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					                                  PROOF




Contents


Acknowledgements                                                ix

Notes on Contributors                                            x

Introduction                                                    1
Alison Forsyth and Chris Megson

1 The Promise of Documentary                                    6
  Janelle Reinelt
2 Mediating the 1930s: Documentary and Politics in
  Theatre Union’s Last Edition (1940)                          24
  Ben Harker
3 History in the Driving Seat: Unity Theatre and
  the Embrace of the ‘Real’                                    38
  Colin Chambers
4 The Documentary Body: Theatre Workshop to
  Banner Theatre                                                55
  Alan Filewod
5 Living Simulations: The Use of Media in
  Documentary in the UK, Lebanon and Israel                     74
  Carol Martin
6 Looking for Esrafil: Witnessing ‘Refugitive’
  Bodies in I’ve got something to show you                      91
  Alison Jeffers
7 Remembering the Past, ‘Growing Ourselves a Future’:
  Community-Based Documentary Theatre in
  the East Palo Alto Project                                   107
  Liberty Smith
8 Ngapartji Ngapartji: Telling Aboriginal Australian Stories   122
  Maryrose Casey
9 Performing Trauma: Race Riots and Beyond in
  the Work of Anna Deavere Smith                               140
  Alison Forsyth

                                   vii
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viii   Contents


10 History, Memory and Trauma in
   the Documentary Plays of Emily Mann                             151
   Attilio Favorini

11 When Heroes Fall: Doug Wright’s I Am My Own Wife and
   the Challenge to Truth                                          167
   Nels P. Highberg

12 The Performance of Truth and Justice in
   Northern Ireland: The Case of Bloody Sunday                     179
   Carole-Anne Upton

13 Half the Picture: ‘A Certain Frisson’ at the Tricycle Theatre   195
   Chris Megson

14 Verbatim Theatre in South Africa: ‘Living History in
   a Person’s Performance’                                         209
   Yvette Hutchison

15 The ‘Broken Tradition’ of Documentary Theatre and
   Its Continued Powers of Endurance                               224
   Derek Paget

Bibliography                                                       239

Index                                                              249
                                  PROOF




Introduction
Alison Forsyth and Chris Megson




        The war on terror brought politics back on to the world stage,
        and it’s no surprise that politics returned to theatrical stages as
        well. But the predominance and resilience of verbatim, witness
        and testimony theatre needs explaining.
                                                           (David Edgar)1

This volume brings together a range of critical essays on the subject
of documentary theatre past and present. Our aims are twofold: to
re- evaluate the historical traditions of documentary theatre and to
examine the remarkable mobilisation and proliferation of documen-
tary forms across Western theatre cultures in the past two decades. The
upsurge in fact-based and verbatim theatre in recent years has attracted
a voluminous amount of coverage in the arts pages of newspapers and
websites but scholarly engagement has, to date, been limited. Get Real
seeks to fill this gap by offering the first book-length study of contem-
porary documentary performance.
  Such an intervention is timely, not least because an emergent canon
of published playscripts is now in print and documentary theatre
projects have become a staple feature of drama school and university
curricula. While many of the landmark monographs and anthologies
on documentary theatre date from the 1980s or early 1990s (see, indi-
catively, Filewod (1987), Paget (1990b), Favorini (1995)), it was not until
2006, with the publication of a special issue of the academic journal
TDR, that theatre scholars turned with systematic focus to the ‘new’
documentary revival. Edited by Carol Martin, and distinguished by its
intellectual rigour and global reach, this collection of articles mapped
the conceptual parameters of a burgeoning field of theatre practice,
focusing particularly on documentary theatre’s relationship with the

                                    1
                                  PROOF

2   Alison Forsyth and Chris Megson


archive, its potential resistance to hegemonic structures of power, and
its contribution within the public sphere. Some of the preoccupations
set out in Martin’s edition are revisited in the following essays, and we
are indebted to the scholarship in her collection.
   Although the historical and geographical scope of Get Real reflects the
ongoing ‘resilience’ (as Edgar puts it) of documentary theatre, we have
sought to avoid homogenised definitions and approaches. Each con-
tributor sets in place a critical apparatus through which terms such as
‘documentary’ and ‘verbatim’ are apprehended: while there are points of
tension as well as consensus, we have encouraged such variety in order
to probe the utility and viability of these terms. Some contributors refer
to specific plays while others provide a detailed analysis of a given prac-
titioner or theatre group in their attempt to grasp the elusive truth claim
of ‘the document’ and the dynamics of its theatrical incarnation. The
progression of essays in the volume traces a broad movement from his-
torical to contemporary work and, as the following chapter breakdown
indicates, they are sequenced in such a way as to bring specific themes
and preoccupations into focus. Readers may wish to follow the linear
ordering of chapters, or else dip into this collection selectively to pur-
sue their own areas of interest. Key topics of enquiry that cut across the
volume include the historical development of documentary theatre (see
the chapters by Chambers, Harker and Paget), the treatment of historical
events in the documentary form (Casey, Forsyth, Upton), the theatrical
uses of verbatim speech, oral testimony and orature (Hutchison, Jeffers,
Martin, Megson), performance autobiography (Highberg, Reinelt), issues
of audience reception and/or the phenomenology of documentary per-
formance (Filewod, Megson, Reinelt), the application of documentary
methods within issue-based and community performance contexts
(Jeffers, Smith) and documentary theatre’s engagement with social as
well as individual trauma narratives (Favorini, Forsyth).
   Many of our contributors note that, instead of reaching for a wholly
objective representation of ‘truth’, much documentary theatre has func-
tioned to complicate notions of authenticity with a more nuanced and
challenging evocation of the ‘real’. By extension, audiences are often
actively engaged in dialogue as citizens and putative participants in
the public sphere. Although the documentary form has always been,
and remains, a powerful tool for polemic and advocacy, the ways in
which these are instantiated have evolved to include means other than
a central controlling narrative voice or dominant point of view, based
on a material and invariably textual notion of ‘the document’. One of
the central critical premises of this volume is that the documentary
                                  PROOF

                                                            Introduction 3


form’s ongoing diversification, its inclusion of a more varied range of
‘evidence’ (including testimony, orature and anecdote), and its annex-
ation of a battery of reflexive performance techniques, indicates a self-
conscious acknowledgement of the complexity of ‘reality’ at the expense
of propounding a mono-dimensional truth claim that is constituted
by means of selective editing and tendentious narrative construction.
The once trenchant requirement that the documentary form should
necessarily be equivalent to an unimpeachable and objective witness
to public events has been challenged in order to situate historical truth
as an embattled site of contestation. Indeed, documentary performance
today is often as much concerned with emphasising its own discursive
limitations, with interrogating the reification of material evidence in
performance, as it is with the real-life story or event it is exploring. In
consequence, the ensuing chapters attend repeatedly to a fundamental
question: if facts and information can never come value free, can the
document, freighted hitherto with such talismanic authority, really be
clearly demarcated from and, for that matter, be given prominence over
other kinds of evidence, particularly in the mediatised and sound-bite-
saturated world we inhabit today – and, if so, how?
   It is in this spirit of enquiry that Janelle Reinelt opens the volume
with ‘The Promise of Documentary’ in which she identifies the limits
of the document within the context of creative work. Reinelt suggests
that the effect/affect of the documentary form is founded on an oppos-
itional relationship whereby, just as the value of the document ‘is predi-
cated on a realist epistemology’, so the experience of documentary is
‘dependent on phenomenological engagement’. To illustrate the essen-
tial balance between the facticity of the document as ‘objective conduit
to reality’ and the ‘subjectivity at the heart of production and recep-
tion’, Reinelt examines Richard Norton-Taylor’s Justifying War: Scenes
from the Hutton Inquiry (2003) and Joan Didion’s The Year of Magical
Thinking (2007).
   Subsequent chapters explore the status and stability of ‘the document’
in the work of key practitioners and theorists during the twentieth cen-
tury and investigate the various ways that playwrights and theatre
makers have explored the representation and presentation of ‘truth’ in
an environment where media technologies not only reflect, but also
constitute, ‘the real’. Consideration of earlier trends in the documentary
form for the stage provide not only a usefully specific insight into the
trajectory of the documentary theatre tradition but also indicate just
how far removed (or not) current practitioners are from this tradition.
Chapters by Ben Harker, Colin Chambers and Alan Filewod are linked
                                  PROOF

4   Alison Forsyth and Chris Megson


by their interrogation of the histories of documentary theatre, either by
way of analysis of seminal plays such as Last Edition (1940), or by spe-
cific theatre groups and companies, like Unity and Banner. Following
on from this, Carol Martin posits the potential abandonment of the
‘notion that documentary proceeds only from material documents and
that it can be universally defined’. Focusing on three case studies that
address, in myriad ways, the convulsive sociopolitical landscapes of the
Middle East – Alan Rickman and Katharine Viner’s My Name is Rachel
Corrie (2005), Rabih Mroué and Elias Khoury’s Three Posters (2000), and
Victoria Hanna’s performances based on orature as opposed to scripted
plays – Martin illustrates how contemporary approaches to staging ‘the
real’ make innovative use of new technologies while conjoining, some-
times to vertiginous effect, the sacred and the secular.
  Works that champion the hitherto suppressed stories of those excluded
from mainstream theatre, by dint of class, gender or ethnicity, are the
focus of chapters by Alison Jeffers, Liberty Smith, Maryrose Casey and
Alison Forsyth. Emphasising the transformed potential of the ‘new’
documentary theatre to accommodate novel and radical interventions
from ‘othered’ cultures and identities, these chapters probe the ways in
which ‘voice’, testimony, witnessing, and the very site of performance
are mobilised to summon up and polemicise specific past events – the
suicide of an asylum seeker in Manchester, the struggle of a Chicano
and African-American community to survive negative media stereotyp-
ing in East Palo Alto, the demise of the indigenous Spinifex people in
the shadow of nuclear testing in Australia, and the race riots that beset
New York and Los Angeles in the 1990s. Attilio Favorini offers a related
consideration of the theatrical force of testimony in the work of Emily
Mann. His chapter explores how Mann’s playwriting calibrates the
trauma of past realities, particularly those that have been suppressed
by mainstream hegemony or else deemed to be beyond the realms of
theatrical representation.
  Nels P. Highberg and Carole-Anne Upton offer further perspectives
on how an audience’s preconceptions might be put into stark relief
through the experience of documentary performance. Their chapters
focus on the theatrical mediation of events that have been subjected to
very particular sociopolitical conditions defined in large part by fierce
ideological partisanship – that is, Germany under the regimes of the
Nazis and Communists, and the euphemistically-labelled ‘Troubles’ in
Northern Ireland, respectively.
  Tribunal and verbatim theatre are the focus of discussion in chap-
ters by Chris Megson and Yvette Hutchison. Megson focuses on Half
                                   PROOF

                                                             Introduction 5


the Picture (1994), the first of Richard Norton-Taylor’s ubiquitous tri-
bunal plays to be staged at the Tricycle Theatre in North London. He
notes how the formal composition of Half the Picture differs from later
tribunal plays, notably in its indebtedness to the work of Peter Weiss
and John McGrath. This, he argues, accounts for its remarkable appro-
priation by Opposition politicians at the time of its first performance.
Meanwhile, Hutchison considers the complexion of verbatim theatre
within the markedly different context of post-apartheid South Africa
and in the light of testimony and witness statements to the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission. What edifying or, indeed, aesthetic effect
could a strict adherence to ‘staged politics’ in the literal manner of tri-
bunal theatre in the UK have for a nation that witnesses, on a daily
basis, a very public roll call of excruciating testimony? Hutchison’s con-
sideration of how ‘real’ the theatre of testimony has to be, and should
be, in a post-apartheid context embraces various works, some of which,
intriguingly, create a non-human aesthetic gap between reality and
artifice.
   Derek Paget concludes the volume with a chapter that traces the
‘broken tradition’ of documentary theatre in the contemporary con-
text. Surveying the various modalities and methodologies of the docu-
mentary form, he argues that the relentless ‘hybridisation’ of media
has led to a renewed investment, by practitioners and audiences alike,
in the profound moment of ‘encounter’ afforded by live performance.
His articulation of the continuing power and voracity of theatre that
attempts to ‘get real’ provides a suitable endpoint to a collection that,
we hope, does some justice to the eclectic range of current practices
while reflecting the history, rich complexity and dynamism of docu-
mentary performance.


Note
1. D. Edgar, ‘Doc and dram’, Guardian (27 September 2008).
                                      PROOF




Index

Titles of plays are listed in alphabetical order under the name of the relevant
playwright or producing company

Adorno, Theodor, 94, 152                   Black Revolutionary Theatre, 109
Allen, John, 41, 53                        Blair, Tony, 13, 14, 15, 18, 23, 181,
  see also Unity Theatre – living                 187, 231, 236
       newspapers                          Blank, Jessica, 12
Arendt, Arthur, 41, 44                       The Exonerated (2002), 12
  Triple-A Plowed Under (1936), 41, 237    Blythe, Alecky, 230
  see also Unity Theatre – living            Come Out Eli (2003), 237
       newspapers                            Recorded Delivery Company, 233
Aristotle, 24, 157, 167                    Boal, Augusto, 69
Ashley, Christopher, 140                   Bouzek, Don, 56, 57, 72, 73
  see also Deavere Smith, Anna               see also Banner Theatre; Ground
Auslander, Philip, 71, 74, 75, 76                 Zero Productions; Rogers, Dave
                                           Brady, Fintan
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 12                         Heroes with Their Hands in the Air
Banner Theatre, 55, 56, 59, 63, 72, 95            (2007), 181–2
  Burning Issues (2004), 56                Brecht, Bertolt, 22, 29, 60, 61, 63, 198,
  funding, 57                                     225, 226, 231
  Migrant Voices (2002), 56, 95              and Erwin Piscator, 34, 228
  music, 58                                  and Kurt Weil, 58
  spectatorship, 56                          Lehrstück, 157
  Wild Geese (2005), 56, 95                  Verfremdung, 143
  see also Bouzek, Don; Ground Zero        Bruzzi, Stella, 8, 9, 14
       Productions; Rogers, Dave           Burgess, Anthony, 24, 29, 36
Baudrillard, Jean, 75
Bauhaus, 64                                Cardboard Citizens, 95
BBC (British Broadcasting                  Caruth, Cathy, 148–9, 152–4, 169
       Corporation), 14–17, 36             Caspers, Jan Vaclav, 182
  blacklisting of Littlewood and           Caudwell, Christopher, 28
       Miller (MacColl), 25                Cheeseman, Peter, 60, 153, 165,
  and Bloody Sunday, 185, 191–2                    232–3, 237
  radio ballads, 55                          see also Stoke Documentaries
Bengal, Ben                                Chicano theatre, 4, 111, 114, 117
  Plant in the Sun (1938), 49                see also Gordon, Charles OyamO;
Benjamin, Walter                                   Moraga, Cherríe; Valdez, Luis
  The Author as Producer (1934), 26–9      civil rights movements, 153, 162, 163,
Berlin Red Megaphones, 234                         180, 184
Berrigan, Daniel, 233                      communism, 4, 24, 32, 34, 35, 36,
  The Trial of the Cantonsville Nine               37, 38, 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 52,
       (1971), 233                                 53, 66, 70, 78, 80, 164, 167,
  see also tribunal theatre                        171, 174

                                         249
                                   PROOF

250 Index


Corrie, Rachel, 18, 76–8                   agitprop, 43, 65, 67, 70–2, 219, 225
 see also Rickman, Alan                    amateur, 48, 71
                                           and audience, 2–3, 5, 9–10, 32, 40,
Deavere Smith, Anna, 12, 23, 140–50             43, 46, 50–2, 56, 59, 80, 137,
  Fires in the Mirror: Crown Heights,           140, 145, 164, 167–70, 173,
       Brooklyn and Other Identities            184, 186, 187, 198, 205–7, 217,
       (1992), 23, 140, 141, 144, 146,          229, 231, 236
       147, 149                            and biography, 2, 20, 24, 65, 123,
  Twilight: Los Angeles 1992 (1993),            146, 151, 169, 173
       23, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145,        biomechanics, 64
       147, 148, 149, 150                  bourgeois art, against, 26, 66
Derrida, Jacques, 96                       as celebration, 115, 227
Didion, Joan                               and censorship, 5, 25, 30, 36, 40,
  The Year of Magical Thinking (2007),          212, 213, 235
       3, 19–22                            as commemoration, 133–7, 151,
document, the                                   165, 184–7, 193
  and archive, 2, 6, 26, 28, 83–5, 87,     and community, 2, 4, 71, 107, 109,
       116, 149, 151, 163, 183                  110–12, 122–3, 129, 134, 137,
  collation and organisation of, 142,           143–8, 150, 160, 163, 177,
       145–6, 156, 158, 171                     181, 182, 184, 189–90, 216,
  creative mediation of, 5, 22, 24, 99,         217, 224; African-American/
       153, 170                                 black, 109, 121, 141, 147,
  cynicism, relating to, 5, 154                 150, 162–3; Chicano/Latino,
  editing of, 77, 158, 169                      5, 107–10, 112; communist
  interpolation of, 142–3, 196, 224             East Germany, 5, 171–2;
  martyrdom tapes, 77–8, 79–82                  Gay, 153–4, 160, 177; Jewish,
  materiality of, 3, 7–9, 16, 18, 22,           83, 87–8, 141, 150, 155–6;
       82, 87–9, 91–2                           nazi Germany, 5, 174;
  and the real, 38–9, 50–2, 74, 80,             Neighbourhood Watch, 94;
       82, 85, 87–9, 137, 140, 209              in Northern Ireland, 5, 179,
  reliability of, 3, 5, 7–9, 32, 125,           180–1, 184–5; Palestinian,
       143, 149, 171–2, 177, 179, 190,          76; Pitjantjatjara, 127–8, 138;
       199, 219, 235                            refugee, 5, 45, 56, 91–2, 95;
  status of, 3, 6–9, 16, 96, 117, 179           in South Africa, 209, 211–13,
  and status quo, 5, 114                        216–17, 220–1; Spinifex, 4, 5,
documentary film                                126, 138
  Errol Morris, The Fog of War             context, 5, 39, 108, 119, 136,
       (2003), 12                               205, 211
  Michael Moore, Supersize Me              cross gender/race roles, 142, 144,
       (2004), 12                               173, 176–7, 178
  see also King, Rodney; Zapruder          and dance, 41–2, 44, 64, 66, 131,
       film (1963)                              135 (Butoh), 229
documentary theatre                        and dialectic, 29, 145–7, 158, 171
  accents in performance, 100, 188         dialogue, 156, 204
  and acting/actor’s body, 3, 19, 22,      and direct address, 21, 75, 77, 227
       31, 42, 44, 49, 56, 58–9, 60,            (cinema), 230
       62, 67–8, 74, 79, 84–5, 87, 96,     editing of, 41, 77, 158, 169–70, 182,
       102–4, 117, 129, 142, 144, 173,          186–7, 195, 197
       188, 196, 213, 229, 230, 231        ethics of, 104, 143
                                   PROOF

                                                                    Index 251


as exposure, 5, 28, 198                      151, 157, 211, 216, 217, 218,
and heteroglossia, 113                       221, 232, 235
and hyperreality, 154, 166               and trauma, 3, 21, 29, 94–5, 133,
as investigation, 227                        135–7, 140, 144, 146, 148–9,
and journalism, 14–17, 26–8, 31,             151–3, 158–9, 162, 180, 189,
     75, 81, 82, 159, 186, 197–8,            191, 215–17, 230
     203–4, 207                          truth claims, limits of, 20, 39, 41,
and the law, 30, 149–50, 160, 161,           45, 80, 82–3, 140, 142, 144, 151,
     162, 163, 179, 182, 184, 188–90,        159, 167, 174, 179, 180, 183, 190,
     196 (trial or inquiry), 200,            192, 211, 212, 221, 222, 235
     221–2, 234                          and verisimilitude, 207
and ‘liveness’, 74, 75, 235, 236         and visibility, 5, 26, 74, 91–8, 102,
and memoir, 19–20, 146, 184, 209             104–5, 185, 210, 228
and memory, 21, 86, 113, 120,            work procedure of, 61, 63–5
     146–9, 151, 160, 164, 184, 202     Duggan, Dave
mobile theatres, 38, 70–2                Scenes from an Inquiry (2002),
and montage, 33, 41, 61                      182–3
multiple role-playing, 79, 144, 173
and music, 33, 38, 41, 48, 55, 57–8,    Edgar, David, 1, 2, 5, 196–7, 199, 237
     128, 131, 135, 188, 228              I Know What I Meant (1974), 197
mythologisation of, 101, 149, 180
and narrator, 3, 60, 136–7, 155,        Federal Theatre Project, 8, 25, 109,
     169, 170                                229, 237
and photography, 6, 54, 81, 91, 154,    Feldman, Alan
     159, 162–3, 173, 184, 234, 238       ‘cultural anaesthesia’, 94, 98
poly-vocality of, 31, 99–100,           Filewod, Alan, 1, 136
     113–14, 128–9, 138, 155            Foreman, Richard, 73
and print media, 14–17, 26–8, 31        Freed, Donald
and public sphere, 11, 18, 47–8, 50,      Inquest (1970), 233
     77, 80, 157, 177, 192, 200, 204,   Friel, Brian, 185
     207, 210, 216, 222                   The Freedom of the City (1973), 185
reception of, 2, 3, 10, 40, 43, 46,     Fugard, Athol, 211, 212, 216, 222
     50, 59, 62–4, 68, 80, 102–4,         The Coat (1967), 211
     206, 236                             The Island (1973), 212, 213
reflexivity of, 3, 228                    Sizwe Bansi is Dead (1972), 212
and representation, 3, 30, 39, 42,
     50–1, 61, 63–5, 76–7, 109, 115,    Gordon, Charles OyamO, 107
     141, 144, 169, 199, 200, 210       Greengrass, Paul
and stage absence, 97, 210                Bloody Sunday (2002), 183
and storytelling, 47–8, 98, 108,        Greenwood, Walter
     122–4, 128, 131, 135–7, 149, 218     The Secret Kingdom (1938), 29
and subjectivity, 3, 7–8, 21, 87, 123   Gresford Mining Disaster (1934),
and technology, 4, 71, 74–6, 115–16,           29, 30
     128, 141, 149, 155, 160–1, 163,    Griffith, Hubert
     168, 170, 182, 210, 216, 219,        The People’s Court (1936), 49
     225, 227, 228, 229, 232            Ground Zero Productions, 56, 57, 59,
and terrorism, 210                             71, 72
and testimony, 2, 5, 7, 18–19, 21,        see also Banner Theatre; Bouzek,
     55, 94–5, 107, 115, 141, 149,             Don; Rogers, Dave
                                  PROOF

252   Index


Gupta, Tanika                              Ngapartji, Ngapartji (2005), 123,
 Gladiator Games (2005), 14                     124, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131,
                                                133, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139
Habermas, Jürgen, 12                     Jarry, Alfred, 218
Handspring Puppet Company, 218           Jensen, Eric, see Blank, Jessica
 see also Taylor, Jane                   Jones, John Peter
Hanna, Victoria, 4, 76, 83–7, 88,          The Feather Pluckers (1967), 49
      89, 90
 Jewish heritage, 87–9                   Kani, John, 211, 212
 and Ruth Kanner, 89                       Nothing But the Truth (2002), 220–1
 Signals (2005), 85                      Kanner, Ruth, see Hanna, Victoria
 see also orature                        Kelly, David, 13–18, 23
Hare, David, 13, 177, 197, 199,          Kelly, Janice, 18, 19
      209, 228, 230, 231, 232,           Kennedy, John F. (JFK), 8, 18, 82
      233, 236, 237                        see also Zapruder film (1963)
 The Permanent Way (2003), 13, 197,      Kent, Nicolas, 13, 16, 18, 185, 187,
      228, 230, 232, 235, 236                   188, 190, 195, 198
 Stuff Happens (2004), 177, 197,           see also Norton-Taylor, Richard;
      232, 235                                  tribunal theatre; Tricycle
Harkin, Margo                                   Theatre
 Bloody Sunday – A Derry Diary           Khoury, Elias
      (2007), 183, 184                     and Rabih Mroué, Three Posters
Hodge, Herbert                                  (2000), 4, 76, 79, 80, 81, 88, 89
 Cannibal Carnival (1937), 41            Khulumani Support Group, 217, 222
 Where’s that Bomb? (1936), 41             The Story I am About to Tell (1997),
Hodson, James L.                                216, 217, 222
 The Harvest in the North (1939), 49     King, Rodney, 8, 141, 148–9, 150
Holliday, George, 6, 8, 50, 150          Kustow, Michael, 198, 206
 see also documentary film; King,
      Rodney                             Laban, Rudolf, 59, 65, 67
Holocaust, the                           Lawrence, Stephen, 14, 18, 186, 197,
 Auschwitz, 61, 94–5                             198, 210, 234
 survivors, 94, 146, 153, 156               see also Norton-Taylor, Richard
 see also Weiss, Peter                   Linden, Sonja, 105
Hutton Inquiry, 13, 17, 23                  Asylum Monologues (2006), 95
 see also Norton-Taylor, Richard            Crocodile Seeking Refuge (2005), 95
                                         Littlewood, Joan, 24, 25, 27, 33, 34,
Indigenous theatre, 122, 129, 132,               36, 37, 44, 55, 59, 60, 65–8,
     133, 137, 138                               201, 225
   see also documentary theatre: and        see also MacColl, Ewan; Theatre
        community                                Workshop
I’ve got something to show you,          living newspapers, 8, 65, 109,
        91–106                                   229, 237
                                            see also Theatre Union; Unity
Jamieson, Trevor, 128, 129, 130, 131,            Theatre – living newspapers
    135, 139                             Luscombe, George, 55, 56, 59, 67,
  The Career Highlights of the Mamu              68, 71
      (2002), 123, 124, 127, 130, 131,      Chicago 70 (1970), 68
      133, 134, 135, 137, 139               Ten Lost Years (1974), 68
                                        PROOF

                                                                          Index 253


  Toronto Workshop Productions,              McGovern, Jimmy
      59, 68                                  Sunday (2002), 183
                                             McGrath, John, 5, 196, 201, 226,
Mabou Mines, 73                                     232, 237
MacColl, Ewan (Jimmie Miller), 24,           McGuinness, Frank
       25, 27, 29, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 44,    Carthaginians (1988), 185
       52, 55, 58, 59, 63, 65, 66, 67,       Mekas, Jonas, 20
       71, 226                               Meunier, Jean-Pierre, 10
 see also Littlewood, Joan; Theatre          Meyerhold, Vsevolod, 34, 60, 64, 67
       Union; Theatre Workshop               Milk, Harvey, 11, 160, 161, 166
Macpherson Inquiry, 14, 234                   see also Mann, Emily
 see also Norton-Taylor, Richard             Miller, Jimmie, see MacColl, Ewan
Maltz, Albert                                Mitchell, Robert
 Private Hicks (1936), 49                     The Match Girls (1940), 46
Mandela, Nelson, 213                          see also Unity Theatre – living
Mann, Emily, 1, 4, 140, 150–66,                     newspapers
       235, 237                              Mnouchkine, Ariane, 57
 Annulla Allen: Autobiography of a           Montaigne, 20
       Survivor (A Monologue)                Moraga, Cherríe, 107–21
       (1977), 152, 153, 154, 155,            Circle in the Dirt: El Pueblo de East
       156, 157                                     Palo Alto (1995), 108, 111–21
 Execution of Justice (1984), 11, 152,       Moscone, George, 11, 160, 161, 166
       153, 154, 155, 160, 162, 163,          see also Mann, Emily
       164, 165, 166                         Mroué, Rabih, see Khoury, Elias
 Greensboro: A Requiem (1996), 152,          Mulkeen, Pat, 194
       153, 154, 155, 162, 163, 164,          Just Another Sunday (1999), 184
       166, 237
 Having Our Say (1995), 152, 153,            National Theatre (London), 14
       154, 155, 162, 165, 166               Nelson, Anne
 Mrs Packard (2007), 166                       The Guys (2001), 12
 Still Life (1980), 11, 152, 153, 154,       Nichols, Bill, 6, 7, 202, 237
       155, 157, 158–9, 160, 161,            Nicholson, Helen, 96
       163, 165                              Norton-Taylor, Richard, 3, 5, 13,
 see also Deavere Smith, Anna                       16–18, 23, 185, 186, 190, 192,
Market Theatre, 213                                 195, 204, 233
 see also Simon, Barney                        Bloody Sunday: Scenes from the Saville
Marshall, Herbert, 49–50                            Inquiry (2005), 185–94, 195,
Martin, Carol, 1, 2, 4, 11, 61, 92, 115,            209, 233, 235
       116, 169, 175, 183, 209, 210            The Colour of Justice (1999), 13, 14,
Martin, Chris                                       17, 186, 194, 197, 209, 234, 235
 Who Killed Hilda Murrell?                     Half the Picture (1994), 5, 194,
       (1986), 233                                  195–207
 see also Tricycle Theatre                     Justifying War: Scenes from the
Martin, Jane                                        Hutton Inquiry (2003), 3, 13,
 Talking With (1981), 153                           16–18, 194, 195, 209, 235
Mays, Jefferson, 176                           Nuremberg (1996), 194
McCann, Eamonn, 181, 194                       Srebrenica (1996), 194
McClenaghan, Laurence                          see also Kent, Nicolas; tribunal
 The Long Auld Road (2004), 184                     theatre; Tricycle Theatre
                                   PROOF

254 Index


Odets, Clifford                          Saville Inquiry, 181, 182, 183, 184,
  Waiting for Lefty (1936), 39                186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191,
oral testimony, 16, 83, 142–3                 192, 193
orature, 2, 3, 4, 83–4, 87                 see also Norton-Taylor, Richard
Out of Joint Theatre Company,            Scarry, Elaine, 93, 96
       209, 230                          Schechner, Richard, 83
                                         Scott Inquiry, 195, 200, 201, 202,
Paget, Derek, 1, 2, 5, 32, 60, 200,             203, 204, 206
     203, 204, 206, 233                    see also Norton-Taylor, Richard
Paice, Eric                              Sender, Ramón
  The Rosenbergs (1953), 45                The Secret (1936), 49
  World on Edge (1956), 45–6             September 11 (2001), 12, 82, 120,
  see also Unity Theatre – living               140, 141, 143–4, 149–50, 210
       newspapers                        Shaw, Irwin
Parker, Charles, 55                        Bury the Dead (1938), 50
Patrick, Robert                          Simon, Barney, 213, 216, 222, 223
  Kennedy’s Children (1974), 153           Born in the RSA (1986), 213–16
Phelan, Peggy, 9, 88, 96                   Woza Albert! (1980), 216, 222
Piscator, Erwin, 8, 34, 60, 68, 69,      Smith, Roger
       70, 115, 116, 154, 165, 226,        A Huey P. Newton Story (1996), 12
       228, 229                          Soans, Robin
Plato, 167, 168                            A State Affair (2000), 11, 13
Pollitt, Harry, 35                         Talking to Terrorists (2005), 11, 13,
  see also communism                            209, 235
Popular Front, 24, 25, 32, 34, 35, 38,   Sobchack, Vivian, 10
       64, 66, 70                        Sontag, Susan, 141
                                         Sophists, 167–8, 170, 177
Radio Four (BBC), 15                     Spanish Civil War, 33, 34, 37, 44
Rankin, Scott, 128, 130, 135, 136,       Stafford-Clark, Max, 183, 194,
       137, 139                                 204, 209
Redgrave, Vannessa, 19, 22                 see also Out of Joint Theatre
  see also Didion, Joan                         Company; Soans, Robin
Red Ladder Theatre Company,              Stanislavsky, Constantin, 49, 58, 64,
       234, 237                                 65, 66, 126, 138, 233
Rickman, Alan                              An Actor Prepares (1937), 28
  with Katharine Viner, My Name is       Stoke Documentaries, 229, 232, 233
       Rachel Corrie (2005), 4, 76–8,      The Fight for Shelton Bar (1974), 232
       87, 88, 233                         Hands Up – For You the War has
Robeson, Paul, 54                               Ended (1971), 232
Rogers, Dave, 55, 56, 58, 63, 72           see also Cheeseman, Peter
  see also Banner Theatre;
       Bouzek, Don; Ground Zero          Tank, Herb
       Productions                         Longitude 49 (1950), 49
Rosen, Philip, 7                         Taylor, Diana, 83
Roundhouse, the, 35                      Taylor, Jane
Royal Shakespeare Company, the             Ubu and the Truth Commission
  Pericles (2004), 95                          (1997), 216, 218–20
  US (1966), 46                          Teatro Campesino, see Valdez, Luis
  Viet Review ’68 (1968), 46             Tectonic Theatre Project, 12, 23
                                      PROOF

                                                                      Index 255


Thacker, David, 232                        influences, 41
Theatre Union, 24–37, 44, 52, 66           realism, 53
   dance, 66                               topicality, 43
   evasion of censorship, 25               see also Workers’ Theatre Movement
   Last Edition (living newspaper,        Unity Theatre – dramatised reportage
        1940), 24–37                       The Agony of China (1937), 48
   see also Littlewood, Joan; MacColl,     Cry for Greece (1947), 48
        Ewan; Unity Theatre – living       On Guard for Spain (1937), 48
        newspapers                         Salute the Maquis (1943), 48
Theatre Workshop, 36, 44, 52, 55, 56,      We Need Russia (1938), 48
        59, 66, 67, 68, 225, 226          Unity Theatre – historical
   Oh What a Lovely War (1963), 36,             documentary dramas
        225–6, 228, 229, 236, 237          The Dockers’ Tanner (1954), 47
   Uranium 235 (1946), 36, 66              The Jolly George (1948), 47
   see also Littlewood, Joan; MacColl,     Rochdale Pioneers (1944), 47
        Ewan                               Six Men of Dorset (1948), 47
Thoms, Annie                               The Word of a King (1951), 47
   With Their Eyes (2002), 12              see also Mitchell, Robert
Thucydides, 6, 23                         Unity Theatre – living newspapers,
Trease, Geoffrey                                40, 41–6, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53,
   Colony (1939), 49                            54, 67
Tressell, Robert                           ARP (1938), 45
   The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists    Barrier Across Europe (1952), 45
        (1914), 26                         Black Magic (1947), 45
   Unity stage version (1949), 49          Busmen (1938), 25, 41–4, 45, 51, 53
tribunal theatre, 5, 13–14, 186, 191,      Crisis (1938), 25, 44, 45, 47
        195, 196, 197, 199, 202, 204,      Focus on Germany (1950), 45
        205, 206, 207, 233, 234, 236       Focus on Peace (1950), 45
   see also Kent, Nicolas; Martin,         India Speaks (1943), 45
        Chris; Norton-Taylor, Richard;     Newsboy (1936), 40, 41, 52
        Paget, Derek; Tricycle Theatre     Russia’s Glory – The Red Army
Tricycle Theatre, 4, 13, 16, 69, 184,           (1942), 45
        185, 187, 189, 191, 194, 195,      see also Paice, Eric; Theatre Union
        205, 209, 232, 234                Unity Theatre – political satires
   and Guantanamo: Honour Bound to         Babes in the Wood (1938), 47–8
        Defend Freedom (2004), 235         Jack the Giant Killer (1940), 48
   see also Kent, Nicolas; Khulumani       What’s Left? (1948), 48
        Support Group; Martin,             Winkles and Champagne (1943), 48
        Chris; Norton-Taylor, Richard;
        tribunal theatre                  Valdez, Luis, 109
Truth and Reconciliation                  van Graan, Mike
        Commission (TRC), 5, 189, 191,      Green Man Flashing (2004), 221–2
        214, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220,     van Gyseghem, André
        221, 222                            Bury the Dead (1938), 50, 52
                                          verbatim theatre, 13–14, 61, 91, 95,
Unity Theatre, 66, 67, 70                       116, 143, 154, 165, 181, 186,
 audience, 51–2                                 196, 203, 204, 209, 210, 211,
 choice of material, 50                         217, 219, 222, 227, 232, 233
 class consciousness, 39                  Vertov, Dziga, 33, 34, 37
                                  PROOF

256 Index


Viner, Katharine                       Widgery Report (1972), 180, 181, 183,
  see Rickman, Alan                           185, 187, 189, 193
von Mahlsdorf, Charlotte, see          Wiesel, Elie, 151, 152
       Wright, Doug                    Williams, Raymond, 225
von Praunheim, Rosa                    Willis, Ted, 49, 54
  I Am My Own Woman (1992),             Buster (1943), 49
       174–5, 178                       What Happens to Love? (1947), 49
                                       Wiseman, Frederick, 142
Weiss, Peter, 5, 9, 69, 154, 196,      Workers’ Theatre Movement, 25,
   198–201, 204, 206, 235, 238                31, 34, 36, 37, 40, 53,
 Fourteen Propositions for a                  70, 72
      Documentary Theatre (1968),      Wright, Doug
      60, 61                            I Am My Own Wife (2003),
 The Investigation (1964–5), 61, 73,          167–78
      196, 198
Westenra, Charlotte, 185               Zapruder film (1963), 8, 14, 82
 see also Norton-Taylor, Richard         see also Kennedy, John F.

				
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