BA RA Y
                          SEPTEMBER 17, 2009
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           K RIVERFRONT
   IN E E
  V T F RT

           FARMERS’ MARKET
                                                         Although commercial               C R A P O PA R K
                                                                                           5:00 - 7:30 p.m.
                                                       grape production dates
                                                       back to the year 1000
                                                                                                        n             ts
                                                       B.C., it was not until
                                                       1854 that the Concord
                                                       variety made its debut,              Wee kly Eve
                                                       appropriately named
                                                       after the Massachusetts
                                                       village of Concord where            What’s Local
                                                       the first of its variety was    • green beans          • potatoes
                                                       grown. The Concord
                                                       grape is a robust and           • sweet corn           • scallions
                                                       aromatic grape whose            • cucumbers            • honey
                                                       ancestors were wild             • cauliflower           • grapes
                                                       native species found
                                                       growing in the rugged           • broccoli             • green
                                                       New England soil.               • spinach                peppers
                                                         Experimenting with            • sweet                • onions
                                                       seeds from some of the            potatoes             • garlic
                                                       native species, Boston-
                                                       born Ephraim Wales Bull         • zucchini             • cantaloupe
   developed the Concord grape in 1849. On his farm outside Concord,                   • cabbage              • summer
   down the road from the Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne and Alcott                                                squash
                                                                                       • kohlrabi
   homesteads, he planted some 22,000 seedlings in all, before he had
   produced the ideal grape. Early ripening, to escape the killing northern            • eggs                 • eggplant
   frosts, but with a rich, full-bodied flavor, the hardy Concord grape thrives        • grass-fed            • watermelon
   where European cuttings had failed to survive. In 1853, Mr. Bull felt                 meat                 • pumpkin
   ready to put the first bunches of his Concord grapes before the public --
   and won first prize at the Boston horticultural Society exhibition. From            • baked goods          • gourds
   these early arbors, fame of Mr. Bull’s (“the father of the Concord grape”)          • tomatoes             • pears
   Concord grape spread world-wide, bringing him up to $1,000 a cutting,
   but he died a relatively poor man. The inscription on his tombstone                        Thanks to all our
   states, “He sowed--others reaped.”
     The first unfermented grape juice known to be processed in the United                 shoppers for leaving pets
   States was by a Vineland, New Jersey dentist, Dr. Thomas Welch in
   1869. Dr. Welch, his wife and 17-year old son, Charles, gathered 40                            at home!
   pounds of Concord grapes from the trellis in front of their house. In their
   kitchen, they cooked the grapes for a few minutes, squeezed the juice
   out through cloth bags, and poured the world’s first processed fresh fruit
   juice into twelve quart bottles on the kitchen table.
     To preserve the juice, Dr. Welch stoppered the bottles with cork and
   wax and boiled them in water hoping to kill any yeast in the juice to
   prevent fermentation. Dr. Welch’s process was a success, and his                    Today’s Events
   application of Louis Pasteur’s theory of pasteurization to preserve fresh
   grape juice pioneered the industry of canned and bottled fruit juices in            • Music by Surprisingly
   America. This first juice was used on the Communion table in the local
   Methodist church for sacramental purposes, and most of the first orders               Hip
   for grape juice came from churches for Communion.
              (The Concord Grape Association; http://www.concordgrape.org/)

                                  Printed courtesy of First Federal Savings Bank of Iowa
       Growing Grapes - Steps to creating your own Vineyard
Grape vines are a beautiful ornamental and valuable as shade or screen plants around your home when trained on a trellis or arbor. Classified according to use, today
grapes are grown for three reasons: eating (table grapes), winemaking, and as ornamental grapevines. Some table grapes are best eaten from the vine, some are best
preserved in jellies or james, some are dried into raisins, and some grape varieties, like the Concord grape, are multi-purpose.

One thing all grapes have in common is the way they grow. Grapes love full sun. Cultivars produce best if planted on the south slope of your garden. Grapevines are
deciduous and as such are an excellent planting that provides both summer shade and lets winter sun shine through.
Planting grape cuttings is the easy part of growing grapes. Grapevines easily sprout from cuttings taken during their dormant period. Although grapes aren't fussy
about climate or soil composition they are best planted in early spring after the frost leaves the ground and before buds begin to swell.

Grapevines usually need no fertilization and it's near impossible to plant a grapevine too deep. Planting grapes in pre-conditioned soil – thoroughly tilled, weeded, and
composted – both provides grapevines with good drainage and gives them a rich organic bed. Dig a hole, get it good and wet, saturate the root ball of your grapevine
and plant it.

If you plant vines sold in cardboard sleeves, there's no need to remove the container; it will soon rot in the soil. However, do leave the top of the sleeve just above the
surface of the soil. Support grapevines with stakes or grow a trellised grape arbor. For instance, a garden pergola is a lovely support for your grapevines.

The challenge in growing grapes is threefold. First of all, grapes are a hardy perennial that bloom in the second year of growth from the old wood of the first year. So,
the first year you grow grapes you must tend them patiently and train the vines (or try) to grow along the trellis or arbor you hope to confine them to in the future.
Confining grapes is the second challenge in learning how to grow grapes. Once established, grapevines like to ramble and can soon dominate your landscape if you
don't take care to keep them in check.

Perhaps the most challenging aspect of learning how to grow grapes is promoting pollination so the leafy vines will bear fruit. Blossoms are either male or female, and
while a few cultivars will self-pollinate, most need the help of bees to get the job done.

When choosing a grape cultivar, your best source of advice on growing grapes is a reputable nursery. Besides directing you to those that grow successfully in your area,
a nursery will also help you choose a cultivar suitable for your intended use. In addition, grapes require a hefty amount of pruning. It will be important to learn grape
vine pruning techniques from websites like: http://www.gardening-guides.com/fruits/planting-grapes.php or by checking out books at the library.
                                                                                                               (Adapted from http://www.gardening-guides.com/index.php)

                         Concord Grape Wine
                  •     12 lbs fresh Concord gra
                 •      2 pts water
                 •     1-1/2 cups granulated sug
                 •     1 tsp pectic enzyme
                •      1 crushed Campden tab
                •      1 tsp yeast nutrient
                •      wine yeast

            Wash and de-stem grape
                                        s, discarding any less tha
            nylon mesh bags, tie sec                               n perfect ones. Divide gra
                                       urely, and vigorously cru                                 pes into two
            crush them all. Place ba                              sh grapes over primary
                                       gs of pulp in primary an                              , being sure to
           nutrient, and crushed Ca                              d add sugar already dis
                                        mpden tablet. Cover sec                             solved in water,
           After 12 hours add pecti                               urely with clean cloth an
                                       c enzyme and recover.                                   d set aside.
           specific gravity. If not at                          After additional 12 hour
                                       least 1.095, add sugar an                           s check
           yeast. Stir daily, squeez                              d stir until dissolved, the
                                     ing the nylon bags to aid                                 n add
           S.G. When S.G. reaches                               in juice extraction, and
                                      1.030 (5-6 days), lightly                             check the
          [Set bags aside in bowl                               but steadily press juice
                                    to make a second wine                                  from bags.
          sterilized glass seconda                           (see third recipe below
                                   ry and attach airlock. Ch                           ).] Siphon liquor off sed
                                                                eck S.G. after 30 days.                           iments into
          secondary and reattach                                                          If 1.000 or lower, rack
                                     airlock. Rack again aft                                                       into clean
         clear, stabilize, sweeten                            er 2 months and again
                                    (1-1/4 cup sugar syrup                              after additional 2 month
         age two years in bottle                             per gallon), and rack ag                              s. Allow to
                                   before tasting. Improves                              ain into sterilized bottle
         [Adapted from Raymond                                 further with additional                              s. Allow to
                                   Massaccesi's                                           aging.
         Winemaker's Recipe Ha
                               ndb       ook]

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