Lesson Plan 1 Anticipation
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Lesson Plan 1: Lesson Plan 2: Lesson Plan 3: Lesson Plan 4: Anticipation Plot Author/Narration Setting Anticipation Historical Guide Plot Chart Title Quotes Allusions Elements of Journaling Chart Prediction Guide Maps Fiction Exit Slip Exit Slip Exit Slip Exit Slip Lesson Plan 5: Lesson Plan 6: Lesson Plan 7: Lesson Plan 8: Language/Style Characterization Imagery Big Idea/Themes Know-Want- Courtroom Thematic Quotes Venn Diagram Learn Vocabulary Understanding Character Chart Concept Word Search Fiction Exit Slip Definition Exit Slip Exit Slip Exit Slip Lesson Plan 9: Lesson Plan 10: Essay Rubrics Chapter Quizzes Drama/Film Unit Exam Chapter Documentation Summaries Story Board TKM Exam Portfolio Index Minilesson - Internet Links TKM Exam Key Portfolio Title Elements/Theme Exit Slip TKM Page Minilesson - Key Image Objective/Purpose: The objective of this first lesson is to introduce the unit and motivate careful reading of To Kill a Mockingbird. The objective of the anticipation guide is to introduce the themes of the novel via implications of the mockingbird imagery. The Elements of Fiction chart introduces the literary tools an author can employ to convey profound truth about human nature. Thus, this lesson invites discussion of book awards and "classic" literature. Pre-Assessment: The anticipation guide assesses attitudes relevant to the themes of the novel. The exit slip determines whether the student has previously read the book or is familiar with the story via another medium. The exit slip provides some indication of language skills. Pre-Phase of Lesson: To Kill a Mockingbird provides a good opportunity to mention the fundamental dignity of every human person and the value of respect for teachers and other students in the classroom. Phase 1 of Lesson: Students will preview their portfolios and various items for daily use or specific to particular lessons. Phase 2 of Lesson: The Elements of Fiction chart, displayed on the overhead projector, guides a minilesson on the relationship of plot, setting, characterization, imagery, etc., to the "big idea," or major theme of the novel. The topic of racism and civil rights prompts consideration of a potential theme. Phase 3 of Lesson: The Anticipation Guide for To Kill a Mockingbird prompts reflection on issues relevant to the theme(s) of the novel. Post-Phase of Lesson: Introduce exit slips. The prompt for Exit Slip 1 is "Name six Elements of Fiction." The students are invited to write down any questions about this first lesson. Post-Assessment: Evaluate anticipation guides and exit slips. Reflection: What adjustments might be made to the allotted time for the various portions of lesson one? How might the students be further motivated to read the novel? Are varying reading skills evident? Which elements of fiction were most frequently identified on the exit slips? which least? What questions were asked and why? In what other ways might this lesson plan be improved? Lesson2 Objective/Purpose: Some students understand the value of suspense and that the plot of a novel is a sequence of actions. The students need strategies to summarize the plot and to organize the elements of the plot in order to analyze an author's style and strategies. A chapter organization helps the students to recognize shifts in chronology. Pre-Assessment: On board: "Write a definition of 'plot.' Then continue reading To Kill a Mockingbird until class begins." Discuss the student definitions of "plot" to assess prior knowledge and misunderstanding. Pre-Phase of Lesson: Discuss the Prediction Guide. Have the students identify the Boo Radley mystery elements and anticipate a possible solution as a class. give the students copies of the form to insert in their portfolios as a record of this lesson, but to be used again with lesson three. Phase 1 of Lesson: Have the students write summaries of the chapters they have read. Identify which students have not completed the reading assignment. Instruct these students to read, as well as write, during this class time. Phase 2 of Lesson: After each student has written their chapter summaries, instruct them to write a brief summary of all three chapters. Phase 3 of Lesson: Explain and have the students fill in the Sequence Chain. Post-Phase of Lesson: The prompt for Exit Slip 2 is "What are the major plot sections of a novel?" Post-Assessment: Evaluate the exit slips and summaries. Reflection: In what ways did the students develop their understanding of the typical plot structure of a novel? Did the attention to mystery regarding the Radley House help? What difficulties do the students experience in writing summaries? Did the strategy of writing a summary of the chapter summaries help? Anticipation: The students are instructed to read chapters 4-8 (pages 32-74) of To Kill a Mockingbird and to write brief, one-sentence chapter summaries. Find answers to the following questions: "What is in the tree?" "Who provides a blanket?" Lesson 3 Objective/Purpose: After learning about plot complexities, the students are ready to reflect on narrative strategies in order to apply their discovery of narrative technique to other novels. First, the students will discern the flashback strategy of the adult narrator, Jean Louise Finch. The students will discover narrative point of view through a series of selected quotes. Next, the students will demonstrate knowledge of point of view by discussing Scout's flashback view of her youth. Then, the students will discover narrative strategy by analyzing direct and indirect quotes relating to the title. Pre-Assessment: Note on board: "Write a definition of point of view." Use these written definitions to assess students' prior knowledge of this generally misunderstood element of fiction. Pre-Phase of Lesson: Students will read short selections from TKM on narration. Have the students read the selected passages on narration in order to focus on the lesson. Phase 1 of Lesson: Use the Prediction Guide to assist the students to understand foreshadowing and the narrative technique of parallel passages in a novel. Phase 2 of Lesson: Draw attention to the narrator's reference to Jem "when he was nearly thirteen" in the first sentence of the book. Relate this reference to the closing sentences of the book, "Atticus ... turned out the light and went into Jem's room. He would be there all night, and he would be there when Jem waked up in the morning." Discuss the significance of the opening and closing statements of a novel, and discuss the story from the narrator's "point of view." Note that, on page 30, Harper Lee has Atticus tell Scout, "You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view ... until you climb into his skin and walk around in it." Then help the students to anticipate the goal of determining the theme of a novel as "walking around" in the author's "skin." Point out that all of the elements of fiction are "sculpted" by the author, but the narrative is especially valuable for determining the author's "point of view." In To Kill a Mockingbird, the narrative is in the first person, from Scout's point of view, but the narrative includes reflection on the events when she is much older. Note the statement that begins the second paragraph, "When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we sometimes discussed the events leading to his accident." This narrative technique provides opportunity for the author to convey messages about human nature that can reveal the theme of the novel. Because the title is generally a key to the theme, the image of the mockingbird is important. Draw attention to the description of Jem's arm in the first paragraph of the book: "His left arm was somewhat shorter than his right; when he stood or walked, the back of his hand was at right angles to his body, his thumb parallel to his thigh." What connections can be made between the title, the parallel between the opening and closing of the book, and the narrative description of Jem? Is the narrative suggesting human "mockingbirds"? Why? Phase 3 of Lesson: Introduce the students to the Mockingbird Quotes chart. Instruct them to note appropriate quotes as they are reading, in anticipation of the lesson on imagery, but also to notice the narrative technique of repeated use of a key image. Post-Phase of Lesson: Exit Slip 3 asks, "Is the point-of-view of To Kill a Mockingbird in the first person? If so, explain." Post-Assessment: Evaluate the exit slips. Reflection: What aspects of narrative technique do the students understand? Do they realize the "sculpting" of a novel evident in the title and in the opening and closing passages of a novel? Do they watch for narrative statements that convey the author's "point of view" in the sense of theme? Do these concepts need to be explained further during the discussion of imagery or other lessons? Was there enough time for all of the activities? Anticipation: The students are instructed to read chapters 9-14 (pages 74-144) of To Kill a Mockingbird and to write brief, one-sentence chapter summaries. Find answers to the following questions: "How is the setting of the novel related to the issue of racism?" "Where does Calpurnia take Scout and Jem, and what is Aunt Alexandra's response?" What important uses of the mockingbird image are found in these chapters? Lesson 4 Objective/Purpose: Students will develop skill contextualizing To Kill a Mockingbird by - locating the geographical setting on a map. - discussing the Civil Rights chronology. - noting author/characterization and history/plot parallels. - retrieving a Scottsboro testimony from the computer. - beginning a K-W-L chart on historical allusions. Pre-Assessment: Note on board: "Write down a few sentences about your understanding of the Civil War." Discuss student comments on the Civil War to assess prior knowledge of time/place implications of the racism theme. See if students think of setting as relevant to theme(s). Pre-Phase of Lesson: Have on display both a U.S. map and an Alabama map for students to see the location of this story relative to Colorado. Have students read selected passages from the novel relevant to the setting. These passages should include references to the Civil War and to racism. Phase 1 of Lesson: With the assistance of maps, discuss the setting of To Kill a Mockingbird. Phase 2 of Lesson: Briefly discuss Civil Rights chronology. Phase 3 of Lesson: Have students get a printout of a Scottsboro trial testimony. Ask about the Scottsboro-Tom Robinson parallels. Post-Phase of Lesson: Begin the Historical Allusions chart. Post-Assessment: Exit Slip 4 - Setting. Prompt: "Discuss the relationship between setting and the racism aspects of the plot of To Kill a Mockingbird." Reflection: Was there enough time for all of the activities? Have the students discovered the relationship between setting, allusions, and theme? Are they thinking in terms of theme and the interrelationship of the elements of fiction? Anticipation: Assign reading through chapter 19 (page 199) of To Kill a Mockingbird. Expain that the next lesson takes a look at the trial scene of the plot and includes courtroom vocabulary. Have the students make a list of vocabulary words. Lesson5 Objective/Purpose: Because the language in To Kill a Mockingbird includes courtroom jargon and some crude language, as well as dialect, the students need to learn the jargon and recognize the characterizing function of generally unacceptable language. This language lesson bridges the jargon barrier and establishes distinction between conventional language and contextualizing language. The students will demonstrate knowledge of language styles in To Kill a Mockingbird by - experiencing and working with courtroom vocabulary - doing word searches - discussing dialect, jargon, and contextualizing language. Pre-Assessment: Note on board: "Write a definition of 'jargon.'" Compare the student responses with the dictionary definition. Pre-Phase of Lesson: Have students read selected passages from To Kill a Mockingbird relevant to "jargon." Include samplings of narration and dialogue to reflect Calpurnia's adaptation to her church society to contrast with her language while in the Finch family. Samplings might include examples of the speech of Scout and Jem, as well as the missionary tea and the courtroom testimony. Phase 1 of Lesson: Do the Courtroom Vocabulary exercises. Phase 2 of Lesson: Discuss the Courtroom Vocabulary exercises and introduce other types of jargon and dialect. If there is time, include other vocabulary exercises. Phase 3 of Lesson: Define "context" and "contextualizing." Explain types of language in the contextualizing function of a novel. Post-Phase of Lesson: Exit slip: " Language can express style. List at least five words that the narrator or characters use in To Kill a Mockingbird that demonstrate Harper Lee's use of courtroom or other distinctive form of speech." Post-Assessment: Have the students continue working on vocabulary exercises, including a list of vocabulary for the whole novel, organized by chapter. Reflection: What is the range of vocabulary development of the students in this class? Are there any students who need more help? Are there students who need more challenge? To what extent are the students developing abstract vocabulary concepts? Do they anticipate the characterizing function of dialogue (and Scout's narrative language)? How much of the worksheets was actually accomplished? Anticipation: Assign reading through chapter 22. Prompt the students to read ahead, finish the novel if possible, over the weekend. Have the students find answers to the following questions: "Does the jury declare Tom guilty or not guilty?" "How does Jem respond to the trial?" Lesson 6 Pre-Assessment: On board: "Write a definition of 'characterization.' Then work on TKM characters crossword puzzle until class begins." Pre-Phase of Lesson: Students will read selected passages from the novel indicating character traits of the characters that coordinate with the imagery and theme. Phase 1 of Lesson: Have students continue working on the definitions and/or crossword puzzle. Then discuss the definitions to see if they recognize aspects of physical description, personality, and actions in the character portrayal and development in the novel. Have a few students give examples from their own experiences to solidify the definitions. Phase 2 of Lesson: Present the characters graphic organizers on transparencies on the overhead projector, and use the characters list to supplement this information. Provide instructions for the characters chart and the Venn Diagram. Phase 3 of Lesson: Have the students begin filling out the character chart and Venn Diagrams. Point out the increasing complexity if three characters are compared/contrasted on a Venn Diagram. Post-Phase of Lesson: Instruct the students to continue filling out the character chart as they are reading. Instruct them to fill out two Venn Diagrams with different characters, but characters that "fit" together on each sheet. Post-Assessment: Exit Slip 6 - Characterization. Prompt: "Name two characters in To Kill a Mockingbird who are characterized as 'mockingbirds.' Explain in detail why you think so." Reflection: How much time was spent on discussion, relative to time spent on worksheets? Do the students understand the "mockingbird" aspect of characterization? What proportion of the book has each student read? Anticipation: For those students who have not completed reading the novel, assign reading through chapter 28. Instruct the students to find at least five human "mockingbirds" in anticipation of Lesson 7 on imagery. Lesson7 Objective/Purpose: The students need to understand how an author can strategically employ imagery and symbolism to convey ideas and to unify varying aspects of a novel. In this lesson the students will notice the use of mockingbird imagery in the title, examine issues via reevaluation of their anticipation/reaction guides, and possibly other activities, such as reflecting on a Hopi myth about the mockingbird, in order to discover complexity in the use of imagery in a novel. The students will develop knowledge of imagery and symbolism by producing a K-W-L journaling chart on mockingbird information and by charting literal/figurative references and predicting. "The Rooster, the Mockingbird, and the Maiden," a Hopi myth, extends the cultural boundaries of the students to realize that imagery/symbolism is a universal phenomenon. Pre-Assessment: On board: "Write definitions of 'imagery' and 'symbolism.'" Pre-Phase of Lesson: Have a few students read selected passages that demonstrate imagery and symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird. Phase 1 of Lesson: Because some students have much trouble with the concepts of imagery and symbolism, provide a minilesson using the imagery concept-definition and the appropriate portions of elements of fiction charts. Introduce "symbol" as an image like the mockingbird that can have varying but related meanings to convey a theme. Briefly discuss examples of symbols, such as a rose or a flag. Have the students begin the worksheet on symbols in TKM. Phase 2 of Lesson: Have the students begin their K-W-L journaling on mockingbirds. Discuss their quotations material. Phase 3 of Lesson: Discuss the "hidden words" in "mockingbird" and draw attention to the concept of mocking by underlining this portion of the word on the board. Have the students do the title/chart as preliminary to realizing that a title can serve as a significant clue for predicting main ideas in a novel. Post-Phase of Lesson: Have the students write about the mockingbird imagery in this title as a predicting strategy in the novel. Post-Assessment: Exit Slip 7 - Imagery. Prompt: "Identify two passages in To Kill a Mockingbird that show how the mockingbird image can be used in different ways." Reflection: Is it better to have several activities to reinforce and develop the concepts of imagery and symbolism, or should be more time be spent on only some of these activities? To what extent have the students developed a clear and thorough understanding of imagery and symbolism? Is this understanding sufficiently developed to anticipate the primary theme of the book? Anticipation: Have all of the students finish reading the novel. In anticipation of the next lesson, on theme, find significance in Scout's understanding of The Gray Ghost. Those who are done reading are to continue working on their portfolio worksheets, with theme in mind. Lesson8 Objective/Purpose: Now that the students have read To Kill a Mockingbird, have produced one- sentence summaries, and have examined the setting, the language style, the characterization, and the mockingbird symbolism, they are ready to analyze patterns in the individual elements of fiction analyses and analyze these patterns in the individual elements of fiction for an overriding pattern as they ponder themes in the novel. The students will develop understanding of theme in novels by integrating elements of fiction discoveries and patterns in To Kill a Mockingbird by means of a summary academic journaling chart. filling out the "Understanding Fiction" chart by means of previous lessons; the list was introduced in lesson one but is to be presented in more detail during this lesson. listing subthemes in To Kill a Mockingbird and documenting these themes by identifying passages in the novel. Pre-Assessment: Have students read a few key passages from To Kill a Mockingbird that highlight the primary theme: "It's a sin to kill a mockingbird" (Chapter 10). Pre-Phase of Lesson: Prompt on board: "Write a definition of 'theme.'" Informally assess student knowledge of "theme" to determine background knowledge and need for further teaching. Compile a composite definition to be evaluated later. Phase 1 of Lesson: Explain academic journaling, especially to more advanced students. Model metacognitive discourse about need for an organized notebook. Talk about index dividers for sections on plot, setting, imagery, allusions, etc. Explain the academic journaling summary chart. Instruct the students to jot down most significant reaponses to each category prompt, but to leave the theme box blank. Phase 2 of Lesson: Using the overhead projector, discuss the elements of fiction and the means to evaluate fiction by examining an author's use of these elements. Discuss each element thoroughly, drawing the students into feedback of the previous lessons and refine the concepts using the more advanced charts or the list of definitions. Integrate significant applications of each concept of To Kill a Mockingbird. Phase 3 of Lesson: Have the students fill out their "Understanding Fiction" chart. Post-Phase of Lesson: Have the students fill out their thematic quotes organizer. Relate to the analysis of the title of To Kill a Mockingbird. Post-Assessment: Exit Slip 8. Prompt: "Identify the primary theme of To Kill a Mockingbird, then identify at least three events and/or examples of elements of fiction of this novel that demonstrate this theme. Theme of To Kill a Mockingbird: . . . Events/Examples that Demonstrate this theme: . . ." Reflection: To what extent do the students understand how to determine the primary theme of To Kill a Mockingbird, and how well could they apply this knowledge to other novels? How much of the worksheets were the students able to accomplish in class? Do they need further explanation of theme and how theme relates to the other elements of fiction? Anticipation: Introduce the elements of film in anticipation of the film version of To Kill a Mockingbird for Lesson 9. Lesson9 Objective/Purpose: Now that the students have studied the elements of fiction in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, they are ready to compare/contrast the novel and the adapted film starring Gregory Peck. Our lesson on imagery leads into this lesson on viewing film – in contrast with reading a novel in order to produce mental images. In order to form a clear distinction between the art of print literature and the art of film as literature, students need to realize that film is not a reproduction of a printed script. They also need to know that filming technique can produce significant effects in the viewer. The students will develop awareness of a distinction between print literature and film as literature by producing a brief storyboard as a response to viewing the film. Pre-Assessment: Students respond to this prompt on the board: "What is the difference between a novel and a filmed version of the novel? Write." Pre-Phase of Lesson: As the students are writing, write the elements of film on the board and give students copies of "How the Camera Tells a Story." Phase 1 of Lesson: Explain "How the Camera Tells a Story." Phase 2 of Lesson: Using a study guide and transparencies, present the Elements of Fiction in Film and the Elements of Film. Distribute the exit slips and storyboard sheets for students to work on during the film. Phase 3 of Lesson: View the 1962 filmed adaptation of To Kill a Mockingbird, starring Gregory Peck. Post-Phase of Lesson: Use the storyboards to provide an opportunity for the students to display their most memorable or favorite scenes. Post-Assessment: Exit Slip 9. Prompt: "Discuss at least three of the Elements of Fiction in the Gregory Peck film version of To Kill a Mockingbird, and then identify and discuss at least three unique Elements of Film in this movie." Reflection: Do the students understand the difference between a novel and a filmed adaptation of the novel? Was the presentation helpful? Is there evidence that any students have previously seen the film? If so, did it help to have the students keep busy with worksheets during the film? Were the activities a distraction from a close viewing of the film? Anticipation: Complete the storyboards. Reflect on the portfolio items for the exam. Lesson10 Objective/Purpose: When the students have viewed To Kill a Mockingbird and have discovered strategies for writing a film script, they are ready to demonstrate the benefits of their reading, writing, and viewing strategies on their comprehensive understanding of To Kill a Mockingbird. On this last day of the unit, the portfolios – demonstrating the variety of strategies employed for quality learning – are due. In this lesson, the students could demonstrate learning by means of a typical final exam, perhaps including a short essay. During this lesson a teacher could use some class time for the test, and then begin either presentations on the story elements or the one-act plays, to be continued on the following Monday. These re-enactments of favored scenes would interject some "fun" into the culminating activity of the unit and provide opportunity for students who perform better in speaking than in writing to have this creative arts application of learning assessed. Other students would benefit, as well, from the active involvement. A more thorough learning experience would include the presentations and/or the one-act plays as strategies for learning that would culminate in the comprehensive writing project – either focusing on one element of fiction and developing the application to the novel or summarizing all of the elements studied during the unit – during the next week. This lesson is designed for the final exam and group presentations, to be continued on Monday. The presentations provide opportunity to assess learning about the elements of fiction as well as social skills. The rubric for the creative arts project could be used for either the one-act plays or the presentations. The students will demonstrate benefit from the learning strategies involving the elements of fiction by demonstrating knowledge of To Kill a Mockingbird by means of a final exam, supplemented by a group presentation on an element of fiction. Pre-Assessment: Students respond to this prompt on the board: "Which portfolio activity was the most helpful for understanding To Kill a Mockingbird? Why?" Pre-Phase of Lesson: Assign order of presentations. Briefly review the rules for written examinations. Phase 1 of Lesson: Explain the sections of the 75-question exam. The students will be tested on the following topics: I. Characters: Finch and Radley Families II. Facts About the Novel III. Characters: Negroes and Country Folk IV. Characters: Townspeople V. Locations VI. Plot Phase 2 of Lesson: Students silently complete the exam. Phase 3 of Lesson: Students begin presentations. Post-Phase of Lesson: Explain any continuation of presentations or other extension of the unit on To Kill a Mockingbird. Post-Assessment: Employ the Creative Arts Project Evaluation rubric for presentations. Reflection: Were the students adequately prepared for the written examination? What are the relative writing/speaking skills of each student? Which is better, the presentations or one-act plays? Why?