Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Power Electronics, Battery

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					      Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Power Electronics,
     Battery Management, Control, Optimization, and V2G
                            Chris Mi, Ph.D, Senior Member, IEEE
                Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
                        Director, DTE Power Electronics Laboratory
                              University of Michigan – Dearborn
           General Chair, the Fifth IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
                     4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, Michigan, USA
                           Tel: (313)583-6434, Fax: (313)583-6336


Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) involve the use of larger battery packs and larger
electric drivetrain components than regular HEVs. The control and management of the
vehicular power electronics and energy storage systems are therefore more complicated and
more challenging than those in conventional HEVs. This tutorial will explore the different
design and control requirements and challenges of PHEV drivetrain components. The tutorial
will cover topics such as PHEV topology, control, design, performance optimization, battery
management, battery cell balancing, battery life extension, and cold weather performance
enhancement. Vehicle to grid (V2G) concepts will be discussed along with the system
requirements and impact of PHEV on the power grid. Some OEM and aftermarket PHEVs,
such as the Chrysler Aspen PHEV and Prius PHEV will be used as case studies.

Intended Audience: This tutorial is suitable for most conference attendees who would like to
know more about PHEV, including faculty and students from academia, and engineers from
industry and government. An attendee with the basic knowledge of engineering, who is
interested in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, will benefit from this tutorial.
                                         Topic Outline

1.       Introduction (25 minutes)
     •     Architectures of PHEVs: series, parallel, and planetary gear based topologies
     •     Suitability of different architectures for PHEVs
     •     Driving cycle evaluation of PHEV
     •     Application of PHEV
     •     Electric driving range and true MPG of PHEV
     •     Electric-gas equivalence and equivalent electric range calculation
2. Electric drivetrain components of PHEV (30 minutes)
     •     Powertrain rating
     •     Energy and power demand of PHEV
     •     System voltage and power/energy rating selection
     •     Sizing of drivetrain motors
     •     Sizing of power electronics converters
     •     Battery systems, power and energy requirements, pack design
     •     Energy management converters
     •     Design and optimization of PHEV components
3. Energy storage options for PHEV (25 minutes)
     •     Lithium ion batteries
     •     Ultracapacitors’ potential as energy storage component for PHEV
     •     Integrated power pack using lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor
     •     Power and energy control of integrated power pack
4. Battery management systems (BMS) (40 minutes)
     •     The basic requirements of a BMS
     •     The structure of a BMS
     •     Battery cell balancing: charge balance and dynamic discharge balance
     •     Battery life extension and capacity maximization
     •     Voltage, temperature, and health monitoring
     •     Current sensing
     •     SOC calculation and calibration
     •     Temperature compensation of SOC
     •     Management of integrated power pack involving lithium ion batteries and
5. Battery chargers (30 minutes)
   •   Fast charger
   •   Bidirectional charger
   •   Charge-isolation
   •   Row based charger
   •   Charger control and charger interface with the BMS
6. Other topics of PHEV (25 minutes)
   •   Cold start emission reduction in PHEV
   •   Cold weather performance enhancement
   •   Special control issues in PHEV power systems
   •   V2G
   •   Impact of PHEV on the power grid
   •   Safety and reliability of PHEV
7. Current OEM PHEVs: (10 minutes)
   •   Chevy Volt
   •   Saturn Vue PHEV
   •   Ford Escape PHEV
   •   Toyota Prius PHEV
   •   Chrysler Aspen
8. Aftermarket PHEVs (10 minutes)
   •   1Power Solutions
   •   Hybrids-Plus
   •   A123 Hymotion
   •   EnergyCS
9. HEV to PHEV conversion (10 minutes)
10. Closing remarks (5 minutes)
                         Short biography of Dr. Chris Mi

Dr. Chris Mi is Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Director of
DTE Power Electronics Laboratory at the University of Michigan, Dearborn, Michigan, USA.
He is also the Chief Technical Officer of 1Power Solutions, Inc., and the General Chair of the
Fifth IEEE International Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Dearborn, Michigan,
USA, September 7-11, 2009.

Dr. Mi regularly offers a graduate course in electric and hybrid vehicles, and has taught
tutorials and led seminars on the subject of HEV/PHEV for the Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE), the IEEE, NSF, and National Society of Professional Engineers. He
delivered the HEV course to major automotive OEMs and suppliers, including GM, Ford,
Chrysler, and Delphi. He has offered the tutorial in five countries, including the US, China,
Korea, Malaysia, and Mexico. Dr. Mi has conducted extensive research in EV/HEV space and
published more than 100 articles. He has delivered keynote speeches at many international

Dr. Mi is the recipient of the 2007 SAE Environmental Excellence in Transportation (E2T)
Award for “Innovative Education and Training Program in Electric, Hybrid and Fuel Cell
Vehicles.” He is the recipient of the 2005 “Distinguished Teaching Award” of University of
Michigan-Dearborn, the IEEE Region 4 “Outstanding Engineer Award,” the IEEE
Southeastern Michigan Section “Outstanding Professional Award.” “the National Innovation
Award” (国家发明奖二等奖), and the “Government Special Allowance Award” (政府特殊
津). In December 2007, Dr. Mi is became a member of the Eta Kappa Nu, the Electrical and
Computer Engineering Honor Society, for being “a leader in education and an example of
good moral character.”

                                         Dr. Mi holds a BS and an MS degree from
                                         Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an,
                                         China, and a Ph.D degree from the University of
                                         Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Dr. Mi worked with
                                         General Electric Company from 2000 to 2001.

                                         1Power is a startup company engaged in PHEV
                                         battery management systems, PHEV chargers, high
                                         precision battery balancing ICs, and PHEV
                                         conversion. The company has worked with DTE
                                         Energy, GM, and Chrysler on various PHEV
                                         projects, in the area of battery management and
     Dr. Chris Mi, Circa 2007