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Alchemists discovered


									Alchemists discovered Alchemists discovered many chemical processes that lead to the development of modern chemistry. Over history, alchemists alchemist-leading (especially Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan and Paracelsus) develop away from the philosophy of alchemy and mysticism and develop a more systematic approach and scientific. The first alchemist who considered applying the scientific method to distinguish between alchemy and chemistry and alchemy was Robert Boyle (1627-1691). Nevertheless, chemistry as we know it today was created by Antoine Lavoisier with the law of conservation of mass in the year 1783. The discovery of chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table of chemical elements by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869. Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives a good description of chemical discovery over the last 100 years. At the beginning of the 20th century, revealed the nature of atoms and subatomic quantum mechanics, science began to explain the physical nature of chemical bonds. In the mid-20th century, chemistry has developed to be able to understand and predict the biological aspects of widening the field of biochemistry. Chemical industry represents an important economic activity. In 2004, chemical producers globally top 50 had sales reached 587 billion U.S. dollars with a profit margin of 8.1% and research and development expenses 2.1% of total sales [2]. [edit] Branches of chemistry Laboratory pipette ! Main article for this section are: Branches of chemistry Chemistry is generally divided into several main areas. There are also several main cross-sector and branches more specialized in chemistry. * Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Analytical chemistry involves the standard method in chemistry experiments. These methods can be used in all other sub-disciplines of chemistry, except for purely theoretical chemistry. * Biochemical study of chemical compounds, chemical reactions, and chemical interactions that occur in living organisms. Biochemistry and organic chemistry are closely related, as in medicinal chemistry or neurochemistry. Biochemistry is also associated with molecular biology, physiology, and genetics. * Inorganic chemistry study the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. The distinction between organic and inorganic is not absolute and there is much overlap, especially in the field of organometallic chemistry. * Organic chemistry study of the structure, properties, composition, mechanisms, and reactions of organic compounds. An organic compound is defined as any compound based on carbon chain. * Examine the basic physical chemistry physical and chemical process systems, especially energitika and dynamics of the system and process. Important areas in this study of chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, and spectroscopy. Physical chemistry has a lot

of overlap with molecular physics. Physical chemistry involves the use of calculus to derive equations, and is usually associated with quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry. * Theoretical chemistry is the study of chemistry via theoretical basis (usually within mathematics or physics). Specifically, the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry is called quantum chemistry. Since the end of World War II, the development of computers has facilitated the systematic development of computational chemistry, which is the art of developing and applying computer programs to solve chemical problems. Theoretical chemistry has a lot of overlap (in theory and experiment) with Condensed matter physics and molecular physics. * Nuclear Chemistry assess how sub-atomic particles join and form the core. Modern Transmutation is the largest part of nuclear chemistry and nuclide chart is the result of both the device for this field. Other fields include Astrochemistry, molecular biology, electrochemical, pharmacological, phytochemical, photochemical, molecular genetics, geochemistry, materials science, chemical flow, atmospheric chemistry, solid-state chemistry, green chemistry, chemical substance, medicinal chemistry, computational chemistry, environmental chemistry , organometallic chemistry, surface chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical supramolekular, nanotechnology, petrochemical, chemical history, sonokimia, chemical engineering, and Thermochemistry. [edit] Fundamental concepts [edit] Nomenclature IUPAC logo ! Main article for this section are: IUPAC nomenclature Chemical nomenclature refers to the system of naming chemical compounds. Has created a system for naming chemical species are well defined. Organic compounds are named according to the organic nomenclature system. Inorganic compounds are named according to the inorganic nomenclature system. [edit] Atom ! Main article for this section are: Atom Atom is a collection of matter consisting of positively charged nucleus, which usually contains protons and neutrons, and a few electrons around the nucleus keep up a positive charge. Atom is also the smallest unit that can be described by an element and still retain its properties, formed from the core of the meeting and is surrounded by a positively charged electron systems. [edit]

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