Riparian Areas and Fish Riparian Areas and Fish What is a Riparian by bigbro22

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									        Riparian Areas and Fish                               What is a Riparian Area?

                                                         The narrow strips of land that border creeks,
                                                          rivers or other bodies of water; because of their
                                                          proximity to water, plant species and
                                                          topography of riparian zones differ considerably
                                                          from those of adjacent uplands. Although
                                                          riparian areas may occupy only a small
                                                          percentage of the area of a watershed, they
          By Jake, Holly, Matt and Brian                  represent an extremely important component of
                                                          the overall landscape.
               23 November 2005                                                         http://www.cropinfo.net/ripiarian.htm)
                                                                                       (http://www.cropinfo.net/ripiarian.htm)




           Functions of a Healthy                     Characteristics of a Healthy System
              Riparian System
                                                         High water table & increased storage capacity,
   Sediment Filtering                                   High forage production,
                                                          Good shade/Cool water,
   Bank Stablilization                               

                                                         Good fish habitat/Good water quality,
   Water Storage and Release
                                                         High wildlife habitat diversity,
   Aquifer Recharge                                     Vegetation & roots present to protect & stabilize
                                                          banks,
                                                         Higher late summer stream flows.




            Characteristics of an
                                                               Riparian Vegetation
             Unhealthy System
   Low water table and decreased storage capacity,   North Fork of the Skykomish River
   Low forage production,                            Riparian reserve Vegetation (Snohomish
   Little shade/Warm water,                            River Basin, 44)
   Poor fish habitat/Poor water quality,              16-30% Mature
   Low wildlife habitat diversity
                                                       44-63% Immature
   Little vegetation & roots to help protect and
    stabilize banks,                                   18-20% Non-forested

   Reduced late summer stream flows.




                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                              Large Woody Debris in
     Lower North Fork Conditions
                                                                                                Lower North Fork
                                                                                    Greater frequencies than in neighboring
                                                     38)”
    “Not Properly Functioning (Snohomish River Basin, 38)”
           Historical harvesting to streamside (White Chuck, MBSNF M.R              watersheds (Snohomish River Basin, 38)
           Loss of vegetation due to flooding (White Chuck, MBSNF M.R.)
                                                                                           Much lower frequencies than undisturbed
                                                                                            watersheds (Snohomish River Basin, 38)
   Streambank conditions generally stable and functioning
    appropriately (Snohomish River Basin, 38)
           Exceptions along portions of mainstream                                                        Risk”
                                                                                            Considered “ At Risk” component (Snohomish River
                                                                                            Basin, 38)
           Exceptions in some tributaries, i.e. Silver Creek (Snohomish River
            Basin, 38)




                                                                                              Large Woody Debris in
     Upper North Fork Conditions
                                                                                                Upper North Fork

                                    40)”
    “At Risk (Snohomish River Basin, 40)”                                                  Estimated frequencies of 82 pieces/mile, which is
           Historical harvesting to streamside (White Chuck, MBSNF
            M.R.)                                                                           greater than neighboring watersheds (Snohomish
           Loss of vegetation due to flooding (White Chuck, MBSNF                          River Basin, 40)
            M.R.)
   Streambank conditions generally stable and
    functioning appropriately (Snohomish River                                             Much lower frequencies than undisturbed
    Basin, 40)                                                                              watersheds (Snohomish River Basin, 40)
           Exceptions along portions of mainstream
           Exceptions in some tributaries, i.e. Silver Creek (Snohomish
            River Basin, 40)




                                                                                                                                                2
       South Fork of the Skykomish
                                                                        South Fork Conditions
                  River
Riparian reserve Vegetation (Snohomish                         Lower South Fork Conditions (Snohomish River
  River Basin, 46)                                                             Risk”
                                                                Basin, 41) “At Risk”
                                                                   21% of riparian reserve in sapling or non-forest
 16-49% Mature                                                     conditions
 Stand structure and composition of                           Upper South Fork Conditions (Snohomish River
  Western Hemlock, including riparian                                          Risk”
                                                                Basin, 43) “At Risk”
  populations, atypical for past 500-1000                          Atypical stand structure for Western Hemlock
  years                                                            Streambank conditions stable and good with exceptions
                                                                    along mainstream and in some tributaries




                     Fish of the Skykomish Drainage
                                                                                   Bull Trout
      Pink                                Bull Trout
                                                               Only char native to Washington
     Chum                               Dolly Varden           Live in lakes, rivers, headwater streams
                                                                (can be anadromous)
Sockeye                                  Rainbow               Can hybridize with Brook Trout
    Coho
                                                               Incredible Leaper (‘scout’’ best route up falls)
                                                                                    scout
                                        Steelhead
                                                               Opportunistic Feeder
Chinook                                  Cutthroat
                                                               THREATENED in lower 48 states
    Whitefish                                Brook




                  Skykomish Fish Needs                                     Skykomish Fish Needs
                                                                Cover
                                                                   Trees and Shrubs
    Water                                                             Shade
          Cool (Salmon < 64o; Bull Trout < 55o, low-mid               Prevent Erosion
             40’
             40’s to spawn)
                                                                   Large Woody Debris
          Oxygen Rich
                                                                Riffles
          Clean (heavy metals, organics, sediment, silt)
                                                                   Oxygen
    Gravel - 1.5” to 3”
              1.5”    3”                                           Invertebrate Habitat

    Cobble - Stabilize bed, ‘nest’’ for bull trout
                              nest                                 Redd Conditions

    Boulders - Shelter                                         Passage
                                                                   Obstacles: Roads, dams, bridges, culverts

                                                                   Warming in lower stream reaches




                                                                                                                            3
                                                                                                   Sources
             Skykomish Fish Needs
                                                             Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Division of Marine Fisheries
                                                              Management (2005). Fish Identification. Retrieved November 13, 2005, from

    Pools
                                                              http://www.landbigfish.com/fish/default.cfm
                                                              http://www.landbigfish.com/fish/default.cfm
                                                            Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University (2005).
                                                              http://www.cropinfo. net/ripiarian. htm.
                                                              http://www.cropinfo. net/ripiarian. htm. Retrieved 19 November, 2005

       Collect Cool Water                                   Mount Baker-Snoqulamie National Forest: 2003-2004 Monitoring Report (MBSNF M.R.). USDA
                                                                      Forest Service; Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie N.F. Retrieved 14 November, 2005 from
                                                              http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/mbs-2003-2004-monitoring-report.pdf
       Resting                                              Murdoch, T., Cheo, M., O ’ Laughlin, K. (2001). The streamkeeper’s field guide. Everett, WA: The
                                                                            Cheo,         Laughlin,
                                                                      Adopt-A-Stream Fountation.
                                                                                        Fountation.
                                                                                                                    streamkeeper’

                                                              Snohomish County Public Works Surface Water Management (2005)
        Security from predation
                                                          

                                                             http://www1.co.snohomish.wa.us/Departments/Public_Works/Divisions/SWM/Library/Publi
                                                                      cations/Aquatic_Habitat/Salmon/SalmonidHabitatLimitingFactorsAnalysis. htm
                                                                      cations/Aquatic_Habitat/Salmon/SalmonidHabitatLimitingFactorsAnalysis.htm
                                                              Snohomish River Basin Chinook Salmon Habitat Evaluation Matrix (Snohomish River Basin).
    Insects
                                                          
                                                                      Snohomish Basin Salmonid Recovery Technical Committee; 22 June, 2000.
                                                            University of California Regents (2005). Salmon and Steelhead. Retrieved November 13,
                                                                                   http://groups.ucanr. org/sns/Unit_Overview/Background_Information.htm.
                                                                      2005, from http://groups.ucanr. org/sns/Unit_Overview/Background_Information.htm.
                                           veg.)
        Fish Food (from gravel, overhanging veg.)                                                                        Washington’
                                                              Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (1997, May). Washington’s Native Chars.
                                                              Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://wdfw.wa.gov/outreach/fishing/char.htm

       Biology                                              White Chuck Watershed Analysis (White Chuck). USDA Forest Service; Mt. Baker-
                                                              Snoqualmie N.F. Retrieved 14 November, 2005 from
                                                              http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/whitechuck/index.shtml
          Need Algae/plant material to eat
          Sensitive to pollutants, silt, temp and flow




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