ... therapy Hyper Hypo Inter Intra ... plegia ... plasty Without Before Against Joints Heart Compare With Malfunction Blood Half Water treatment Over - too much Under - too little Between Within - inside Paralysis False/refashioning Myo Ortho Osteo Para Per ... ectomy ... otomy ... itis ... troph Peri Pneuma Pyo Quadra Sub Super Supra Muscles Straight Bone Closely related to something else Completely/Through Removal Opening into Inflammation of growth Surrounds Air - lungs Pus Four Under - below Excess Above

Please note these lists do not cover all abbreviations you may come across. New ones and changed terms occur all the time. You may find it useful to carry a notebook with you and record abbreviations you come across which are relevant to the placement area in which you are working

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APPENDIX XII

PLACEMENT ACCOMMODATION
Policy and procedure for Booking and Payment 1. In advance of the placement, all learners are required to complete an accommodation form, (distributed with placement confirmation paperwork from the Placement Office) on which they must indicate whether or not they require accommodation during the placement. If accommodation is not required, the form should still be returned indicating your address during the placement. If the form is not returned in plenty of time we may not be able to book accommodation for you. 2. If hospital accommodation is requested, this will be organised and provisionally booked by the School, subject to current availability. The learner will be informed of the accommodation details and costs1. 3. If there is no accommodation available on site at the hospitals, a short list of Bed & Breakfast accommodation may be available for the learner to explore. 4. Invoices for placement accommodation at hospital sites are usually sent direct to the School. Initially they are paid for by the School on behalf of the learner. The School will then invoice each learner for the accommodation costs on their return to School after the placement. This procedure may be subject to change at any time in line with government directives. 5. The University has strict procedures that are implemented regarding unpaid invoices. In addition, the School will not arrange placements for learners until all debts relating to the previous placement have been settled. In short, a learner’s degree will be jeopardised if bills for placement accommodation are not settled promptly. 6. Learners staying in Bed & Breakfast, or other accommodation arranged independently, will normally be expected to pay their own accommodation costs direct to the provider. 7. If a learner has had to retain and pay for accommodation in Southampton, whilst living away on placement, then the lower of the two accommodation expenses will be paid by the NHS Student Grants Unit, if the learner is in receipt of a full NHS bursary2. Proof of both rents will be required. Unfortunately, learners not in receipt of a bursary are unable to claim back any placement accommodation costs. 8. Claim forms for reimbursement of placement accommodation costs are available and dealt with in the same way as the excess travel claim forms detailed in Appendix I. 9. Any queries or further information about accommodation should be addressed to the Placement Office.

Once accommodation has been booked a contract has been entered into, if it is subsequently cancelled by the learner, a fee for part or all of the costs may be incurred. It is important to inform Practice Placement Assistant and the provider of the accommodation if you cancel accommodation provisionally booked by the School. 2 See booklet ‘The NHS Bursary Scheme Guidance on Clinical Placements Costs’
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1

*Disclaimer Please note the School/University has no facilities for inspecting either hospital or private rented accommodation and is not in a position to recommend particular private or hospital rented accommodation. The placement office would be grateful, however if they could be informed of any difficulties you experience with private or hospital rented accommodation. Great care has been taken to ensure that any details contained within the Placement Office are accurate. The Office at the AHP- School of Health Sciences cannot however accept any responsibility whatsoever for any inaccurate information. Please note that it is the responsibility of the Landlord to ensure that a valid copy of a Gas Safety Certificate is held for each relevant private or hospital accommodation.

CLAIMS FOR REPAYMENT OF PLACEMENT EXCESS TRAVEL COSTS
If you have been awarded a full NHS Bursary, as calculated by the Department of Health, you are entitled to claim travel costs incurred whilst on Placement 3 (see booklet for further details). A record of all travel costs, supported by tickets and mileage details should, therefore, be kept and reported on the appropriate claim form. Public transport is reimbursed on ticket costs (at the most economic rate) and private car travel is reimbursed on the lower of either a mileage basis, or the most economic equivalent public transport cost. (N.B. this information is required before a claim can be calculated and should be included on the claim form even if the journey appears not to be feasible on a daily basis). Season tickets should be used where appropriate. If a car is required as a condition of the placement excess travel costs may be claimed at fuel mileage rates. If the car4 is used for visiting patients/clients a record of the mileage should be kept and signed by placement educator. Claims are to be made on an official Claim Form. The Guidelines, ‘The NHS Bursary Scheme, Guidance on Clinical Placement Costs’ and Claim Forms, will be made available to students at the placement preparation session prior to each placement. Additional forms and guidance booklets will be available from Reception. Completed forms are to be returned to the Finance Officer together with any relevant tickets/receipts attached. The School will certify valid claims and forward them to the NHS Student Grants Unit for processing. Students without grants Unfortunately, learners who do not receive a grant are ineligible for reimbursement of placement travel costs. But if you are required by the placement to use your car5 for visiting patients/clients, a record of the mileage should be kept and you should be able to claim through the Trust concerned. Seek advice from the placement educator about the process. Queries Any queries or further information should be addressed to the Finance Officer.

3 4

See booklet ‘The NHS Bursary Scheme Guidance on Clinical Placements Costs’ Paras. 4.0 – 4.10 It is the learners’ responsibility to ensure that their car is properly insured 5 It is the learners’ responsibility to ensure that their car is properly insured
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