RD Challenges in Coping with Global Warming- Thermal Power by naa14009

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 61

									@MG/2008

Energy Synergy Dialogue, NTPC MCM Room, Scope Complex, New Delhi, 5th August 2008




       R&D Challenges in Coping with
         Global Warming- Thermal
            Power Generation

                       Dr. (Mrs.) Malti Goel
               Former Adviser and Senior Scientist,
                Ministry of Science & Technology
    05.08.08               Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                  Coping With Global Warming -
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                        Overview

     • Energy Balance on Earth
     • Energy – World and India
     • Coping with Global Warming
     • CO2 Emissions from Power Sector - Best
       Practices
     • Technology Leapfrogging – R&D
       Challenges
     • Recommendations and Conclusions
    05.08.08     Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                        Coping With Global Warming -
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       ‘Climate change poses a great challenge to
        our development prospects…....we need
        global response, a national response and
        a local response’
                     -------Hon. Dr. Manmohan Singh




    05.08.08       Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                          Coping With Global Warming -
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     Basic Energy Flows that Govern the
            Earth’s Temperature

      Received
      Solar Energy
      On Earth
      Surface
      1368 W/m2
      Annually
      Total Power ~                                                       Outgoing
      120x1015 W                                                          Terrestrial
                                                                          Radiation
           Due to presence of Atmosphere
           part of Terrestrial Radiation
           remains in the Atmosphere
           making Actual Ta = бT4 ~288 K
    05.08.08                Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                   Coping With Global Warming -
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     Schematic of Enhanced Greenhouse
                   Effect



                   Lost to Outer                                                    Lost to Outer
                   Space                                                            Space




        Solar     Earth’s                                            Solar      Earth’s
    Radiation   Radiation                                        Radiation    Radiation

                                   Reflected                                                        Reflected
                                   radiation by trace gases                                         radiation by trace gases
                                   in the atmosphere                                                in the atmosphere




           Radiation Balance                                       With Greenhouse Gases


    05.08.08                          Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                             Coping With Global Warming -
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                                             Temperature Profile of One
                                             Thousand Years and Recent
                                                                                                                                                                 0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                  Autumn
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Winter
                                                                                                                                                                   0




                                                                                                                                   Change of temperature ( 0C)
                                                                                                                                                                        Spring
                                                                                                                                                                 -0.5

                                               Observations, Northern Hemisphere, proxy data                         Projections
                                                                                                                                                                                               Summer
                                                                                                                                                                 -1.0

                                                                                                                                                                              1942-1972




                                                                                               Global instrumental
           Departures in temperature in oC




                                                                                                                                                                 -1.5




                                                                                                  observations
               (from the 1990 value)




                                                                                                                                                                 -2.0

                                                                                                                                                                 -2.5
                                                                                                                                                                         20      30       40      50     60     70     80
                                                                                                                                                                                  Northern latitude in degree




                                                                       Year




    05.08.08                                                    Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                                                       Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


                               Caron Dioxide and Temperature in
                                Paleoclimate and in Recent Past
    Temperature Scale ( C)
    o




                                                                                                Carbon dioxide (ppmv)
                                                                                          280
                                                                                          260
                                                                                          240
                                             - 420
 +2.5                                                                                     220
                             Deuterium (%)




     0                                                                                    200
                                             - 440
  -2.5                                                                                    180
                                             -460
  -5.0
  -7.5                                       - 480

  -10
                                             - 500
                                                     40        80          120      160
                                                          Age (thousand years BP)




                         05.08.08                                       Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                                                               Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


               Concerns for Global warming-
                   Current Assessment
       IPCC Assessment
       First Report     - 1990
       Second Report - 1995
       Third Report     - 2001
       Fourth Report    - 2007
       Average global temperature
       increase 1906-2005 – 0.74oC
       Expected Temperature rise up to
       the Year 2100 2.4 to 6.4 oC
       Expected Sea Level rise 18 to 59 cm
    05.08.08         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                            Coping With Global Warming -
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     Major and Minor Greenhouse Gases
       and Global Warming Potential
                                             Major greenhouse gas
                                             concentrations of CO2,
                                             NOx, CFCs, Methane have
                                             increased 20-30% since
                                             pre-industrial era




    05.08.08   Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                      Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008




               Energy – World and India




    05.08.08       Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                          Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008




      World is Dominated by Fossil Fuels




                            Fuel Consumption up to 2025 – Reference case



    05.08.08   Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                      Coping With Global Warming -
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           CO2 Emissions and Projections




                       Source- From E. Macchi, Politechnico di Milano
    05.08.08      Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                         Coping With Global Warming -
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       Electricity Generation – World and
          India (Coal a dominant fuel )
                                                                             Renewables
                                                   Nuclear                      7.7%
                                                    2.8%




                                                    Hydro
                                                    25.3%




                                                     Oil & N. Gas
                                                         7.0%


                                                                     India
               World
    05.08.08           Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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              Overview of Energy Sector in India
 6000                                                                          1800



                                                                               1600

 5000

                                                                               1400



 4000                                                                          1200



                                                                               1000   Total Energy
 3000                                                                                 Installed Capacity

                                                                               800    Coal



 2000                                                                          600


                                                                                                           14000                                                           4000
                                                                               400

 1000
                                                                                                                                                                           3500
                                                                               200                         12000


                                                                                                                                                                           3000
   0                                                                           0
                                                                                                           10000
        2003-04   2006-07   2011-12   2016-17    2021-22   2026-27   2031-32
                                                                                                                                                                           2500
                                                                                                           8000                                                                   Per capita electric
                                                                                                                                                                                  consumption in KWhr
                                                                                                                                                                           2000
                                                                                                                                                                                  Per capita coal
                                                                                                           6000                                                                   consumption in Kg

                                                Source- Integrated Energy Policy 2006                                                                                      1500


                                                                                                           4000
                                                                                                                                                                           1000



             Projected Growth in Electricity to                                                            2000
                                                                                                                                                                           500




             become 800GW in 2031-32                                                                          0
                                                                                                                   India   World   OECED   USA   China   S.Korea   Japan
                                                                                                                                                                           0




        05.08.08                                                Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                                                       Coping With Global Warming -
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           NTPC- India’s Power Industry
           Performance & Achievements




    05.08.08      Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                         Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008

       Growth of Power Generation in India
            up to 11th Five Year Plan




               In 2012: Global Wind Enrgy Share is expected to
               become 177.000 MW, about 2% of world demand
    05.08.08            Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                               Coping With Global Warming -
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               Coping with Global Warming




    05.08.08      Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                         Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008




            Coping with Global Warming

            Greenhouse Gases                                                  Earth Interactions
                                                Air interaction
 S                                                                                                           P
 C                                                                                                           R
 I                                  CAUSE                          EFFECT
                                                                                                             E
 E                                                                                                           D
 N                                                                                                           I
 T                                                  Global                                                   C
                Mitigation Strategy                Warming              Climate Change Impacts -Adaptation
 I                                                                                                           T
 F              Renewable sources                                           Crop Productivity                I
 I              Energy Efficiency                                           Frequent Disasters               V
 C              Clean Coal Technology                                       Water Scarcity                   E
                CCS                                                         Vector borne diseases



     05.08.08                         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                             Coping With Global Warming -
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                Planning for Climate Change

           NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE
           CHANGE (8 Missions)
           –   Increasing share of Solar energy
           –   Implementing Energy Efficiency
           –   Launching Sustainable Habitats
           –   Managing Water resources effectively
           –   Safeguarding Himalayan Glaciers and eco-system
           –   Enhancing eco-system services
           –   Making Agriculture to response to climate change
           –   Setting Strategic Knowledge Mission

    05.08.08              Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                 Coping With Global Warming -
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     Climate Change Impacts - Five concerns
            on WHO Health Day 2008
       • Effect on Agriculture sector and endangering
         crop productivity
       • Extreme weather events causing more storms,
         floods etc.
       • Impact on water causing Scarcity and food
         contamination
       • Surface rise in temperature causing ozone
         pollution and increased morbidity due to
         excessive heat
       • Changing geographical distribution of vector
         borne diseases

    05.08.08        Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                           Coping With Global Warming -
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           Mitigation - Challenges before us
    • New Zero Emissions
           – Using Renewable sources
           – Nuclear Energy
    • Minimizing Emissions
           – Reducing specific CO2 emissions in energy consumption by using
             energy efficient technology
    • Reducing fuel related specific CO2 emissions in energy generation
           – Coal Conversion
           – Clean Coal Technology

    • Promoting Cleaner Technologies in Business - India is participating
      in CDM
    • Developing Carbon Capture and Storage Technology - India has a
      programme on CO2 Sequestration research.


    05.08.08                 Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                    Coping With Global Warming -
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                                                 The CO2 Stabilization Triangle

                                                 14
    Billion of Tons of Carbon Emitted per Year




                                                                               Stabilization
                                                                                 Triangle
                                                 7                                                     Interim Goal

                                                                                                        450ppm



                                                 1.9

                                                 0

                                                 1954       2004                        2054                          2104

    05.08.08                                             Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                                                Coping With Global Warming -
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                                                        Wedges Analysis
                                                 14                                                    14 GtC/y
    Billion of Tons of Carbon Emitted per Year




                                                                                                   7 “Wedges”


                                                 7                                                     7 GtC/y




                                                 1.9

                                                 0
                                                 1954        2004                       2054                      2104

    05.08.08                                             Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                                                Coping With Global Warming -
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               Relevance of Wedge Analysis

    • Energy Efficiency – Achieving 25-50% reduction of
      energy consumption in commercial and residential
      sectors
    • Decarbonized Fuel – Production of 30 million barrels of
      coal based syn fuel per day
    • Decarbonized Electricity –Nuclear 700 GW, 1 million
      2MW Wind mills (40 times) , 2000GW Solar PV (700
      times) requiring 2 million hectares of land, 250 million
      hectares of high yield crops for biofuels
    • Low Carbon Electricity – 800 GW coal based plants with
      CCS
    • Forests and Soil
    • Methane Management

    05.08.08         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                            Coping With Global Warming -
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                     Gaia Theory
    • The Gaia theory was developed
      in the late 1960’s by Dr. James
      Lovelock about life on Earth
    • The Theory believes that the
      entire Earth, both organic and
      inorganic components form a
      single unified organism
    • Living system has automatically
      controlled global temperature,
      atmospheric content, ocean
      salinity, and other factors as life
      self-regulates itself

    05.08.08        Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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           Plan B – CO2 Reduction 80% by 2020

      MOBILIZATION PLAN
        • Energy Restructuring                                             4430 Mt
               – Replacing with renewable energy
               – Restructuring transport system
               – Energy Efficiency
        • Biological Carbon Sequestration                                  3050 Mt
               – Ending net deforestation
               – Planting trees
               – Managing soil

               Expected CO2 Reduction in 2020                              7480 Mt
               Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2006                            9180 Mt
    05.08.08                 Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                    Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008




           CO2 Emissions from Power Sector




    05.08.08        Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                           Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008

           Perspectives in Coal Use for Sustainable
                        Energy Future

                   Emission
                                                      Low emission
                   abatement




                 Zero Emission                           Ultra low
                                                         emission




    05.08.08           Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                              Coping With Global Warming -
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               Power Plant CO2 Emissions
                  Mitigation strategy
                 • Operational
                 • Generic
                 • Policy




    05.08.08         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                            Coping With Global Warming -
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                       Operational
    • Power Plants are Energy Inefficient
    • More Plants were Built before 1990s
    • Best Practices in Controlling CO2
      Emissions
           – Measuring
           – Monitoring
           – Forecasting


    05.08.08          Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                             Coping With Global Warming -
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       Best Practice - Measurements
               • Weaknesses
                 – High Ash Coal
                 – Use of Standard Emission Factors
                 – Low Uncertainty in flue gas Measurements
               • Directives
                 – Directive for Minimum Standards (SOP)
                 – Heat Integration Efficiency
                 – Walk-in-Audits

                         Increase in Efficiency by 3-5%

    05.08.08             Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                Coping With Global Warming -
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           Best Practice – Monitoring and
                    Forecasting
    • On-line Monitoring add to Cost
    • Measurement of Flue gas alone is not
      Sufficient for Monitoring
    • Accurate Measurement Possible through
      Software Development
    • Benefits
           – Software can help in Forecasting
           – Emission Reduction Projects can Qualify for
             CDM

    05.08.08           Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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                              Generic

    • Basic Needs
           – Technology Investment
           – R&D Investment
           – Tacit Knowledge with the Organization




    05.08.08           Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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     Typical Characteristics of Flue Gas

                 Pollutant          Coal fired %                        Gas %
               CO2                8-14                            4
               Oxygen             0.5                             -
               Nitrogen           81                              81
               SOx                300-3000                        1 (ppm)
               NOx                100-1000                        100-500
               Particulates       1000-10000                      10 (mg/m3)
    05.08.08              Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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        Best Practices - Minimization of CO2
                     Emissions

               Process Improvement
               Heat Recovery
               Co-Generation
               Application of IT
               Technology change


                             Good Payback 2-3 years

    05.08.08           Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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               Policy Governed

    • Restructuring of Economy
    • Long-Term Investment Decisions
    • Technology Leapfrogging




    05.08.08    Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                       Coping With Global Warming -
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           Technology Leapfrogging – R&D Challenges




    05.08.08         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                            Coping With Global Warming -
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               Best Practice- Technology
                     Leapfrogging

           In-situ coal gasification
           Coal Bed Methane
           Coal Mine Methane
           CO2 Capture and Storage


                Further Reduction in CO2 Emissions




    05.08.08            Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                               Coping With Global Warming -
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               Carbon Capture and Storage

           • CO2 Capture from Power Plant Flue
             Gas
           • Absorption and Compression in to
             Liquids
           • Transportation to Appropriate Sites for
             Geological / Terrestrial Permanent
             Fixation

    05.08.08          Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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        CO2 Recovery from the Atmosphere
    •      Extended Use of Clean Coal Technology
           – Pre-combustion
               • Coal Beneficiation
               • IGCC
               • In-Situ Gasification
           – Post Combustion Carbon Capture
               • PF
               • SC
               • USC
           – Oxy fuel Combustion


    05.08.08                 Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                    Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


               CO2 Capture Options




    05.08.08    Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                       Coping With Global Warming -
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               Schematic of IGCC Plant with CO2
                         Separation




                CO + H2OVAP  CO2 + H2 + 41.16 MJ/kmolCO
                Exothermic reaction
                IGCC + CCS: co-production of electricity and H2
    05.08.08                Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                   Coping With Global Warming -
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      Pre-combustion Carbon Capture – IGCC
         (99% reduction, loss in efficiency)


                                                                              Net efficiency penalty
                                                                              7.2 %




                                                                                    R&D Challenges:
                                                                                    ASU
                                                                                    Gasification
                                                                                    Gas clean-up
                                                                                    Hydrogen turbine

             Source: H. Herzog: MIT Laboratory for Energy and The Environment
    05.08.08                          Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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           Post Combustion Carbon Capture
                      Options
    • CO2 Capture from Power Plant Flue Gas using chemical
      and physical methods
           –   Solvent
           –   Cryogenic
           –   Absorption
           –   Adsorption
    • Industrial and Large Scale Processes
           –   Chilled Ammonia
           –   Conversion into Urea
           –   Mineralization (In-situ)
           –   Nanocomposites
           –   Chlatherates (under the Sea)
           –   Regenerative chemical and biological methods

    05.08.08                 Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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      Post Combustion Carbon Capture

                                                                         Super Critical Pulverized Coal
                                 Net efficiency penalty
                               Net Efficiency Penalty                    Efficiency 40.5%
                                 9.3
                               9.3% %
                                                                         Options
                                                                         Net efficiency penalty
                                                                         MEA - 11.6 %
                                                                         Chilled NH3 - 3.5 %


                                                                            R&D Challenges:
                                                                            Steam extraction
                                                                            CO2 compression
                                                                            Costs
                                                                            CO2 Capture Material
                                                                            for supercritical
      Source: H. Herzog: MIT Laboratory for Energy and The Environment
                                                                            boiler
    05.08.08                         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                            Coping With Global Warming -
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                       Oxy fuel Carbon Capture

                                                                              Net efficiency penalty
                                                                              7.9 %




                                                                                    R&D Challenges:
                                                                                    Material for air
                                                                                    separation membrane
                                                                                    Boiler
                                                                                    ASU
                                                                                    CO2 capture process


        Source: H. Herzog: MIT Laboratory for Energy and The Environment


    05.08.08                               Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                                  Coping With Global Warming -
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               Cost Comparisons




    05.08.08     Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                        Coping With Global Warming -
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     Basic Features of Oxyfuel Combustion
               • Coal fired Oxy fuel was first demonstrated in 1982 to
                 generate CO2 for enhanced oil recovery.
               • Can be used in externally-fired power plants without
                 changing the thermodynamic cycle
               • Coal Combustion takes place in presence of 100%
                 Oxygen, high cost of separation
               • Suitable for near Zero emission Technology
               • Low SOx and NOx emission compare to PF.
               • Nitrogen is removed before combustion and not required
                 to be separated from flue gas
               • It allows eliminating the stack, i.e. no emission to the
                 atmosphere
               • Lower Commercial and Less Technical risk for CO2
                 capture as compare to Coal Gasification Technology.
               • Can be applied to existing plants - although it requires
                 significant modifications
               • However, large R&D effort is needed
    05.08.08                 Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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               Oxyfuel Combustion- Drivers

    • Reduced combustion product
      volume/mass
    • Increased condensable vapors
    • Increased radiant heat transfer
    • Multistage for advanced pollution
      control
    • Increased boiler efficiency

    05.08.08         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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               Preliminary Studies At BHEL




    05.08.08         Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                            Coping With Global Warming -
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                    Studies At BHEL

   Effect Of Temperature Zones Along Gas Path
   On Heat Flux Reduction
               S     Observation              % Heat Flux
               No                              Reduction
                                             (240 Minutes)


               01    Burner Zone                  65%



               02      Furnace                    55%
                         Exit


               03    Radiant SH                   20%
                       Zone


               04    Convection                   10%
                       Zone
    05.08.08        Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
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                 Oxy Fuel R&D Needs
    • Numerical studies have shown that re-circulated CO2
      not only reduces temperature but leads to increasing
      CO formation that modifies oxidative roofs.
    • Further Laboratory work and Feasibility studies
      required for understanding design parameters and
      operation issues.
    • Removal of Nitrogen from flue gas or removal of
      Nitrogen from air before combustion
    • Requires oxygen separation plant which is cost
      intensive.
    • Understanding of coal combustion process including
      ignition, burnout and emissions.
    • Assessment of retrofit for electricity cost and cost of
      CO2 capture.
    05.08.08          Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                             Coping With Global Warming -
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               CO2 Storage / Fixation Options
                       and Potential
                      Dispersed CO2            Carbon dioxide uptake by forests, biomass plantations, and degraded
                                               mine lands that are restored


                                                                              Carbon-based products(e.g.
                                                                              fuels, power, wood, plastics)

                                        Capture and
                                        Separation

                                      Soil Amendments




                  Geological
                  Formations




    05.08.08                   Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                      Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008




      Global Industry Towards Zero Gen
    • FutureGen – First 275 MW Zero Emission Coal
      based Power Plant in USA
    • Vattenfall first oxyfuel based zero emission
      Power plant in Germany
    • EU- ZEP Plans 20 demonstration projects by
      2020
    • Australian ZeroGen Mark II – 80 MW demo plant
      by 2012
    • UK new coal project in Kingsworth with CCS
    • China first Post Combustion Capture pilot project
      launched by Huaneng in July 2008

    05.08.08       Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                          Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


    Glimpses of Industrial Research in CO2
              Capture - Global
    • Large Scale Demonstrations
           –   Sleipner
           –   Weyburn
           –   In Salah
           –   CO2CRC
    • Research Projects
           –   DYNAMIS (Norway, EU)
           –   ZECOMIX (Italy)
           –   COHYGEN (Italy)
           –   Many others


    05.08.08              Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                 Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


    Glimpses of Industrial Research in CO2
                Capture - India
    • Participation in FutureGen
    • NTPC Post Combustion CO2 Capture Project
      participated by a number of R&D Laboratories
    • Industrial effluents- Computational fluid dynamics
      studies, CO2 Valorization studies, bioreactor
      development at Universities
    • Modeling & simulation studies, composite and porous
      material development for CO2 capture at R&D Labs.
    • Pilot studies in CO2 mineralization in Basalt formations
      and simulation studies of CO2 Clatherates at NGRI
    • Microalgae reactor coupling with coal fired plants for
      producing biodiesel

    05.08.08          Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                             Coping With Global Warming -
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               Recommendations and Conclusions




    05.08.08        Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                           Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


       How does a Company Respond? - CO2
              Reduction Prospects
    • Global Warming concern is increasing, coal as primary fuel for
      energy security, will continue and emission will rise

    • Technology is developing fast, Technology need to deploy first

    • Integration and Knowledge Sharing, collaboration is an important
      aspect

    • Perspective areas like Carbon Capture and Storage require
      economic feasibility, safety and risk assessment studies to add
      Value

    • Integrated network on CO2 capture, algae culture expertise, algae
      lipid extraction and bio-diesel synthesis expertise would help
                                                               -contd.


    05.08.08             Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


     Center For Excellence on Clean Coal
            Technology Proposed
    • NTPC earmarks 0.5 percent of profit for Green
      Growth, R&D and Sustainable Energy
    • Committed to controlling carbon dioxide
      emissions per unit of power generation with
      portfolio management, adoption of the State of
      the Art technology
    • Need to identify CO2 emission reduction
      Projects
    • Networking of research across the country
    • Building linkages with similar centers like
      CENPEEP

    05.08.08       Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                          Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008




                        Conclusions
    • Plants become more efficient, which makes good
      potential for emission reduction
    • Emission measurement is complex, should adopt best
      practice approach
    • Process Units can reduce energy consumption
      significantly and emissions up to 15-20% with 2-3 years
      payback
    • Additional reductions possible with technology
      leapfrogging and investment on policy decisions
    • R&D Challenges exist at Operational. Generic and
      Economy level
    • In line with the India’s policy that technology should first
      developed and deployed before adoption, Integrated site
      approach required for taking part in CCS research
    05.08.08          Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                             Coping With Global Warming -
@MG/2008


    ‘A handful of pine seeds cover mountains with the green majesty of forests,
      I too will set my face to the wind and through my handful of seeds high’




      Thank you very much for
      Kind Attention

        For further information,
        email: malti_g@yahoo.com


    05.08.08                       Energy Synergy Dialogue - R&D Challenges in
                                          Coping With Global Warming -

								
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