Water Conservation Strategic Plan for the Palm Beach County

Document Sample
Water Conservation Strategic Plan for the Palm Beach County Powered By Docstoc
					      Water Conservation Strategic Plan

                    for the

Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department

               Dina Carravetta

  University of College, University of Denver

              Capstone Project


          Master of Applied Science

               August 15, 2008

                               Leonard A. Pasquini, Professor
                                           Capstone Advisor

                                         John A. Hill, Ph.D.
                                         Academic Director

               Upon the Recommendation of the Department

                                      James R. Davis, Ph.D.


In light of current drought conditions throughout Florida, the Palm Beach

County Water Utilities Department (PBCWUD) has assumed the leadership

role as a regional water provider in the conservation process to help guide

long-range water supply planning in Florida. This project presents a

conservation strategic plan that will provide guidance to the PBCWUD’s

management as they implement ways to meet the state mandate, which

requires a reduction in water demand by two MGD. The PBCWUD can

achieve this goal by implementing these ten strategies: 1) water

conservation ordinance, 2) rain sensing devices, 3) leak detection, 4) low-

volume plumbing, 5) public education, 6) automated meter-reading, 7)

reclaimed water expansion, 8) water loss reduction, 9) ASR wells, and 10)

conservation-based rate structure.

Table of Contents

Abstract............................................................................................. ii 

Introduction ....................................................................................... 1

        Thesis Statement ........................................................................ 1 

        Background of Local Florida Water Resources.................................. 1

        Summary of Service and Facilities at the PBCWUD........................... 3 

        Problem Statement ..................................................................... 4 

        Goals and Objectives ................................................................... 5 

        Benefits..................................................................................... 5 

Literature Review ................................................................................ 6 

        Water Conservation Ordinance...................................................... 8 

        Leak Detection Program............................................................... 8

        A Case Study in Las Vegas Valley Water District .............................. 9

        Low-Volume Plumbing ............................................................... 10

        A Case Study in Seattle, Washington ........................................... 11 

        Public Education in Water Conservation........................................ 12 

        Automated Meter-Reading.......................................................... 12

        A Case Study in McKinney, Texas ................................................ 13

        Reclaimed Water Program .......................................................... 15 

        Water Loss Tracking .................................................................. 17

        Current Status of Water Distribution System Losses at PBCWUD...... 18

        Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)Wells .................................... 21

       Conservation-Based Rate Structure ............................................. 22

Methods........................................................................................... 23 

Results ............................................................................................ 26 

        Historical Pumping Records (2003-2007)..................................... 26 

       Water Conservation Plan Strategies ............................................. 28 

Discussion........................................................................................ 49

Conclusion ...................................................................................…..52


References ...................................................................................……55

List of Appendices .........................................................................…..57

       Appendix 1 – PBCWUD Educational Flyer ..................................… .56

       Appendix 2 – Power Point Presentation ....................................… .58

       Appendix 3 – Historical Pumping Records .................................… .61

       Appendix 4 – Reclaimed Flow and Demand Data .......................… .62

       Appendix 5 – ASR Well Average Flow Data ...............................… .63

List of Tables

Table 1. Five-Year Summary of Pumping Records (2003-2007)..……………….27

Table 2. Additional Water Supply from Reclaimed Expansion Project.…………41

Table 3. ASR Well Test Cycling Plan and Recovery Volume.………………………..47

Table 4. Estimated Contribution of AWS Strategies..……………………..……………50

List of Figures

Figure 1. Leak Detection for AMR…………………………………………………………………14

Figure 2. Conservation Monitoring……………………………………………………………….15

Figure 3. PBCWUD Service Area Zones……………………………………………………….32

Figure 4. Proposed Reclaimed Water Expansion Area…...........................42


AMR      Automated Meter-Reading

AWS      Alternative Water Supply

AWWA     American Water Works Association

FDEP     Florida Department of Environmental Protection

GIS      Geographic Information Systems

GPCD     Gallons Per Capita per Day

GPD      Gallons per Day

HOA      Homeowner’s Association

LVVWD    Las Vegas Valley Water District

LWDD     Lake Worth Drainage District

MRWSA    Mandatory Reclaim Water Service Area

PBCWUD   Palm Beach County Water Utilities

PBCHD    Palm Beach County Health Department

PVC      Polyvinyl Chloride

SFWMD    South Florida Water Management District

MGD      Millions of Gallons per Day


Thesis Statement

      In carrying out the day-to-day mission of providing water, utilities

must now address concerns as changing environmental regulations and

standards are demanding that water conservation practices be incorporated

into overall business management strategies. In 2007, south Florida

residents experienced a devastating drought. This has led local water

authorities to emphasize the importance of water conservation. Water

resource managers throughout south Florida are demanding that utilities find

ways to implement a broad spectrum of conservation strategies to

counteract the depletion of local water supplies. The Palm Beach County

Water Utilities Department (PBCWUD) is one of the largest suppliers, and

has been tasked with reducing overall demand by two million gallons a day


Background of Local Florida Water Resources

      The PBCWUD uses groundwater as its sole resource for water

production. The Floridian aquifer is one of the largest sources of groundwater

in the United States, providing over three billion gallons of water a day to

residents and industries throughout Florida, south Georgia, and parts of

Alabama and South Carolina. The demand on the aquifer has continued to

increase throughout south Florida, as the rapid growth in population

continues within Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties. It is

estimated that the population of this tri-county area will climb to seven

million residents by 2010 (Miami-Dade County 2008).

      Rainfall is the primary method for aquifer replenishment. Rainwater

penetrates the ground and is deposited in the rock structures below the

water table; it can then be re-harvested for drinking water. In fact, less than

15% of the average rainfall actually reaches the aquifer; the remainder is

lost to evaporation or drainage into the ocean or canal systems.

      In 2006 and 2007, south Florida experienced one of the most severe

water shortages recorded in the region since recordkeeping began in the

early 1930s. Rainfall was approximately two feet below the region’s average

(Florida Department of Environmental Protection 2007). This prompted the

South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) to take immediate action

to address the region’s needs with regard to their future water demands.

The District placed emergency water restrictions on the region’s residents

and municipalities in response to local water conditions.

      The SFWMD is the state agency responsible for source water quality

and supply, flood control, and environmental restoration throughout sixteen

counties extending from Orlando to the Florida Keys. This agency is the sole

authority over water allocation to state water municipalities. The latter are

the primary regulatory authorities over source water permits and usage, as

they control the amount of water the PBCWUD is allowed to withdraw from

the Floridian aquifer.

      As a member of the regulated community, the PBCWUD is permitted

through the SFWMD to withdraw groundwater within the parameters set by

the District. Recent drought conditions have prompted the SFWMD to

reconsider these parameters by mandating additional conservation measures

by the region’s water municipalities. Consequently, the District has charged

the region’s water suppliers with the goal of reducing overall demand by two

million gallons per day.

Summary of Service and Facilities at the PBCWUD

      The Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department provides water and

wastewater collection services to approximately 475,000 residents within

1,200 square miles of the rapidly urbanizing, primarily unincorporated, area

of Palm Beach County. The Department operates six regional water

treatment plants with a total treatment capacity of 107 million gallons per

day (MGD). The PBCWUD owns and operates the thirty-five MGD Southern

Region Water Reclamation Facility (SRWRF), a state-of-the-art wastewater

treatment and water reclamation facility. It also occupies twenty-four MGD

of capacity in the East Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (ECR),

which is operated by the city of West Palm Beach. Wastewater is treated at

these two regional facilities. Approximately 0.5 MGD of treated effluent is

directed to the Wakodahatchee and Green Cay Wetlands for ground water

replenishment and ecosystem sustainability. The Department’s water

distribution system includes over 2,064 miles of pipe, 14,834 fire hydrants,

and 30,600 valves. The wastewater collection system is comprised of 1,100

miles of gravity sewers, 469 miles of force mains, 27,800 manholes, and

over 750 lift stations that transfer household and commercial wastewater to

the regional pumping facility for treatment and reclamation. The utility

consists of two main central operations centers, a certified in-house

laboratory, a customer service facility, and a twenty-four-hour emergency

communications center (D. Carravetta, R. Vega, & H. Hadjimiry, unpublished


Problem Statement

      The impact of drought conditions has led to an undeniable need for a

well-coordinated effort to guide and direct water suppliers through drought

preparedness and source water preservation. The 2006-2007 drought was

the worst ever experienced by south Florida residents, emphasizing the need

for alternative water use and water conservation as more important than

ever. The tight restrictions throughout the state have forced the SFWMD to

mandate that water utilities curb their demand on the state’s source water

supply by promoting and increasing reclaimed water use and water

conservation throughout communities in and around utility service areas.

The PBCWUD has already shown commitment to water conservation efforts

by practicing environmental stewardship over existing water resources that

have been allocated to the PBCWUD. This water conservation strategic plan

will provide additional guidance to the PBCWUD in order to comply with the

tightened water allocations and conservation initiatives set forth by the

SFWMD and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

Goals and Objectives

      The goal of this project is to create strategies for implementation by

the PBCWUD that will result in the reduction in water demand by an

additional two million gallons per day by the end of FY 2009. The objective is

to create a water conservation strategic plan that the department can utilize

as a guide to meet the goal set forth by the SFWMD and the FDEP. The

PBCWUD will implement conservation and alternative supply projects with

the support of other local agencies: the South Florida Water Management

District, the Palm Beach County Board of County Commissioners, and the

Lake Worth Drainage District. A power point presentation will be created and

delivered to the PBCWUD core management team for comments and



      The PBCWUD is one of the largest utilities in the state; therefore

reducing the department’s demand on the Floridian aquifer will have a

regional impact on the groundwater supply in south Florida. Successfully

achieving the aforementioned goals and objectives will assist in the

curtailment of local water shortages by ensuring long-term reliability and

sustainability of the state’s water resources. This project will also help lower

utility operation and maintenance costs; at the same time, it will lower the

consumer’s monthly water usage bills. The implementation of this strategic

plan will ensure the long-term preservation of the Floridian aquifer.

Literature Review

      The mounting pressures on the nation’s water resources have caused

an urgent need for improved efficiency by water suppliers and managers.

Conservation methods can lead to the recovery of large amounts of treated

water as well as additional revenue (American Water Works Association

2008). Water and wastewater utilities across the country are now forced to

research and implement ways to improve water conservation in their day-to-

day operations, by adopting innovative management strategies that reduce

overall water loss, and by instituting best management practices outlined on

the SFWMD website (South Florida Water Management District).

      In response to the drought of 2007, the Florida Department of

Environmental Protection announced that it was collaborating with the South

Florida Water Management District, the Department of Agriculture, and the

Florida Division of Emergency Management to prepare a list of

recommendations intended for use by the six regional water management

districts of the state of Florida. Current guidance documents encourage the

development of goal-based conservation plans that are unique to the

geographical needs of the state’s respective management districts. Each

SFWMD district office is responsible for working with the water utilities within

that district to develop and implement conservation programs that target the

critical needs of their region. Although the drought continues, it is likely that

the rest of the state will not require the same drastic action that is needed

for the water and wastewater utilities in south Florida (Florida Department of

Environmental Protection 2007).

      In their 2007 report, the FDEP and SFWMD summarized water

conservation methods and practices, including the following

recommendations and alternatives:

   1) the development of goal-based conservation plans for the state’s

      larger utilities;

   2) the implementation of automated meter-reading;

   3) an enforcement program that requires installation of rain sensors on

      automatic irrigation systems;

   4) the development of more effective enforcement and education


   5) the implementation of conservation-based rate structures;

   6) indoor water use conservation programs that encourage the

      installation of low-flow plumbing fixtures;

   7) the implementation of appropriate watering guidelines;

   8) the promotion of reclaimed water use; and

   9) the installation of an adequate number of aquifer storage wells that

      can be utilized as an alternative form of water supply during dry


       The PBCWUD water conservation strategic plan defines strategies to

incorporate these recommended guidelines for enhancing water conservation

within its customer service area. The following is a brief summary of the

literature on each component of this plan (Florida Department of

Environmental Protection 2007).

Water Conservation Ordinance

       Palm Beach County implemented countywide Ordinance 93-3, which

restricts irrigation of any residential, commercial, institutional,

governmental, or industrial landscape area to the hours of 5:00 PM to 9:00

AM. In addition, it requires that new installations of automatic irrigation

systems be equipped with rain sensing devices. In order to enhance the

effectiveness of Ordinance 93-3, this water conservation strategic plan

presents two additional amendments to the ordinance:

   •   an enforcement program coordinated through the Palm Beach County

       Sheriff’s Department that includes the issuance of fines and tickets for

       any violation of Ordinance 93-3; and

   •   mandatory retrofitting of irrigation systems that were installed prior to

       the effective date of Ordinance 93-3.

Leak-detection Program

       Millions of gallons of treated drinking water are lost every day through

leaks in water distribution system piping. This water conservation strategic

plan defines ways to implement a leak-detection program, which will start in

January 2009, to help eliminate water loss through cracked pipes and other

compromised underground infrastructure. As part of this plan, the PBCWUD

will contract with a leak-detection firm to conduct an inspection of 20,000

feet of water mains in the oldest section of the distribution system.

Conducting this water audit will provide a way to identify the water loss

associated with inaccurate meters, theft, and recordkeeping on line flushing

activities. This plan provides a strategy of installing leak-detection

equipment throughout the distribution system.

      Furthermore, new developments in leak-detection technology allow

utilities to locate and repair small leaks before they develop into major

corrective issues, necessitating costly repairs to streets, landscaping, and

sidewalks. There are monitoring systems on the market that allow utilities to

detect leaks before they become serious. This prevents the constant need to

pump additional water—in some cases, millions of gallons per day—into the

system, to compensate for water loss. To that end, if water utilities expect

their customers to implement conservation practices at home, they

themselves need to do all they can to preserve water within their own

treatment plants and underground infrastructure (Jones 2006).

A Case Study in Las Vegas Valley Water District

      The Las Vegas Valley Water District (LVVWD) installed an underground

sounding system (Permalog) comprising 8,000 leak-detection units in areas

of their pipeline where they had frequently experienced leaks in the past.

These units are programmed to listen for leaks twice a day and can detect

them up to 500 linear feet away. When the unit’s alarm sounds, it is sent

into “leak mode,” and the notification that a leak exists is transmitted to

receiver units, which are carried by utility employees. Once the data is

collected from the receiver units, the information is downloaded to a

database and transferred to a facility mapping system that will identify the

location of the leak (Jones 2006).

      The LVVWD determined that the savings compensated for the initial

cost of the investment. Using the underground system, the utility was able

to identify 540 leaks from service lines, lines on private property, fire

hydrants, meters, valves, and mains. The annual cost of running the system

was estimated to be approximately $623,000. The savings in treatment and

transmission costs alone was found to be greater than the average cost to

run the leak-detection program (Jones 2006). The benefits of the program

far outweigh the cost of installation.

Low-Volume Plumbing

      The development, implementation, and potential benefits of low-

volume plumbing fixtures will be a key component of this water conservation

strategic plan. Low-flow shower heads equipped with timers and two-piece

tank-type toilets can contribute significantly to long-term water supply

problems if implemented on a widespread basis. In an American Water

Works Association (AWWA) field report, low-volume plumbing was used in

Massachusetts on a statewide basis and has served as an incentive for

proposed state legislation to establish conservation-oriented water use

standards for plumbing fixtures. Low-volume toilets have played a significant

factor in water demand management (Vickers 1989).

      With that said, in April 2008, the PBCWUD requested and was granted

approval by the Board of County Commissioners to add a 15% surcharge to

all residential and commercial accounts, in an effort to recover revenue that

was lost during the drought of 2007. In an attempt to promote the

installation of low volume plumbing, this water conservation strategic plan

suggests the implementation of a “surcharge exemption” for those

customers who replace conventional household plumbing fixtures with low-

volume varieties. This strategy describes the required actions that are

necessary to put this program in place.

A Case Study in Seattle, Washington

      This study discusses a home water conservation study in Seattle,

Washington, which provides important information and insight on water-

conserving fixtures and appliances through a “before-and-after” comparison

of water use patterns. This study obtained data on the reductions in per

capita cold and hot water use achieved by retrofitting plumbing fixtures and

appliances with new, high-efficiency devices. The most effective fixtures

evaluated in the study, based on measured savings, were toilets, clothes

washers, and faucet aerators. All told, the retrofit in Seattle reduced water

use from around 70 gallons per capital per day (GPCD) to 40 GPCD or less

by using new high-efficiency fixtures and appliances (Deoreo et al. 2001).

Public Education in Water Conservation

      The PBCWUD has already undertaken significant efforts to promote

conservation through public education by making web-based information

available on the Department’s homepage. This site contains information on

the most common causes of excessive water consumption, the benefits of

reclaimed water, as well as information about constructed wetlands, i.e., the

Wakodahatchee and Green Cay Wetlands and Nature Center. This water

conservation strategic plan presents ways to improve the dissemination of

this information to residential account holders by, for example, mailing

pamphlets with utility bills, giving presentations at community Home Owners

Association (HOAs) meetings, and organizing public events for school-age

children in the Green Cay Nature Center and Palm Beach County Public

School District.

Automated Meter-Reading

      If there is no accurate picture of how much water is used, it is difficult

to determine whether water conservation efforts and education

programming is successful (Elfner and McDowell 2004). This water

conservation strategic plan provides a strategy that includes the initiation of

a program to phase out meters after they have been in use for five years,

which is considered a reasonable period of usage by most manufacturers. It

is recommended that the new meters be installed with automated reading

capabilities to help ensure that all meters are reading accurately. The

following case study notes some of the benefits of automated meter reading.

A Case Study in McKinney, Texas

      The city of McKinney piloted a case study on the implementation of an

automated meter-reading (AMR) system in a portion of its service area. The

benefits of using automated meter-reading far exceeded their initial

expectations. The results revealed that many of the existing meters were

under-rated and not measuring all water usage. It was also discovered that

some of the meters stopped completely during periods of peak flow if the

meter’s maximum flow rate was being grossly exceeded (Dobbie & Durham

2003). As a result, AMR allowed the utility to bill for water usage that was

previously not being metered, which increased the monthly bills for many

customers. Consequently, customers were surprised by higher monthly bills,

and in turn modified their wasteful habits in response to the increase in

price. According to Dobbie and Durham, “the full benefit of implementing the

AMR system is still being researched” (2003, 50). However, for McKinney

residents it has become a key management tool for the following:

   1) Dispute resolution with customers: McKinney uses the AMR profile data

      to resolve customer disputes regarding billing charges and customer


   2) Leak detection: The profile data also have the potential to indicate

       leaks within the system by identifying drastic peaks in usage. For

       example, Figure 1 clearly shows the detection of a leak on the

       eighteenth day of the monitoring. The data in Figure 1 reveals a sharp

       increase in water usage on this day of the observation period. This

       indicates that the customer illegally irrigated on a designated

       restriction day.

         (gallons per day)


                                   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

       Figure 1. Leak Identified During 18th Hour (Dobbie and Durham, 2003,


       The Permalog system can also be utilized as an enforcement tool. The

following Figure 2 displays how this system can profile data in way that

allows the Department to monitor for illegal consumption.

       For example, the McKinney, Texas water authority only allows

irrigation on even numbered days of the week. This particular customer

account (shown in Figure 2) clearly shows that they were watering every day

of the week starting on the nineteenth and continuing through the end of the






                      1   3   5   7   9    11   13   15   17   19   21    23   25   27   29   31
                                          Consumption (gallons per day)

      Figure 2. Conservation Monitoring (Dobbie and Durham 2003, 53).

   3) Conservation monitoring: Parameters such as odd/even watering days

      are easily detected using the AMR daily profile data. This can be used

      as an enforcement tool to verify compliance with local regulations.

   4) Regulation enforcement: Profile data can be used to extract water use

      patterns and to identify the illegal flushing of grease and other

      contaminants in the collection system (Dobbie and Durham 2003).

Reclaimed Water Program

      The process of water reuse enables wastewater to be reclaimed and

reused, safely and consistently. Water is naturally recycled through the

hydrologic cycle, eventually making its way back to fresh water supplies. The

purpose of implementing a strong reclaimed water program allows utilities to

expedite natural processes by using advanced treatment technologies. It is a

prudent economic choice for community water systems that are plagued by

drought and water shortages (Kolodziejski 2005).

      The PBCWUD has already implemented an aggressive program to

make reclaimed water available for landscape and golf course irrigation

around the Department’s Southern Regional Water Reclamation Facility

(SRWRF), which is located in the southern portion of the service area. The

extensive use of reclaimed water as an alternative water supply (AWS)

serves to reduce groundwater and surface water withdrawals and demand,

which in turn reduces the amount of potable water being used for irrigation.

Reclaimed water also constitutes an important source of replenishment to

the surficial aquifer system.

      Furthermore, the Palm Beach County Board of County Commissioners

enacted Reclaimed Water Ordinance 97-12 on May 20, 1997 (amended

January 8, 2002), which requires all new developments within approximately

eight square miles of the SRWRF to utilize reclaimed water for irrigation of

green spaces, golf courses, and commercial and residential landscaping. The

Ordinance establishes:

   1) mandatory use of reclaimed water for the irrigation of any new

      development within a Mandatory Reclaimed Water Service Area

      (MRWSA) as defined in the Ordinance;

   2) mandatory use of reclaimed water for the irrigation of new

      developments located entirely or partially outside the MRWSA, but

      within 300 feet of an existing reclaimed water distribution main;

   3) encouraged use of reclaimed water for the irrigation of properties lying

      outside the MRWSA and more than 300 feet from any existing

      reclaimed water distribution main.

      This water conservation strategic plan recommends an extension of

the existing twenty-four-inch reclaimed water transmission main, in order to

provide additional golf courses and residential communities throughout the

northern portion of Palm Beach County service connections to reclaimed

water mains. Expansion of the MRWSA will contribute significantly toward

the goal of reducing overall demand by two MGD.

Water Loss Tracking

      It has been estimated that water providers are losing billions of gallons

of unaccounted-for and sometimes unbilled drinking water every year.

Utilities can address this issue by using current technology that allows them

to account for as much water as possible (Jones 2006).

      According to the American Water Works Association’s Water Loss

Control Committee, the implementation of effective leak management

strategies and pressure control is the cornerstone of reducing water loss by

distribution systems (AWWA Water Loss Control Committee 2003).

      The American Society of Civil Engineers states that “each day, 6 billion

gallons of clean, treated drinking water disappears, mostly due to old, leaky

pipes and mains…enough water to serve the population of the state of

California” (Jones 2006, 32). Water leaks are a problem plaguing water

systems nationwide, and one of the biggest challenges facing the United

States is how to improve and maintain infrastructure for future generations

to come (Jones 2006). New management technology for leak detection and

water loss reduction is recommended for consideration as part of the water

conservation strategic plan.

Current Status of Water Distribution System Losses at PBCWUD

      Water losses through the distribution system are calculated monthly

and summarized once every fiscal year in an annual report. The amount of

unaccounted-for water is determined by the variance between available

water and water sold. For the twelve-month period ending in December

2007, a 10.9% variance was found (J. Fernandez, unpublished data).

      The current methods that the PBCWUD uses to determine distribution

system losses are summarized here:

   1) Wastewater plant losses: All potable water usage to the SRWRF is

      recorded on a meter and accounted for monthly.

   2) Wastewater lift station losses: In order to record wastewater flows,

      portable meters were placed on approximately twenty wastewater lift

      stations over a period of several months in the early 1990s. Water

      usage was averaged to determine the representative monthly usage

      per lift station. This figure was multiplied by the number of lift stations

      (approximately 400 at the time), and a total usage figure was thereby


   3) Hydrant flushing: Two methods are being utilized to estimate the

      amount of water used in hydrant flushing to achieve water quality.

      They are:

  a. Automatic flushers that are equipped with timers and are

     programmed to flush at regular intervals. Usage is calculated

     based on flow rate, time, pressure, and the results are reported


  b. The amount of water used by hydrants that are manually flushed

     is estimated based on a uniform amount of turns that the valve

     was opened. In one study of the flow from a hydrant, flow was

     recorded in gallons per minute. Volume is recorded based on the

     number of uniform turns required to open the hydrant and how

     long flushing takes to achieve the required concentration of

     chlorine residual. Using this method, water quantities are

     estimated and reported monthly. Hydrants are flushed and

     tested on a routine basis as part of the hydrant maintenance

     program. Water used to flush these hydrants prior to testing and

     during the flow and pressure tests is not measured.

4) Meter testing: All water usage in this area is measured through a

  portable meter.

5) Line flushing: Each month PBCWUD inspectors report which new

  lines are put into service. When a new water service line is installed,

  it is necessary to flush the line until it is free of debris. Inspectors

  estimate this the volume of water used to flush the new line and this

  information is then used to generate a water usage report for

tracking purposes. This is done based on a standard matrix chart

prepared about ten years ago.

6) Sewer line maintenance: Water usage in this area is estimated

   based on operator experience.

7) Municipality usage: Water is sold to surrounding municipalities

   and governmental agencies on occasion as needed. This is

   usually metered.

8) Leaks and line breaks: Leak losses generally result from broken

   service lines and are ordinarily estimated based on operator

   experience and individual circumstances, e.g., line size, rupture,

   slow leak, or duration.

9) Interconnection flushing: Requests for assistance and support

   with interconnection flushing from surrounding municipalities

   occurs very infrequently and would be routinely metered. The

   interconnection would be flushed at the discretion on operator

   experience, time, velocity, and line pressure. Interconnections

   are also flushed during routine flow tests to ensure the accuracy

   of water-metering. An estimate of the volume of water used to

   complete the flow test is calculated by the operator performing

   the test.

10) Pressure and leak tests: The PBCWUD inspectors report the

   results of water and leak tests on a monthly basis. This

            information is used to generate a water usage report based on

            fill volumes and anticipated wastage. These figures are

            estimated by the inspectors, using a standard matrix chart.

         11) Bacteriological samples: Water usage for bacteriological

            samples is estimated based on a previously established average

            sample quantity multiplied by the number of samples taken that

            month (D. Carravetta, J. Fernandez, unpublished data).

      These current methods of tracking and estimating water loss have the

potential for error, as it is often left up to operators to approximate how

much water they used during a maintenance or repair task. The water

conservation strategic plan described in this capstone project recommends

ways to improve water loss tracking and inventory, with a goal of reducing

loss by 0.5% by 2009.

Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Wells

      Aquifer storage wells are used for both groundwater replenishment

and water recovery. The use of ASR wells has been judged a cost-effective

and efficient water conservation tool, especially in areas where water

shortages are prevalent (Pyne 2005). Five regional water management

districts in south Florida are instituting innovative measures by constructing

ASR wells in their service areas. ASR wells involve the capturing of water

supplies when they are available in excess and storing them in confined,

unpolluted underground aquifers, which can be pumped out later during

periods of drought (American Water Works Association 2003). This water

conservation strategic plan recommends the siting of two additional aquifer

storage wells.

Conservation-Based Rate Structure

      Water is an inexpensive commodity. Since water prices have

historically been low, people do not monitor their use of water very closely.

The economic law of supply and demand dictates that price affects use. This

project will explore the idea of converting to a conservation-based rate

structure, by suggesting a modified pricing structure that is both sensible for

consumers and beneficial to water resource conservation. An increasing

number of water utilities are using this type of pricing structure to help

promote efficient water use.

      There are four main types of conservation rate structures: uniform

rates, seasonal rates, inverted-block rates, and excess-use rates are used to

encourage water conservation, particularly among residential water users.

These rate structures have been used successfully both to convey

appropriate pricing signals and to help promote broader conservation efforts

(Cuthbert and Lemoine 1996).

      The rate structures classified as conservation-oriented are categorized

as follows:

   1) Uniform commodity rates: This rate charges a flat fee to all customers,

      irrespective of customer usage.

   2) Flat seasonal rates: This includes two different uniform rate charges.

      In general, a higher rate is assessed during peak water and irrigation


   3) Inverted-block rates: These rates are directly proportional to usage

      and increase as water consumption increases.

   4) Excess-use rates: Average use is calculated per customer based on

      usage during non-peak periods and is charged as a flat fee (base

      rate). Water use above the base rate percentage is charged as an

      excess fee.

      According to survey results by the AWWA, more than sixty percent of

U.S. water utilities have incorporated some form of conservation-oriented

rate structure. These utilities are mostly located in areas where water

resources are limited and new resources are expensive or difficult to sustain

(Cuthbert and Lemoine 1996).


      A complete review of literature was completed and current

departmental conservation programs were analyzed and summarized as part

of this project. The project lists ten strategies that expand upon the most

important conservation practices already in place; it also creates new

programs to enhance their effectiveness. The description of each strategy

includes a scope, justification, and the anticipated effect it would have on

the PBCWUD’s goal of reducing overall demand by two million gallons per

day (MGD). In addition, state mandates and recommendations are included

as necessary components of each strategy.

      This water conservation strategic plan provides additional guidance

and strategies to augment and implement the ten recommendations outlined

by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. A complete analysis

of the “Best Management Practices” that are recommended by the SFWMD,

AWWA, and the FDEP were taken into consideration as this project was

developed. Although Palm Beach County’s departmental financial feasibility

and budgetary issues are an issue, the development of a complete capital

improvement budget plan was beyond the scope of this project. It will,

however, take place upon acceptance and implementation of this

conservation strategic plan.

      The following is a summary of the water conservation strategic plan

components, which provide ways to comply with mandatory water

conservation practices. These strategies were written using the guidance

that the South Florida Water Management District and the Department of

Environmental Protection derived to help guide utility planning. They include

the following:

         1) an amendment that will provide improved enforcement of the

            existing Palm Beach County ordinance for permanent restrictions

            on hours of irrigation, by actively enforcing the ordinance when

            willful violations are encountered;

2) mandatory retrofitting with rain sensing devices and automatic

   switches on all irrigation systems installed prior to the adoption

   of countywide Ordinance No. 93-3 (which requires irrigation

   systems to be equipped with a water sensing device that will

   automatically discontinue irrigation during periods of rainfall);

3) implementation of a leak-detection and flushing program that

   targets reduction in water loss;

4) a water conservation incentive program that encourages home

   installation of low-volume plumbing fixtures by offering financial

   rewards on monthly billing statements to those customers who


5) enhancement of water conservation public education programs

   that target indoor water use, irrigation, reclaimed water, and the

   benefits of constructed wetlands;

6) implementation of automated meter-reading;

7) an expansion of the reclaimed water distribution network and

   service areas to which the program applies;

8) a reduction in “unaccounted-for water loss” within the

   department’s treatment and collection infrastructures;

9) alternative water supply projects, such as, the construction of

   two additional Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) wells; and

10) development of a conservation-based rate structure.

      The final product is a complete water conservation strategic plan that

can be utilized by the PBCWUD in its effort to respond to the statewide water

conservation initiative.


      The results of this capstone project include the development of ten key

strategies that incorporate the guidelines recommended by the FDEP and the

SFWMD. These strategies expand on policies and programs already in place

in order to enhance the effectiveness of PBCWUD’s conservation

management practices by addressing the mandates required by the SFWMD.

This project develops a strategic plan that is intended to comply with the

SFWMD’s required demand reductions.

      In addition, in order to facilitate annual reporting on conservation

program performance, the department’s historical pumping records were

compiled and summarized in the following section for the department to use

as a baseline of comparison in monitoring future programs and reporting

requirements. Having these historical records will be crucial in determining

the overall effectiveness of the strategies.

Historical Pumping Records (2003-2007)

      As previously stated, the effectiveness and subsequent success of this

strategic plan should be evaluated, monitored, and measured to determine

whether or not conservation goals are being met. In order to facilitate this

process, a baseline for future comparison is outlined in Table 1 below.

Records of water use during the last five years are shown alongside the

current maximum withdrawal rate permitted by the SFWMD (31,751 gallons

per year). In addition, the daily pumping records for all the groundwater well

fields are summarized for the purpose of future tracking and comparison.

The annual and maximum daily withdrawals were calculated by adding the

daily pumping volumes for the year and the withdrawals for a specific day,

respectively. The calculated annual and daily maximum withdrawals were

then compared with the current permitted water allocations and are

displayed in the following table. See the attached Appendix 3 for further


Table 1. A Five-Year Summary of Pumping Records (2003-2007)

Year                            2003           2004           2005            2006           2007
Annual                          19,535         20,643         22,097          22,145         20,229
Withdrawal (MG)
Annual Allocation               31,751         31,751         31,751          31,751         31,751
Maximum Daily                   63.41          69.30          73.98           73.56          70.55
Withdrawal (MG)
Maximum Daily                   129.62         129.62         129.62          129.62         129.62
Allocation (MG)
Source: D. Carravetta, unpublished data

Note: The annual and maximum daily withdrawals were calculated by adding the daily pumping rate for the year
with the daily withdrawal (MG). Daily pumping records for the all of PBCWUD’s well fields are shown in the attached
Appendix 3.

        These numbers indicate that all the systems withdrew less water than

current allocations allow. It is expected that average daily and annual usage

will decrease even more upon implementation of these proposed water

conservation strategies. Collectively, this plan was designed to ensure

compliance with proposed withdrawal allocations and limitations set forth by

the SFWMD.

      The security of future water supply depends on conservation efforts

that are implemented now. If no such efforts are initiated, the volume of

water withdrawn will increase the demand on local source-water supplies.

Water Conservation Plan Strategies

Strategy #1: Improve Enforcement of Countywide Ordinance


The purpose of Strategy #1 is to recommend two additional amendments to

countywide Ordinance 93-3. This ordinance currently restricts hours of

irrigation and requires that new plumbing installations be equipped with

rain-sensing devices that will shut down the irrigation system during periods

of rainfall. Although this is a local ordinance, there has been little

enforcement of it since its approval in 1991. This will be the focus of the first

amendment. The second amendment will pertain to retrofitting irrigation

systems that were “grandfathered” in because they were installed prior to

1991 will also contribute significantly to long-term conservation goals.

Scope of Work

      The first amendment to the Ordinance involves increased enforcement

of any found violations of the irrigation ordinance within all residential and

commercial service areas. The following is a brief work plan that outlines the

necessary steps needed to implement this strategy and amend the


   1) present the amendment changes to the Palm Beach County Board of

      County Commissioners during an agenda meeting for review and


   2) develop a task force and steering committee comprised of PBCWUD

      personnel and local law enforcement officials (Sheriff’s Department) to

      facilitate the enforcement program of this plan;

   3) discuss implementing a warning system that will target residential

      homes and/or communities that are irrigating during hours of

      restriction, by developing a standard warning notice or door tag will be

      placed at the home or management office of the community notifying

      them of the violation; and

   4) stipulate that, if a second violation is observed, the Sheriff’s

      Department will issue a citation and a fine to the offending party. This

      will contribute to the PBCWUD’s annual revenue.

Strategy #2: Retrofitting Rain-Sensing Devices


      The second proposed amendment involves mandatory retrofitting of all

irrigation systems that were installed prior to the effective date of Ordinance

93-3 in 1991. This will require that residential communities and golf courses

within the PBCWUD service to upgrade their irrigation systems to meet

current installation requirements. This program will allow for uniform and

consistent enforcement throughout our customer service area.

Scope of Work

      This strategy will require pre-1991 installations to be retrofitted with

the same rain sensing equipment that is required today. The following list

outlines the four changes that will be implemented as a result of this


      1) draft and present the amendment to the Board of County

         Commissioners for approval;

      2) identify the community irrigation systems that were installed prior

         to 1991, using the department’s database systems;

      3) draft a notification letter to be sent to customers informing them of

         the amendment and compliance deadlines; and

      4) develop a question and answer list for the customer service and

         communications staff to utilize when answering phone inquiries

         from the public.

Strategy #3: Initiation of a Leak-Detection System


      The implementation of a leak-detection system has the potential to

significantly reduce the loss of non-recoverable water by giving the utility a

snapshot of the condition of the underground infrastructure. As water

becomes increasingly scarce, and its production and distribution costs

continue to increase, implementing water loss technology will to help curb

water losses that involve:

   1) the physical escape of water from the distribution system before it

      reaches the customer; and

   2) water losses consisting of usage that is unrecorded due to inaccurate

      calculations and water meters or unauthorized consumption.

Management staff will be able to prioritize repair and replacement of

infrastructure based on need and priority, instead of reacting to catastrophic

failures and corrective repairs as they surface throughout the distribution


Scope of Work

      A thorough review of the literature related to new technology and leak

detection equipment was performed in preparation for writing this scope.

The Permalog leak-detection system is a “noise-logging” data- collection

platform used to detect leaks before they turn into catastrophic line breaks

that result in water loss, disruption of service to customers, and lost

revenue. This system has been piloted and documented by other

municipalities as a powerful tool used to make informed decisions that will

protect assets and provide non-stop service to customers. Upon installation

of this system, the utility will have the ability to begin profiling leaks, which

will allow for the identification of the areas needing the most attention.

Strategy #3 proposes the installation in zone one and four (depicted in

Figure 3) first. These communities have old underground structures, and

they account for most of the leaks that are reported monthly by field

operations staff. In addition, historical as-built drawings also indicate that

the piping distribution system in zones one and four of the service area were

installed with a weaker grade of pipe than standard polyvinyl chloride pipe

(PVC). The following is a map of the PBCWUD customer service area showing

the delineation of the aforementioned five zones, which are the areas served

by each of the five water treatment plants.

Figure 3. PBCWUD Service Area Zones (D. Carravetta, unpublished data)

Strategy #4: Encourage Low-Volume Plumbing Fixtures


      Strategy #4 focuses on encouraging the installation of low-volume

plumbing fixtures through the development of an incentive-based program

for residential customers. Under this new program, low-flow toilets and

shower heads installed during new construction or as replacements of

existing fixtures will exempt customers from having to pay the 15%

surcharge that was applied across the board to all commercial and

residential accounts in April 2008. This will act as a financial incentive for

customers, at the same time leading to an overall reduction in usage in their


Scope of Work

      The specific components of this strategy are:

      1) Program policy approval: A complete program policy will be drafted

      and presented to the Palm Beach County Board of County

      Commissioners for approval.

      2) Residential program rollout: Billing inserts will be created and

      distributed to all residential accounts, explaining the policy and

      documentation needed for the exemption to be applied to their


      3) Developer program rollout: The information will be disseminated to

      local developers of new residential construction in communities that

      are equipped with low-volume plumbing. Developers and homeowner’s

      associations can advertise the exemption in their incentive packages.

Strategy #5: Expand Public Education


      Following the widespread public approval of the Wakodahatchee

Wetlands, the PBCWUD constructed the Green Cay Wetlands and Nature

Center to promote public education about water resources, conservation,

and alternative water supplies, such as reclaimed water. The 9,000 square-

foot nature center features interactive exhibits and recreational opportunities

for the public by displaying habitats for wildlife and native vegetation. The

intent of Strategy #5 is to expand educational opportunities such as these,

by creating a forum that caters to the promotion of water conservation and

educational activities.

Scope of Work

      The goal of Strategy #5 is to improve and promote water conservation

and reuse through educational activities and public events. Teaching about

water supply, water cycles, conservation, and purification is crucial for

creating a “state of mind” that respects and values water as a limited

resource that should be managed and preserved for future generations to


Work Plan

      The following list summarizes the main components of this strategy:

         1) Informational flyers and billing inserts will highlight the benefits

                and advantages of utilizing reclaimed water.

         2) Fact sheets, which can be inserted into bills and sent to

                residents, will provide information on different ways water can

                be conserved in and around the home. See Appendix 1 for an

                example created by the SFWMD and the PBCWUD.

         3) Information sessions at community HOA meetings will be

                organized to educate the public on water conservation.

                Suggestions will include information on how long, and how often,

                to irrigate.

         4) Local youth groups will be targeted by organizing special

                activities at schools and public events at the wetlands.

         5) Guided nature walks through the wetlands will be initiated and

                advertised to the public. These too will provide opportunities to

                educate the public about the benefits of groundwater recharge

                and how it contributes to the earth’s hydraulic cycle.

      By incorporating the objectives of this strategy, the PBCWUD can

begin to effectively expand and promote awareness regarding issues related

to water conservation. The positive impacts will be well communicated

throughout the community by way of public involvement and education.

Strategy #6: Automated Meter-Reading


      In order to better account for water usage and to locate possible

service leaks and inaccuracies in water usage calculations, Strategy #6

focuses on establishing a meter change-out program, which replaces meters

older than four years with newer automated technology. Research has

shown that water meters fail to register flow accurately after being in service

for approximately five years. Therefore, implementing an automated system

will improve accuracy, reduce the work force needed to take readings,

improve regulatory enforcement by allowing the Department to profile data

on customer usage and leak detection, and, lastly, provide a source of data

to help resolve customer disputes.

Scope of Work

      The intent of Strategy #6 is to replace meters and upgrade to

automated service reading capabilities. The following is an outline of the

steps that will need to take place in order to augment the transition from

manual to automated meter-reading.

   1) A pilot program will be implemented in an area that has aged meters

      (older than 5 years). The pilot program will give the Department a

      better idea of the cost and time it will take to implement AMR fully.

      This study area can be easily determined using the department’s

      geographic information system (GIS) data, or by hiring a consultant to

      analyze the PBCWUD’s as-built drawings to determine the best area in

      which to pilot the system.

   2) Once the pilot program is complete, the subsequent change-out areas

      will be delineated using GIS and incorporated into the Department’s

      capital improvement plan and budget.

   3) A decision must be made as to whether or not change-outs will be

      performed by in-house personnel, contractual services, or some

      combination of both.

      Automated meter-reading has proved a valuable tool for utilities

nationwide. It improves recordkeeping, augments water conservation, and

saves money. Many utilities around the country have tested it and verified

that the system’s benefits far outweigh the cost of installation and


Strategy #7: Expansion of Reclaimed Water Program


      The rapid population growth in the PBCWUD’s service area has

increased stress on the potable water supply. Strategy #7 includes a plan to

expand the PBCWUD reclaimed water program into the northern area of the

water distribution system. This expansion will provide a cost-efficient way to

offset the demand restrictions that have been placed on water providers due

to the stress on the south Floridian Aquifer.

      The goal of this strategy will result in the following achievements

following the expansion reclaimed water system:

   1) increase the available quantity and use of reclaimed water;

   2) increase the conservation of fresh water;

   3) reduce dependence on deep well injection for wastewater effluent


   4) reduce dependence on the surficial aquifer;

   5) decrease withdrawals from the regional surface water system;

   6) increase fresh water replenishment of the surficial aquifer; and

   7) will make additional fresh water available for Everglades Restoration

      and other uses.

Scope of Work

      The objective of Strategy #7 is to expand the existing reclaimed water

service area by extending the existing reclaimed water transmission mains

to provide an additional capacity of 1.5 MGD of reclaimed water to area golf

courses, residential developments, and constructed wetlands in the northern

region of the Department’s service area. The PBCWUD supports the idea of

utilizing reclaimed water for irrigation purposes in lieu of disposing of treated

wastewater effluent by deep well injection. The County Comprehensive Land

Use Plan, the Palm Beach County Water Policy Document, the State Water

Policy, and the SFWMD Water Policy all support the installation of the

aforementioned twenty-four-foot extension of transmission mains to ensure

and promote the furtherance of the Department’s water conservation

strategic plan. This project would involve the installation of approximately

2,800 feet of twenty-four-inch reclaimed water transmission mains. The

mains will provide new service to many of the communities in the northern

part of the service area.

      The Reclaimed Water Ordinance (No. 97-12) requires all new

development within approximately eight square miles of the PBCWUD water

reclamation facility to utilize reclaimed water for irrigation of green spaces,

landscaping, and golf courses. Irrigation with potable water is not permitted

within these boundaries. Consequently, if reclaimed water is available, it is

mandatory that it be used for irrigation. The Ordinance either mandates or

encourages the following:

   1) use of reclaimed water for the irrigation of any new development

      within a Mandatory Reclaimed Water Service Area (MRWSA) as

      defined in the Ordinance;

   2) use of reclaimed water for irrigation of new development that is

      located entirely or partially outside the MRWSA, but within 300 feet of

      an existing reclaimed water distribution main; and

   3) use of reclaimed water for the irrigation of properties lying outside of

      the MRWSA, and more than 300 feet from an existing reclaimed water

      distribution main.

      To encourage the voluntary use of reclaimed water for irrigation

purposes, this plan will recommend that the PBCWUD charge no connection

fee, no guaranteed revenue fee, and no commodity charge per 1,000 gallons

of water. The only costs to customers will be a one-time service installation

fee (between $30 and $2,000, depending on meter size), a fixed monthly

commodity fee irrespective of usage (between $5 and $2,000, depending on

meter size), and a monthly customer fee ($2.50). Customers may use an

unlimited quantity of reclaimed water at these nominal charges, until such

time that the expansion of the reclaimed system reaches a point where the

Department is nearing its permitted capacity. At this point the Department

may find it necessary to recover the money used to collect, treat, and

deliver the reclaimed water to the customers. Therefore, there will be a

provision written into the reclaimed user agreements that explains how

these charges and rates are subject to change and increase over time.

      Strategy #7 will help ensure the preservation and protection of both

the quantity and quality of the county’s regional water resources. In

addition, the following water supply objectives will be achieved:

   1) Reclaimed water will become a valuable resource for irrigation

      purposes, as it will eliminate the opportunity for communities who are

      tied into reclaimed service mains to irrigate with potable water;

   2) The increased utilization of reclaimed water for irrigation will reduce

      consumptive uses of multiple users of both surface water and ground


   3) Up to 548 million gallons per year of additional reclaimed water will be

      made available for use as an alternative water supply, and when

      utilized for irrigation, will replenish the surficial aquifer system; and

    4) Additional fresh water will also be made available in the regional water

        supply system for preservation projects, such as, the Everglades


        Table 2 provides an estimate of the volume of reclaimed water that

will be created and distributed as a result of the implementation of this

expansion project. This water will be utilized instead of potable water for

irrigation. This table indicates the approximate additional volume of

alternative water supply (in millions of gallons) that will be discharged and

made available for use as irrigation water on a daily, weekly, monthly, and

annual basis.

Table 2. Additional Water Supply from Reclaimed Expansion Project

         Daily                      Weekly                     Monthly                      Annual

       1.5 MG                        11 MG                      45MG                       548 MG

Source: D. Carravetta, unpublished data

Note: These numbers were estimated based on historical flows and demand for reclaimed water, average
rainfall/evaporation, and the additional capacity of 1.5 MGD that will be created upon the completion of this
project. See Appendix 4 for additional information.

        In sum, this strategy proposes to expand water reclamation production

and the beneficial reuse of secondary wastewater effluent from the Southern

Region Water Reclamation Facility (SRWRF). Approximately fourteen (14)

MGD of wastewater effluent generated by the facility is presently unused,

and is disposed of via two existing deep injection wells situated on the

SRWRF site. Expansion of the reclaimed water system will allow more of the

facility’s production to be utilized and distributed to reclaimed water users.

The goal of this strategy is to reduce the amount of effluent that is deep well

injected by providing it to customers as an alternative source for irrigation.

        Work associated with this project includes extending the existing

twenty-four-inch reclaimed water transmission main in Gleneagles Country

Club to provide for future connections with Addison Reserve golf courses and

residential communities in unincorporated areas of Palm Beach County,

Florida. A general location map is included as Figure 4.

Figure 4. Proposed Reclaimed Water Expansion Area (D. Carravetta,

unpublished data).

        The future supply of reclaimed water will depend directly on potable

water conservation, the population served, and the wastewater collection


Strategy #8: Reducing Unaccounted-For Water Losses


      It is estimated that 10.9% of the water that the PBCWUD produces is

unrecoverable. Strategy #8 suggests better ways to prevent unnecessary

water loss by finding ways to reduce the overall percentage of unrecoverable


Scope of Work

      The following list comprises the components of Strategy #8:

   1) Wastewater lift station losses: Wastewater operators will be equipped

      with portable meters that can be attached to the water connection so

      as to determine water usage accurately during maintenance


   2) Hydrant flushing: The current method utilized to estimate water usage

      during hydrant flushing operations is not precise. Fluctuations in water

      pressure and flow are impossible to calculate without a flow meter

      attached to hydrant’s valve. This plan is proposing that all hydrant

      flushing shall be metered and recorded for purposes of accurate


   3) Dead ends: Hydrant flushing is usually necessitated by poor water

      quality conditions within the distribution system. If water remains

      stagnant within the piping system for too long, the chlorine residual

      drops and the water quality (taste, odor, color, etc.) is negatively

      impacted. “Dead end” pipes are at the root of this problem. Typically,

  this issue is addressed by opening up a hydrant at the end of the

  dead-end pipe in order to increase the water flow and pressure,

  thereby improving water quality in the nearby service connections and

  piping runs. In most cases, the water is pumped out onto the ground

  or street and is considered unrecoverable. This is a wasteful and

  inefficient management practice. Implementing an engineering

  solution that eliminates dead ends where possible by looping the

  distribution infrastructure to form one continuous stretch of pipe will

  facilitate a continuous flow of water throughout the system. This will

  reduce the need to flush, thereby improving water quality, aiding

  conservation, and reducing water loss rates. This plan recommends

  that all dead ends within the PBCWUD distribution system be identified

  and eliminated. One of the Department’s engineering consultants will

  be hired to perform an assessment of the PBCWUD’s system in

  preparation to design the plans for construction as a project in the

  Department’s capital improvement plan budget.

4) Water and sewer line maintenance: Water usage will be metered and

  recorded, rather than merely estimated by line operators.

5) Leaks and line breaks: Refer to Strategy #3.

6) Interconnection flushing, maintenance testing, and sampling: All will

  be performed using a portable meter, in order to produce an accurate

  representation of water usage and loss.

Strategy #9: Construction of New ASR Wells


      South Florida has been continually short of source water in the last few

years. The water shortage is caused by the unavailability of water from the

regional system, the limitations on using of Okeechobee Lake as a reservoir,

and the increasing competition between the population and the environment.

Facing all these issues, the PBCWUD has been tasked with finding solutions

to help the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) better

manage and conserve its current water sources and to create new ones for

future generations. The construction of two new ASR wells has the potential

to store millions of gallons of water in reserves that can be utilized during

periods of extreme drought and shortages. Water stored by the ASR wells

can be used as an alternative water supply (AWS) thus reducing competition

of traditional water source, surficial water, during drought. It is believed that

constructing ASR wells parallels with the SFWMD’s goal to reduce demand on

the surficial aquifer.

      The sample test cycling plan and recovery volumes shown in Table 3

outlines the projected potable water production that will result from the

construction of two additional ASR wells. This table indicates the

approximate additional volume of alternative water supply (in millions of

gallons) that will be recovered after the wells are built and fully operational.

These figures were estimated and derived from historical departmental data

from and existing ASR well that was constructed in 2004 as a part of a pilot

study. See Appendix 5 for additional information.

      The completion of this project will create an ongoing water reserve

(approximately 2.5 MG per well) that can be utilized by the Department

during periods of scarcity and drought. The additional water supply that will

be available as a result of the implementation of these wells will help offset

the demand placed on the Floridian Aquifer during dry periods.

Scope of Work

      The construction of two new ASR wells requires permit approval by the

FDEP and the Palm Beach County Health Department (PBCHD). Upon

approval, a testing protocol must be organized and conducted to evaluate

the performances of each well during injection, storage, and recovery. The

test cycling has three distinct phases that will be used to evaluate the

system performance at the injection and recovery rates, to observe injection

pressures, build the fresh water storage reserve, and to monitor the effects

of injection and recovery on the source water quality. The following is a

sample test-cycling plan that the Department can use as a template during

start-up operations.

Sample Cycle-Testing Plan

      During the cycle testing, recovery efficiencies (recovery

volume/replenish volume) will be calculated for each cycle. It is anticipated

that recovery efficiencies will progressively increase throughout each of the

test cycles. Cycle 1 will consist of one forty-day replenish period (with a

variable storage time) to determine the injection rate and pressure

relationship, to establish a baseline effect of replenish water on the storage

zone, and to observe the effects of storage on water quality and recovery

efficiencies. Cycle 2 consists of one sixty-day replenish period with a thirty-

day storage time to further build the well’s storage capacity. The third test

cycle will consist of a ninety-day recovery period with a thirty-day storage

time. These test cycles, summarized in the following table, will approximate

the injection and storage periods, which will be utilized during normal


Table 3. ASR Well Cycle Sample Testing Plan and Recovery Volume

Cycle        Replenish           Replenish           Replenish           Storage Recovery               Recovery
 #             Rate               Days**              Volume              Days     Rate                  Volume
                                                       (mg)                       (gpm)                   (mg)
   1             1000                  10                15              Variable    0                      0
                 1500                  10                20              Variable    0                      0
                 2000                  40               115              Variable  1500                     *
   2             2000                  60               175                 30     1500                     *
   3             2000                  90               260                 30     1500                     *
Source: D. Carravetta, unpublished data

*Signifies that water will be recovered until chloride concentration reaches 250 mg/L limit

**Signifies that replenishment amount may vary based upon the months when the cycles occur

Note: These figures were estimated from previous performance history of an existing ASR well. See Appendix 5 for
additional information.

         This cycle-testing plan will allow the Department to determine the

performance of the wells at the two new ASR sites. It will give a good

indication of recovery rate and of the site’s hydro-geologic conditions.

Strategy #10: Development of Conservation-Based Rate Structure

      Adjusting water-billing rates to encourage change customer usage

habits is a common practice among water supply districts. If the water

resource is underpriced, customers will use the resource inefficiently. On the

other hand, if the supply is overpriced, customers will publically protest the

pricing structures, creating dissatisfaction and a higher complaint rate. A

careful balance must be achieved in order to benefit both the customer and

the sustainability of local groundwater resources.

      There are several different types of established water rate structures.

After researching the various types of conservation rate structures that have

been used by other utilities throughout the nation, Strategy #10 suggests a

modification in the Department’s rate structure from a commodity-based

structure (which favors the customer) to a flat seasonal rate (which favors



      There are dramatic peaks in water usage throughout south Florida due

to climatic conditions (wet/dry seasons) and the influx of retired, transient

residents, who typically reside in northern parts of the country during

summer months (the wet season), and then come to their Florida homes

during the winter months (the dry season). Implementing a flat seasonal

rate will allow the Department to take advantage of these conditions by

charging customers a higher rate during peak water and irrigation seasons

when the weather is dry, while the transient customers are in Florida using

their water. Higher rates will encourage conservation throughout the service


Scope of Work

        The conversion from a commodity-based rate structure to a

conservation-based rate structure will require the approval of the Board of

County Commissioners and the Palm Beach County Water Advisory Board.

Customers will need to be informed via billing inserts and a media press

release. Public meetings will be scheduled to allow the public to voice their

opinions and ask questions. Usage will be evaluated after three years and

compared to usage under the previous rate structure, in order to determine

whether the plan is producing the desired results.


        Water supply planning is fundamental to economic vitality,

environmental sustainability, and regional water conservation. Constraints

on water supply are emerging as populations grow, water demand changes,

environmental reservations are allocated, and water sources are regulated.

As water utilities around the country are asked to identify and develop

strategies for alternative sources of water, for the promotion of

conservation, and for reduction in demand throughout south Florida and

elsewhere, the lack of planning of integrated long-term strategies has

become evident. Filling this gap is no longer a matter of choice; it is now an

urgent requirement. The overarching objective of this Capstone Project was

to devise strategies that the Department can implement in order to meet the

water conservation goals and reduction mandates set forth by the SFWMD.

        This discussion will summarize the alternative water supply aspects of

this project, including the construction of two new aquifer storage recovery

(ASR) wells, the expansion of the reclaimed water use for landscaping and

irrigation, and the utilization of reclaimed water for wetland replenishment.

        The contribution to the overall water conservation strategic plan goals

are estimated and quantified in the following table showing how these

strategies will contribute to the overall goal of a two (2) MGD reduction:

Table 4. Estimated Contribution of Alternative Water Supply Strategies

                AWS Component                                      Max Month
                                                                 Contribution by
                                                                  2009 (MGD)
 ASR Wells                                                         2.5 (per well)*

 Wakodahatchee Wetlands                                                   0.7**

 Green Cay Wetlands                                                       1.5**

 Reclaimed Water                                                        14.5***

 Total AWS                                                            19.2****

 Total AWS from this strategic plan                                    6.2 ****

Source: D. Carravetta, unpublished data

Note: The attached Appendix 4 provides additional data that summarizes the contribution of AWS components.

*The contribution of approximately 2.5 MG per well is based on the performance of the Department’s existing ASR
well. See Appendix 5.

**Expanding the reclaimed water production in Strategy #7 will also create additional flow to the Department’s
constructed wetlands. It is estimated that an additional flow of 2.2 MGD will be received by the wetlands by 2009

upon the completion of this strategic plan.

***13 MGD is the maximum monthly contribution of alternative water supply that has been met since 2005. An
additional 2 MGD of reclaimed water is projected to increase that number to 15.2 MGD upon the completion of the
expansion project outlined in Strategy #7. See Appendix 4.

****19.2 MGD (total AWS) minus 13 MGD (from existing conservation projects) = 6.2 MGD contributed from this
strategic plan

         The total AWS that will be achieved by 2009 is estimated at 19.2 MGD.

Thirteen (13) MGD is AWS that has already been met from existing water

conservation projects. Therefore, the implementation of this strategic plan in

its entirety has the potential to contribute approximately 6.2 MGD of

alternative water supply for the south Florida region. This estimate far

exceeds the mandatory reduction goal of 2 MGD that was set forth by


         It is apparent that the PBCWUD has been committed to improving

water conservation over the past ten years. The Department has already

begun to incorporate conservation projects on a voluntarily basis. However,

the water conservation strategic plan outlined in this project has the

potential to meet and surpass the SFWMD goals by integrating alternative

water supply projects and conservation-oriented principles and strategies as

part of the management of the total water supply system.

         In addition, implementing new technologies, such as, automated

meter-reading, rain-sensing devices, and an advanced leak-detection system

will provide the Department a way to accurately measure water loss and

quantify monthly usage. Local enforcement and water conservation incentive

programs will ensure continued residential awareness with respect to water

conservation. Overall, this plan will assist the PBCWUD and the SFWMD in

their efforts to better manage, conserve, and create new water sources. This

plan parallels the mission of the SFWMD and the FDEP to reduce the further

irreversible depletion of local water supplies.


      Water conservation continues to grow in importance to Florida’s water

suppliers as well as the customers they serve. Taking a pro-active approach

to water conservation has advantages for customers, the respective

environmental authorities, and the PBCWUD (by decreasing capital

investments for new water treatment facilities); in times of drought or

natural disaster, it is crucial. For the customer, conserving water can help

lower monthly bills at the same time as it increases household energy

savings. The PBCWUD has recognized these advantages and now has the

opportunity to develop a more conservation-minded approach to its overall

management and business strategy.

      This water conservation strategic plan can be utilized by the PBCWUD

in its effort to respond to the statewide water conservation initiative. By

implementing the ten strategies in this Capstone Project, the Department

will be able to meet or even exceed its goal of reducing overall demand by

two MGD. Furthermore, through incorporation of water conservation

methodology, the strategic plan shows that the PBCWUD is in accord with

the “Best Management Practices,” as outlined by the state. If approved, this

Capstone Project can serve as the basis for a collective effort and a cost-

effective tool intended to reduce water usage and promote long-term

conservation. The PBCWUD can proudly assume the leadership role in

conservation and protection of one of the state’s most precious resources—



      First and foremost, I must offer my sincere thanks to my Capstone

advisor, Leonard Pasquini, for his attentiveness, feedback, and guidance

throughout the drafting of my proposal, as well as my Capstone Project. He

provided exceptional assistance and support throughout the entire process,

as we worked under difficult time-constraints and deadlines. For this, I am

truly grateful.

      I would also like to recognize my department head and direct

supervisor, Hassan Hadjimiry, P.E., for his suggestions and support

throughout the development of this strategic plan. His background and

experience in engineering and water conservation regulation provided me

with the motivation needed to initiate and complete this Capstone project.


American Water Works Association. 2008. Water loss control.



AWWA Water Loss Control Committee. 2003. Applying world-wide best

     management practices in water loss. Journal of the American Water

     Works Association (hereafter Journal AWWA) 95:65-79.

Cuthbert, Richard, and Pamela Lemoine. 1996. Conservation-oriented water

     rates. Journal AWWA 88:68-78.

Deoreo, William B., Allan Dietemann, Tim Skeel, Peter W. Mayer, David M.

     Lewis, and Jenna Smith. 2001. Retrofit realities. Journal AWWA 93:58-


Dobbie, Cory, and Scott Durham. 2003. AMR: It’s more than just data

     collection. Journal AWWA 95:50-53.

Elfner, Mary, and Robin McDowell. 2004. Water conservation in Georgia:

     Bringing efficiency into mainstream thinking. Journal AWWA 96:136-


Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2007. Recommendations

     for a drought-resistant Florida. July.


Jones, Marcellus. 2006. With today’s technology, what percentage of

     unaccounted-for water is ok? Journal AWWA 98:32-37.

Kolodziejski, Joann, and Corey Gasson. 2005. Global water intelligence:

     Water reuse markets 2005-2015. Oxford: University Press.

Miami-Dade County. 2008. Department of Environmental Resources

     Management. http://www.co.miami-dade.fl.us/derm/.

Pyne, David G. 2005. Aquifer storage recovery: A guide to groundwater

     replenishment through wells. Denver: ASR Press.

South Florida Water Management District. Utilities.



Vickers, Amy. 1989. New Massachusetts toilet standard sets water

     conservation precedent. Journal AWWA 81:48-51.

List of Appendices

Appendix 1. PBCWUD Educational Flyer for Residential Customers

Appendix 2. Power Point Presentation for Management Staff

Appendix 3. Historical Pumping Records

Appendix 4. Reclaimed Water Flow and Demand Data

Appendix 5. ASR Well Average Flow Data

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Slide 1

                           Strategic Plan For

                            Dina Carravetta, PBCWUD

                                       2008                 1

Slide 2
             • Conservation Management Principles and
               Florida Water Resources
             • Conservation Management Goals and
             • Methods and Results
             • Plan Strategies


Slide 3           South Florida Water Management
                          District Mandate
             Goal: Reduction in demand by 2 MGD
             • Objective: Preserve groundwater sources in
                South Florida
             • FDEP - recommends ways to achieve this
             • Effective drought management – lessons
                learned from the 2006-2007 drought


Slide 4                           Conservation Strategic Plan

                Continuously deliver established levels of service

                Promote Water Conservation

                At an acceptable level cost to the customer and to the Department

                                         Water                       Conser
                                         Source                      vation

                                                Conservation                                       4

Slide 5          Development of Conservation Plan:
                     Standard Six-Step Process
                                                                     Pilot /
              Education     Review     Visioning      Design         Rollout    Sustainability

                 1            2            3             4             5          6

                                     Conservation Plan Development

                       1.    Literature Review – Analysis on Best Practices & Concepts
                       2.    Research –Current status of current program framework
                       3.    Visioning – Alignment, Mission, Vision & Mandate for Change
                       4.    Design – Define strategies based on Recommended Best Practices
                       5.    Pilot / Rollout – Implementation, Support and Benefits Tracking
                       6.    Sustainability – Continuous Improvements

Slide 6
                     Strategic Plan Development
                                               1. Define
                                               1. Define
                                                • Define the critical
                                                  issues, core
                                                  processes involved, 2. Measure
                                                                      2. Measure
                  5. Control
                  5. Control
                                                                           • Measure the performance
          • Improve the program by                                           of the each strategy
            designing creative solutions
            to fix and prevent problems

                                                                      3. Analyze
                                                                      3. Analyze
                                     4. Improve
                                     4. Improve                      • Analyze the data collected
                          • Improve target                           • Process map to determine root
                            management strategies                      causes of defects and
                            by designing solutions                     opportunities for improvement
                            to fix/prevent problems

Slide 7
                      Strategy #1 - Ordinance
          1. Improve enforcement of County Ordinance
          2. Proposal of two new amendments
          3. Rain sensing devices, and hours of irrigation
          4. BCC approval
          5. Collaborate with law enforcement officials


Slide 8       Strategy #2 – Retrofitting with Rain
                        Sensing Devices
          • Identify irrigation systems that were installed
            prior to 1991
          • Draft notification letter for public dissemination
          • Customer Service & Communications
          • Monitor progress


Slide 9
                  Strategy #3 – Leak Detection
          • Reduce non-recoverable water loss through leak
            detection system
          • Reduce disruption of service
          • Conserve water
          • Permalog system – how it
            works www.datamatic.com/permalog.html


Slide 10
                        Strategy # 3 - Continued
             battles      Where will we
            that are
               big        pilot the
            enough        system?
           to matter,
           and small
            enough        Zone 1 and
             to win       Zone 4


Slide 11
                    Strategy #4- Low Volume Plumbing
                        • 15% surcharge exemption for customers that
                          upgrade to low volume plumbing fixtures
                        • Residential program roll-out
                        • Target developer projects
                        • HOA involvement
                        • Identify Key Performance Indicators:
                           – Water usage reduction
                           – Cost – benefit analysis


Slide 12                 Strategy #5 – Expand Public
                        • Promote reuse and reclaimed water program
                        • Information sessions at HOA meetings
                        • Target our youth
                        • Nature tours in the Wakodahatchee and Green
                          Cay Constructed Wetlands
                        • Billing insert already created that educates on
                          irrigation practices


Slide 13        Strategy #6 – Automated Meter
                 • Meter change out program – every 5 years
                 • Communicate the intent to people involved and
                   provide necessary training
                 • Pilot program
                 • Determine future if work will be performed in-
                   house or via contractual services
                 • Track results, profile data


Slide 14        Strategy #7 – Reclaimed Water
                      Program Expansion
                 • Single phase project
                 • Water conservation benefits include
                    – Reduction in deep well injection
                    – Reduction in demand on surficial aquifer
                 • 6-12 months
                 • Extend 24” transmission main to service
                   new communities


Slide 15     Existing Effluent Management Plan

               SRWRF                                          Reuse
           35 MGD (23 MGD)                                    13 MGD

                                                         1.5 MGD

                                    Deep Injection
                                   Wells - 34.5 MGD
                                       (8 MGD)


                     Deep Wells



Slide 17   Future Reclamation Rate after expansion


                 Deep Wells



Slide 18   Strategy #7 – Location of Expansion


Slide 19   Strategy # 8 – Unaccounted Water
                    Loss Reduction
             • Wastewater lift station losses
             • Hydrant flushing program
             • Dead ends
             • Portable meters of all field operations
             • Accurate inventory of water loss


Slide 20
              Strategy # 9 – ASR Wells
             • Site two additional ASR Wells
             • How do ASR wells work?
             • Potential to store millions of gallons of
               water that would otherwise be lost to salt
               water intrusion
             • Test Cycling Plan


Slide 21   Strategy # 10 – Conservation Based
                     Rate Structure
             • Current rate structure at PBCWUD
             • How will a conservation rate structure
               affect water conservation goals?
             • Transition to a Flat Seasonal Rate
             • Finance and Accounting Division


Slide 22
           • Continuous Improvement is essential to:
             – Preserving water resources
             – These ten strategies will meet and exceed
               SFWMD goals and mandates
             – PBCWUD will lead the way to successful
               water conservation practices throughout the
               southern region of the state


Slide 23

                 “Thank you for
                 your attention”


Appendix 3

                          Historical Pumping Records
                     Annual and Maximum Daily Flow (MGD)
                        Summary of Data for 2003-2007

                    Total Annual      Total Annual     Maximum Daily        Maximum Daily
                    Withdrawals        Allocation       Withdrawals           Allocation
2003                  19,535             31,751             63.41              129.62

2004                  20,643             31,751             69.3               129.62

2005                  22,097             31,751             73.98              129.62

2006                  22,145             31,751             73.56              129.62

2007                  20,229             31,751             70.55              129.62

Note: This is a summary of daily pumping records for the years 2003-2007.

Appendix 4

             Reclaimed Water - Influent Flow (MGD)
 Yellow                                                                                    Yellow
                                        Wakodahatchee              Green Cay
Indicates           SRWRF                                                                 Indicates
                                          Wetlands                 Wetlands
New Year                                                                                  New Year
                    Influent                  Influent                 Influent
                    3 MRA       Peak                 3 MRA                    3 MRA
             Avg.                       Avg.                     Avg.
                    Month       Hour                 Month                    Month
  Date       Flow                       Flow                     Flow                       Date
                     Flow       Flow                  Flow                     Flow
            (MGD)                      (MGD)                    (MGD)
                    (MGD)      (MGD)                 (MGD)                    (MGD)
 Jan-04     21.81    22.28     40.51   0.65              0.65    N/A              N/A      Jan-04
 Feb-04     23.02    22.16     43.31   0.88              0.75    N/A              N/A      Feb-04
 Mar-04     22.17    22.33     41.32   0.88              0.80    N/A              N/A      Mar-04
 Apr-04     21.87    22.35     42.12   1.26              1.01    N/A              N/A      Apr-04
 May-04     20.21    21.42     37.25   1.79              1.31    N/A              N/A      May-04
 Jun-04     19.53    20.54     34.17   1.66              1.57    N/A              N/A      Jun-04
 Jul-04     19.58    19.78     37.59   0.75              1.40    N/A              N/A      Jul-04
 Aug-04     20.95    20.02     36.35   0.56              0.99    N/A              N/A      Aug-04
 Sep-04     20.05    20.20     38.03   0.00              0.44    N/A              N/A      Sep-04
 Oct-04     21.69    20.90     39.04   0.41              0.32    N/A              N/A      Oct-04
 Nov-04     20.90    20.88     44.92   0.70              0.37    N/A              N/A      Nov-04
 Dec-04     22.26    21.61     43.15   0.89              0.67    N/A              N/A      Dec-04
 Jan-05     22.94    22.03     41.88   0.88              0.82    N/A              N/A      Jan-05
 Feb-05     23.48    22.89     44.30   0.98              0.92    N/A              N/A      Feb-05
 Mar-05     23.57    23.33     42.09   0.70              0.86    N/A              N/A      Mar-05
 Apr-05     22.96    23.34     41.22   0.96              0.88   0.80              N/A      Apr-05
 May-05     23.94    23.49     42.23   0.82              0.83   0.10              N/A      May-05
 Jun-05     25.24    24.05     45.63   0.26              0.68   0.10              0.33     Jun-05
 Jul-05     26.72    25.30     40.02   0.38              0.49   0.22              0.14     Jul-05
 Aug-05     24.63    25.53     40.10   0.29              0.31   0.59              0.30     Aug-05
 Sep-05     25.21    25.52     43.59   0.41              0.36   0.69              0.50     Sep-05
 Oct-05     22.99    24.28     41.59   0.00              0.23   0.00              0.42     Oct-05
 Nov-05     24.73    24.31     41.74   0.44              0.28   0.80              0.50     Nov-05
 Dec-05     25.33    24.35     44.46   1.07              0.50   0.75              0.52     Dec-05
 Jan-06     24.94    25.00     44.25   0.53              0.68   2.02              1.19     Jan-06
 Feb-06     25.44    25.23     45.40   0.89              0.83   1.19              1.32     Feb-06
 Mar-06     24.94    25.11     45.03   0.98              0.80   0.79              1.33     Mar-06
 Apr-06     27.25    25.88     43.54   0.80              0.89   1.02              1.00     Apr-06
 May-06     25.38    25.86     40.46   1.16              0.98   0.74              0.85     May-06
 Jun-06     24.34    25.66     36.56   0.74              0.90   0.64              0.80     Jun-06
 Jul-06     24.12    24.61     37.64   0.06              0.65   0.31              0.56     Jul-06
 Aug-06     23.05    23.84     38.83   0.75              0.52   0.24              0.40     Aug-06
 Sep-06     23.40    23.53     36.02   0.04              0.28   0.22              0.26     Sep-06
 Oct-06     22.06    22.84     24.94   0.83              0.54   0.90              0.45     Oct-06
 Nov-06     23.02    22.83     38.04   1.04              0.64   0.89              0.67     Nov-06
 Dec-06     24.08    23.05     40.25   0.84              0.90   0.76              0.85     Dec-06
 Jan-07     24.00    23.70     41.50   0.97              0.95   0.85              0.83     Jan-07

Feb-07   24.19   24.09   42.69   0.85   0.88   0.66   0.75     Feb-07
Mar-07   23.88   24.02   39.98   1.17   0.99   1.07   0.86     Mar-07
Apr-07   22.75   23.61   38.89   1.23   1.08   1.20   0.98     Apr-07
May-07   22.08   22.90   36.34   0.88   1.09   0.98   1.08    May-07
Jun-07   23.69   22.84   36.40   0.06   0.72   0.27   0.82     Jun-07
Jul-07   23.01   22.93   39.26   0.45   0.46   0.65   0.63     Jul-07
Aug-07   22.31   23.00   33.80   0.79   0.43   0.24   0.39    Aug-07
Sep-07   22.95   22.76   39.81   0.16   0.46   0.28   0.39     Sep-07
Oct-07   24.12   23.13   38.81   0.21   0.39   0.04   0.19     Oct-07

Appendix 5

  Palm Beach County Water Utilities System 9 ASR Well - Monthy
                    Average Flow in MGD
   Month/Year     Recharging ASR    Recover from ASR Recover from ASR
                      Hillsboro well   Hillsboro well   Hillsboro well Max
                         (MGD)            (MGD)               (MGD)
       Oct-04             4.996            0.000
       Nov-04             4.892            0.000
       Dec-04             4.894            0.000              0.000
       Jan-05             4.667
       Feb-05             4.685            4.510
       Mar-05             4.810
       Apr-05             4.723            0.000
       May-05             2.836            1.045
       Jun-05             0.000            4.266
        Jul-05            0.000            0.000
       Aug-05             0.001            0.794
       Sep-05             0.000            0.000
       Oct-05             0.000            0.000
       Nov-05             0.000            0.000
       Dec-05             0.832            0.000              4.510
       Jan-06             2.259            0.000
       Feb-06             2.871            0.000
       Mar-06             0.000            0.000
       Apr-06             0.000            0.454
       May-06             0.000            1.762
       Jun-06             0.000            0.000
        Jul-06            0.000            0.000
       Aug-06             0.000            0.000
       Sep-06             0.747            0.006
       Oct-06             0.150            0.000
       Nov-06             0.000            0.000              1.762
       Dec-06             0.108            0.098
       Jan-07             0.000            0.000
       Feb-07             1.104            0.000
       Mar-07             0.822            0.000
       Apr-07             0.000            0.000
       May-07             0.000            0.000
       Jun-07             0.000            0.326
        Jul-07            0.084            1.798
       Aug-07             0.000            0.000
       Sep-07             2.510            0.000              1.798
  Maximum month
 contribution (MGD)                                             2