Breathing Emergencies Three things that can trigger an asthma attack Allergic reactions, cold air, physical activity Most common breathing emergency Respiratory distress Two chronic breathing conditions Asthma emphysema Three causes of airway obstruction(pg92) Swallowing a big piece of food Eating while talking Walking or running with food in mouth When are abdominal thrusts to be used on a victim Partial obstruction or complete airway obstruction When do you give chest thrusts instead of abdominal thrusts to a choking victim Late stages of pregnancy, too big to reach around victim What is respiratory arrest Breathing stops What are the two signals for respiratory arrest Absence of breathing Skin color is ashen or cyanotic When is rescue breathing given to a victim Victims who are not breathing but still have signs of circulation Cardiac Emergencies and Unconscious Choking What is a heart attack Blood flow to some part of the heart muscle is compromised and the heart begins to die What are the steps in the cardiac chain of survival Early recognition and early access Early CPR Early defibrillation Early advanced medical care What are some signs of a heart attack Persistent chest pain or discomfort(5minutes +) Trouble breathing Irregular pulse Skin that is discolored cool or moist Nauseous or vomiting In Adult CPR the chest must compress 1.5-2 inches In infant CPR the chest must compress .5-1 inch What are the cycles for Adult, Children, Infants 15/2, 5/1, 5/1 Bleeding What is a pressure point Spots on the body where you can apply pressure to slow the flow of blood to specific parts of the body What are the three functions of blood Transporting oxygen, nutrients and wastes Protecting against disease by producing antibodies and defending against pathogens Maintaining body temperature by circulating throuthout the body What is internal bleeding The escape of blood from arteries, capillaries, and veins inot spaces in the body Shock Shock is a progressive condition in which the circulatory system fails to circulate oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body What are the signals of shock(pg171) Restlessness or irritability Excessive thirst Rapid breathing Why is important to raise the legs above the heart when shock is suspected Keep the blood circulating to vital organs Soft Tissue Injuries Two types of wounds Closed and open One main type of closed wound Bruise or contusion Four types of open wounds Abrasions, lacerations, avulsions, punctures 1st degree burn involves only the top layer of skin, may involve redness and dry skin, very painful 2nd degree burn involves the epidermis and the dermis, may look red and have blisters, the burned area may look blotchy, and there is often swelling 3rd degree burn destroys all layers of skin along with some or all of the fat, muscle, bone and or nerves. The burns look charred or black with tissue underneath sometimes appearing white. They can be extremely painful or painless if there is complete nerve damage. Often life threatening Musculoskeletal Injuries What is a sprain Stretching or tearing of ligaments What is a strain Stretching or tearing of musclesl and tendons What is a tendon Attaches muscles to bones What is a ligament Attaches bone to bone and creates a joint What is a fracture Break or disruption in bone tissue What is a dislocation The displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint Injuries to the extremities Most commonly injured bone in the shoulder is the clavicle Clavicle-collar bone Scapula-shoulder blade Humerus-upper arm Radius and Ulna-forearm Carpals-wrist Metacarpals-hand Phalanges-fingers Pelvis-hip Femur-thigh bone Patella-kneecap Tibia and Fibula-lower leg Tarsals-ankle Metatarsals-foot Phalanges-toes Types of splints Rigid splints Soft splints Anatomical splints When securing a splint you immobilize the joint above the injury and the joint below the injury Injuries to the Head Neck and Back What is a concussion An injury to the brain caused by a violent blow to the head, followed by a temporary impairment of brain function, usually without permanent damage to the brain What is inline stabilization A technique use to minimize movement of the victim’s head and neck and keep them in line with the body to protect the spine while giving care Vertebrae are the 33 bones in the spine Spinal cord Is the bundle of nerves extending from the base of the skull to the lower back, protected by the spine. Injuries to the chest abdomen and pelvis When a rib fracture occurs what should you use to immobilize the area while transporting to the hospital or waiting for help. Use a pillow or soft blanket under the armpit and secure it with bandage or guaze. Care for a puncture wound Cover with an occlusive dressing(doesn’t let air pass through) Tape it in place leaving one corner to allow air to escape When breathing Care for abdominal and pelvic injuries Do not move unless danger to the area Try to keep the victim lying flat Care for open wound to slow bleeding and cover organs.