ICT and Society by simee

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									ICT & SOCIETY

1.

Define ICT.

ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.

First generation (1940 – 1956)

1.

Describe the brief evolution of computers.

Computer Scientists 1. Presper Eckert, built the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and computer) 2. William Mauchly, built the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and computer). New Hardware Technology 1. Vacuum Tube In a computer, a vacuum tube which is an electronic tube about the size of light bulbs, was used as the internal computer components. Thousands of them were used.

2. Punched Card Punched card was used to store data. 3. Magnetic Tape Magnetic tape was introduced in 1957. It was a faster and a more compact method of storing data. 4. Problems a. The vacuum tubes generated a great deal of heat causing many problems in temperature regulation and climate control. a. The tubes also burnt out frequently. b. People operating the computer did not know that the problem was in the programming machine. a. The second generation computer scientists invented something new due to lots of problem created by vacuum tubes. Second Generation (1956 – 1963) 1. The famous computer scientists during the second generation era were: a. John Bardeen b. Walter Houser Brattain c. William Shockley 2. Transistors a. Transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes. b. They needed no warm up time

1.

Describe the brief evolution of computers.

Third generation (1964 – 1971) 1. In the third generation era, the IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. It came in several models and sizes. 2. It was used for business and scientific programs. Other computer models introduced were CDC 7600 and B2500. 3. Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961 at the Silicone Valley. 4. Then came the integrated circuit technology, which had reduced the size and cost of computers. 5. Other than that, the Magnetic Core Memory was replaced by a device called the microchip. 6. Advantages a. Silicone chips were reliable, compact and cheaper b. Sold hardware and software separately which created the software industry. c. Customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit checks) 7. Software Technology a. More sophisticated b. Several programs run at the same time c. Sharing computer resources d. Support interactive processing Fourth Generation (1971 – Present) 1. It took only 55 years for the 4 generations to evolve. The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer inventions. There are many types of computer models such as: a. Apple Macintosh b. IBM c. DELL d. ACER 2. In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. In 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer. Then, in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer. 3. During the fourth generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor and storage devices were invented. A microprocessor is a specialised chip which is developed for computer memory and logic. 4. The microprocessor is a large-scale integrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors. 5. The transistors on this one chip are capable of performing all of the functions of a computer’s central processing unit.

1.

Describe the brief evolution of computers.

6. Advantages a. Silicone chips were reliable, compact and cheaper b. Sold hardware and software separately which created the software industry. c. Customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit checks) 7. Software Technology a. More sophisticated b. Several programs run at the same time c. Sharing computer resources d. Support interactive processing Fourth Generation (1971 – Present) 1. It took only 55 years for the 4 generations to evolve. The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer inventions. There are many types of computer models such as: a. Apple Macintosh b. IBM c. DELL d. ACER 2. In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. In 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer. Then, in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer. 3. During the fourth generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor and storage devices were invented. A microprocessor is a specialised chip which is developed for computer memory and logic. 4. The microprocessor is a large-scale integrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors. 5. The transistors on this one chip are capable of performing all of the functions of a computer’s central processing unit. 6. Advantages a. Computers became 100 times smaller than ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) the first computer. b. Gain in speed, reliability and storage capacity c. Personal and software industry boomed

1.

Fifth Generation (Present and Describe the brief 1. New Hardware Technology evolution a. Silicone chips of computers. b. Processor c. Robotics
d.

Beyond)

Virtual reality e. Intelligent systems f. Programs which translate languages New Era Computer 1. Super computers 2. Mainframe computers 3. Mini computers 4. Personal computers 5. Mobile computers

1.

List the usage of ICT in everyday life.

Education
1. Computers are used in the sector of education because they can offer: a. interactive experiences b. enhanced learning c. cognitive development 2. Teachers use computers to research for teaching materials, participate in online forums and online conferences as well as to aid their teaching. 3. Students use the computers as a reference tool. They use computers to browse the internet to look for information. 4. Researchers use computers to collect and process data. 5. School administrators use computers for administrative purposes to make sure that the entire operation runs smoothly. Banking 1. The computer is the nerve center of the banking system around the world. It functions to control the entire banking system that also includes ‘Electronic Banking Services’. 2. Customers can make any transactions at the 24 hour service centers or via online. 3. Businessmen can save their time by using the online services offered by banks. They can access company accounts for loan applications, business transactions and update on their cash flow at any time. 4. Bank administrators can oversee the entire banking activities such as reconciliations, interbranch transactions (IBT), telegraphic transfer and others by referring to the banking system.

Industry
1. 2. 3. 4. Computers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems, to support chain management and to help to product design in the industrial sectors. Workers use machines that are connected to computers to operate. In some productions, robots are used to take over jobs that are dangerous to the workers. Researchers use computers to analyse and collect research data for future reference. Administrators use computers to oversee the entire operations in the plant or factory to detect specific errors or defects that occurred in the process.

1.

List the usage of ICT in everyday life.

E-commerce 1. E-commerce helps in boosting the economy. It makes buying and selling activities easier, more efficient and faster. For this application, computers, internet and shared software are needed. 2. Customers use computers to be connected online with suppliers to purchase products. This method can save time and cost as they do not have to go any outlets. 3. Suppliers use computers to keep track of their transactions. All products are bar coded and can be read by the computer scanner to help in determining prices and managing inventory. 4. Employees use computers and telephones to communicate with their customers for any enquiries. The system helps employees to get the latest updates on inventory to be informed to the customers.

1.

State the differences between computerized and noncomputerized systems.

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

Prior to the non-computerized system, banking was done manually by taking deposits directly. Production was slow because everything was done manually and depended totally on human labour. Trading was made using the barter system. Trading globally was extremely slow, late and expensive. With computerized system, many schools provide computers to assist with education. Transaction for banking can be done at anytime and at any place. Online services, phone banking system credit cards facilities are also available. With ICT, computer and telecommunication industries become very popular and profitable. E-Commerce plays an important role in the economic scene. It includes distribution, buying, selling and servicing products that are done electronically.

1.

State the impact of ICT on society.
Define computer ethics, code of ethics, intellectual property, privacy, computer crime and cyber law.

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2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Speed Cost Paperless environment Borderless Social problems Health problems Reliability Sharing

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Computer Ethics  Ethics refer to a standard of moral guideline that is used to determine proper behaviour.  There are two codes of conducts that can be referred to which are the Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics by the United States Institute of Computer Ethics and the e-mails and internet guidelines by the Department of Public Services of Malaysia.  Unethical computer code of conducts include modifying certain information, selling information on the internet, affecting the accuracy of the information, selling information to other parties without the owner’s permission, using information without authorisation, involvement in stealing software and invasion of privacy.  Ethical computer code of conducts include sending warning about viruses to other computer users, asking permission before sending any business advertisements to others and using information with authorisation.

Intellectual property


Intellectual property (IP) refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists.  These works are unique and have value in the market place. Privacy  Privacy in ICT refers to data and information privacy and the right of individuals and companies to restrict the collection and use of information to others. Computer Crimes  Computer crime is any criminal activity that is related to the use of computers such as fraud, copyright infringement, theft and computer attack. Cyber Law  Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online communication technologies.

1.

Differentiat e between ethics and law.

Ethics
As a guideline to computer users Ethical behaviour is judged by moral standard Computer users are free to follow or ignore the code of ethics No punishment for anyone who violate ethics Universal, can be applied anywhere, all over the world. To produce ethical computer users Not honouring computer ethic means ignoring the moral elements (immoral)

Law
As a rule to control computer users Law is judged by judicial standard Computer users must follow the regulations and law Penalties, imprisonments and other punishments for those who break the law Depends on country and state where the crime is committed To prevent misuse of computers Not honouring the law means committing a crime

1.

State the need for intellectual property laws.

As businesses continue to expand globally, business owners must realize the importance of getting professional advice on how to establish and safeguard their intellectual property rights.

1.

List the ways to protect privacy.

Privacy can be protected by 1.privacy law and 2.utilities software. There are two commonly used authentication methods, which are biometric device and callback system. Two methods commonly used in verification are user identification and processed object.
1.

1.

State authentication and verification methods/ technologies.

1.

List effects of pornography and slander on society.

Impacts on society: a. Causes arguments and quarrels b. Can harm reputation of people c. Lowers moral behaviour d. May exploit men, women and children e. Can lead to sexual addiction and crimes f. Erodes good religious, cultural and social beliefs and behaviour

1.

Describe the process of filtering to control access to controversial contents.

The Process of Internet Filtering Referred to by the URLs Type URL False URL checks for blocked database Access granted Access denied True

By using a large set of keywords to prevent accessing sites that contain one or more of the words

Type Keyword (in browser) False Keyword = Blocked database Access granted Access denied True



Rate specific websites Ratings either done by web page author or by independent bureau o Browsers set to only accept pages with certain levels of ratings
o

1.

Explain the need for Cyber Law.

1. In the recent years, many concerns and issues were raised on the: a. integrity and security of information b. legal status of online transactions c. privacy and confidentiality of information d. intellectual property rights e. security of government data placed on the Internet. 2. These concerns and issues clearly indicate why cyber laws are needed in online activities.
1. 2.

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Explain briefly the computer crimes: fraud, copyright infringement , theft and attacks.

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4.

Computer fraud includes health frauds, scams and hackers. Copyright infringement includes the illegal downloading and sharing of recorded music and unauthorised copying of movies online. Computer theft includes the unauthorised use of another person’s property with the intention to deny the owner the rightful possession of that property or its use. Computer attack includes any activities taken to disrupt the equipment of computer system, change processing control or corrupt data stored.

1.

Define computer security.

Computer security means protecting our computer systems and the information they contain against unwanted access, damage, destruction or modification

1.

Explain briefly the different threats to computer security: malicious codes, Hacking hacking, 1. Hacking is a source of threat to security in computer. It is defined as unauthorized access to the computer system by a hacker. nature/ environment 2. Hackers are persons who learn about the computer system in detail. They write program referred to as hacks. Hackers may use a modem or cable to hack the targeted computers. , theft. Natural and environmental threats
1. 2. 3. Computers are also threatened by natural or environmental disaster. Be it a home, stores, offices and also automobiles. Examples of natural and environmental disasters: a. Flood b. Fire c. Earthquakes, storms and tornados d. Excessive heat e. Inadequate power Theft 1. Two types of computer theft: a. Computer is used to steal money, goods, information and resources. b. Stealing of computer especially notebook and PDAs. 2. Three approaches to prevent theft: a. Prevent access by using locks, smart-card or password. b. Prevent portability by restricting the hardware from being moved. c. Detect and guard all exits and record any hardware transported.

Malicious code 1. Malicious code is also known as a rogue program. It is threat to computing assets by causing undesired effects in the programmer’s part. The effect is caused by an agent, with the intention to cause damage. 2. The agent for malicious code is the writer of the code, or any person who causes its distribution. 3. There are various kinds of malicious code. They include: a. Virus b. Trojan horse c. Logic door d. Trapdoor and backdoor e. Worm and many others.

1.

Select the appropriate  security measures to  overcome the  identified computer threats.

Security Measures
Data backup is a program of file duplication Cryptography is a process of hiding information by
altering the actual information into different representation An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in the computer memory, on storage media or incoming email files.  Anti-Spyware is a program to overcome Spyware threat. Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge and secretly collects information about the user  Firewall prevents some communications forbidden by the security policy  Human aspects refer to the user and also the intruder of a computer system which is one of the hardest aspects to give protection to


								
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