Fuel Cells Today and For Tomorrow by oaw14128

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 47

									            Energy and
            Resources
            Group



       Fuel Cells Today and For Tomorrow:
            Stationary and Mobile Applications and Synergies
                                              December 12, 2002

                                 EETD/DER Seminar
                               EO Lawrence Berkeley Lab
                                    Berkeley, CA
                                         Dr. Timothy Lipman
                                                 With:
                                         Ms. Jennifer Edwards
                                         Prof. Daniel Kammen

University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                              Talk Outline

      • Fuel Cell Operating Principle (PEM Example)
      • Status of Fuel Cells for Vehicles
      • Status of Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications
      • Hydrogen Energy Station Analysis (CETEEM)
      • Fuel Cell Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) vs. Stationary
        FC Power (CETEEM)
      • New DER Center on UCB Campus - CIDER


University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                  Fuel Cell Operation (PEM ex.)




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
               Fuel Cell Operating Principle
               In most designs, fuel cell plate and cell assemblies
               are stacked to produce a high voltage system of
               many cells connected in series




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                         Fuel Cell Types




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                             Fuel Cells and Vehicles

                 GHGs for Hydrogen FCVs vs. ICE Vehicles




                 Source: Bevilacqua-Knight, 2001
University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                             Fuel Cells and Vehicles
                                   nu ctur e
                                 Ma fa     r                c       o
                                                    R e e nt P r t oty p e Fuel Clle S ystem         Commer c         ti n
                                                                                                               ializ a o
                                                             Ve hicles                                   Tim efr ame
                                 BMW                                        hL
                                                   H 2 ICE 1 2 - V 7 5 0 PEM APU a n d               l      PU tro
                                                                                                 Fu e cell A i n d ution   c
                                                                           De lphi SOFC            .
                                                                                                 ca 2006
                                                                           APU (CH F
                                                                                  e )
                                                                           p o wre d
                                    ih tsu
                                 Da a              MOV E FC V -    -K II          a ire t-H
                                                                           To y o t D c 2        Unknown
                                                                                   r
                                                                           (h y bid)
                                    iml
                                 D a erC h sry ler NEC A R FC V IV         Ballar dDirect- H2                      tion
                                                                                                 Limit e dintr o d u c in
                                                   NEC A RV FCV            Ballar dM e OH        2004
                                                       tri
                                                   N a um FC V             Ballar dDirect- H2
                                                   Citaro FC B s    u      Ballar dDirect- H2
                                 Fiat                        n
                                                   Seic e to Elettr a H2          e    ct- 2
                                                                           N u vra Dir e H       Unknown
                                                     FC V
                                 Fo r d                      k
                                                   Th ! n Fo c u FCVs      Ballar dDirect- H2                      tion
                                                                                              Limit e dintr o d u c in
                                                   P2 0 0 FCV 0            Ballar dDirect- H2 2004
                                        e
                                 G e nral M o            r
                                             tors H y do G eIn O e l  p    GM Sta c k 2000         a ilit
                                                                                              A v ila b y in 2 0 0 5 ,
                                                           i
                                                     Za fra FCV            GM Sta c k 2000                 p      c
                                                                                              volume r o d ution i n
                                                   Ch  evy S-1 0FC V       CH  F                              g a
                                                                                              2008 -2 0 1 0 ,o l to b efir st
                                                                                                 mp        y
                                                                                              c o a n to sell 1milli on
                                                                                              FC V  s
                                 Honda                 -V
                                                   FC X 3 FCV                                            tion
                                                                           Ballar dDirect- H Intr o d u c in 2 0 0 3
                                                                                            2                           of
                                                                                                       h
                                                                                              less tan a few hund re d
                                                                                              dire c 2 FCV s
                                                                                                    t-H
                                 Hyuni ad             ta
                                                   Sa n Fe F C V                     t-H
                                                                           IFC Dire c 2       Unknown
                                 Maz d a                    FC
                                                   Prem a c y -EV          Ballar dM e OH                 ti in p
                                                                                              Particip a o n r ograms
                                                                                              with Ford Moto rGroup
                                                                                              and hT !nk
                                          i
                                 Mitsubis h                     t
                                                   MFC V Co n c e p        Mitsubis h Me O H W o
                                                                                    i                        w
                                                                                                  rkin g ith Mits u ishi b
                                                        h
                                                    V e i cle                                           y       s
                                                                                              H e a vIn d utri e sto
                                                                                                     e       mm
                                                                                              d e vlop c o ercial FCV
                                                                                              by 2005
                                 Nissa n               ss
                                                   R’n e aSU V             Ballar dM e OH                          tion
                                                                                              Limit e dintr o d u c in
                                                   Xterra S U V            Ballar dM e OH                               w
                                                                                              2003 o r 2 0 0 4 , ing o r k
                                                                                                              u
                                                                                              with Re n alt to d e vlop  e
                                                                                                 mm
                                                                                              c o ercial FC te c h n o     logy
                                                                                              by 2005
                                          t/
                                 Pe u g e o                                                   Wo             w
                                                                                                  rkin g ith R e n a u  lt
                                 Citr o e n
                                 Ren a ltu             ER
                                                   FE V FC V               Dire c 2
                                                                                t-H              Wo          w
                                                                                                     rkin g ith Peu g e to /
                                                                                                          and Niss a n
                                                                                                 Citr o e n            to
                                                                                                        e    mm
                                                                                                 d e vlop c o ercially
                                                                                                      le
                                                                                                 via b FCV by 2010
                                       a
                                 To y o t               -4
                                                   FC H V FCV                     a ire t-H
                                                                           To y o t D c 2                           tion
                                                                                                 Limit e dintr o d u c in
                                                        -5
                                                   FC H V FCV                     a HF
                                                                           To y o t C                        ct
                                                                                                 2003 , e x p efull
                                                        -B S
                                                   FC H V U 1                      r
                                                                           (h y bid)               mm
                                                                                                 c o ercializ a  tion c a .
University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                   Fuel Cell Progress

        • Power density has increased dramatically in the last
          decade, e.g. for PEMFC: Ballard technology (figure
          below) and GM with Stack 2000 (1.75 kW/liter!)




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                Mark 5
                                 1994
                               5 kW
                               0.14 kW/l
                                                                                             85 kW
                                                                                      Mark 9 1.1 kW/l
                                                                                       2002 0.92 kW/Kg
                Mark 513
                 1995
                10 kW
                0.30 kW/l
                                           Evolution of
                                         Ballard Fuel Cell
                                              Stacks
                                                                           Mark 9
                     Mark 7                                                 2000
                      1996                Mark 8
                                           1997
                    25 kW                                                            75 kW
                    0.57 kW/l                                                        1.04 kW/l
                    0.62 kW/Kg                                                       0.89 kW/Kg
                                                                 50 kW
                                                                 0.73 kW/l
University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                           Fuel Cells and Vehicles
              Early 1990s Daimler Prototype FCVs




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
               Fuel Cells and Vehicles

               DaimlerChrysler NECAR IV Prototype




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                        Fuel Cells and Vehicles


                                                                  The gasoline processor and other
                                                                  auxiliary components take up about
                                                                  half of the cargo space in General
                                                                  Motors' new S-10 fuel cell pickup
                                                                  truck, the first vehicle shown publicly
                                                                  with a processor that extracts
                                                                  hydrogen from gasoline. The truck is
                                                                  40% efficient (overall system); more
                                                                  than twice that of an IC vehicle.




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                          Fuel Cells and Vehicles

                                    Toyota RAV-4 FCV Prototype




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                              Fuel Cells and Vehicles

                         Vehicle Lifecycle, Infrastructure, and Emission Costs:
                       Year 2026 - High Prod. Volume Central Case (1997¢/mi)

                         50                                                                  ¢/mi-emissions
                                                                                             ¢/mi-infrastruct.
                                                                                             ¢/mi-vehicle

                         45




                         40




                         35




                         30
                              ICEV - near   ICEV - 2010         BEV        DHFCV        DMFCV
                                 term           LEV
                                                          Vehicle Type




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                             Fuel Cells and Vehicles

             • But Not Just Light-Duty Vehicles
             • Lots of Activity Around Fuel Cell Buses
             • Fuel Cell APUs for Heavy-Duty Trucks
                    – UCD/Ballard/Freightliner Demo
             • Marine Applications




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                             Fuel Cells and Vehicles

      • Key Issues
             – Not just stacks, but systems!
                    • Balance of plant/auxiliary system development and
                      refinement
                    • WTM, optimized air compressors, startup issues, etc
             – Refueling infrastructure for hydrogen
             – Cost, cost, cost (FC system target of $40-50/kW!)
             – Durability, durability, durability (~4,000 hours)



University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                 Stationary Fuel Cells

      • Why Stationary Fuel Cells?
             –   Cleaner and more efficient than most DG options
             –   Quiet operation
             –   Some types offer high-grade waste-heat
             –   Highly reliability/availability(?)
             –   Modularity should lend itself to cost reduction (many
                 repeat components)




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                 Stationary Fuel Cells

      • Key Industry Players
         – PAFC: United Technologies (formerly IFC)
             • ~200 200-kW units sold, mostly in U.S. and many under
               DoD buydown program (~$4K/kW - $1K/kW)
         – PEM: Ballard, United Technologies, Plug Power
             • Intense activity and lots of players, new Ballard/Coleman
               1.2 kW unit (about $6K/kW)
         – SOFC: Siemens - Westinghouse
             • Years of development but still problems with cell to module
               scale-up? (seals and materials)
         – MCFC: Fuel Cell Energy
             • Commercial product, 60 MW in orders for 2003


University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                 Stationary Fuel Cells




      Source: CaSFCC
University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                 Stationary Fuel Cells

             1800                                                                                  4000
             1600                                                                                  3500
             1400
                                                                                                   3000
             1200




                                                                                                           Cost - $/Kw
                                                                                                   2500
             1000
        MW




                                                                                                   2000
              800
                                                                                                   1500
              600
              400                                                                                  1000

              200                                                                                  500

                 0                                                                                 0
                        Jun-02         Jun-03         Jun-04          Jun-05         Jun-06
                                                        Year

      Source: CaSFCC                            MW          Cost ($/kW)
University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                              Stationary Fuel Cells

               Plug Power Residential PEMFC Prototype




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                 Stationary Fuel Cells

      • Key Issues
             – Integration with Utility Grids
             – Reasonable Standby/Exit Fees
             – Durability, durability, durability (~40,000
               hours)
             – Cost, cost, cost (FC system target of ~$700-
               800/kW)


University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
            Energy and
            Resources
            Group


                 Economic Analysis of
           Hydrogen Energy Station Concepts:
                          Are “H2E-Stations” a Key Link to a
                       Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Infrastructure?

                                               October 30, 2002

                                               Prepared for:
                                          BP and DaimlerChrysler



                                        Dr. Timothy E. Lipman
                                       Ms. Jennifer L. Edwards
                                       Prof. Daniel M. Kammen

University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                    H2E-Stations vs. H2 Stations




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                    H2E-Stations vs. H2 Stations




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                       MATLAB/Simulink Model




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                       MATLAB/Simulink Model
                1


               0.9


               0.8


               0.7


               0.6


               0.5
                                                                    High Pressure Neat H2 (Vehicle)
               0.4                                                  Low Pressure Neat H2 (Vehicle)
                                                                    High Pressure Reformate (Vehicle)
               0.3                                                  Low Pressure Reformate (Stationary


               0.2


               0.1


                0
                 0%      10%      20%      30%      40%      50%      60%       70%        80%       90%   100%
                                                    Percent of Peak Powe




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                        Large CA Residential Loads

                  4.0

                  3.5                                                                                       JaWD
                                                                                                            JaPD
                  3.0
                                                                                                            JaWE
                                                                                                            ApWD
                  2.5
                                                                                                            ApPD
                                                                                                            ApWE
                  2.0
                                                                                                            JlWD
                                                                                                            JlPD
                  1.5
                                                                                                            JlWE
                                                                                                            OcWD
                  1.0
                                                                                                            OcPD
                                                                                                            OcWE
                  0.5

                  0.0
                        1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

                                                                Hour



University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                              Medium-Sized CA Office
                                  Building Loads
                   350


                   300                                                                                     JaWD
                                                                                                           JaPD
                   250                                                                                     JaWE
                                                                                                           ApWD
                                                                                                           ApPD
                   200
                                                                                                           ApWE
                                                                                                           JlWD
                   150
                                                                                                           JlPD
                                                                                                           JlWE
                   100                                                                                     OcWD
                                                                                                           OcPD
                    50                                                                                     OcWE


                      0
                          1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

                                                                  Hour



University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                              H2-E Station Analysis




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                                H2-E Station Analysis
                    Costs and Revenues Included in the              Costs and Revenues Not Included in the
                    Analysis                                        Analysis
                     • Fuel cell system capital costs               • Equipment installation costs
                     • Natural gas reformer capital costs           • Safety equipment costs
                     • Capital costs for FCV refueling              • Costs of any required construction
                    equipment, including H2 compressor, H2          permits or regulatory permits
                    storage, and H2 dispensing pump                 • Costs associated with any property that
                     • Natural gas fuel costs for electricity and   is devoted to FCV refueling
                    hydrogen production                             • Utility “standby charges” for providing
                     • Fuel cell system annual maintenance          backup for electricity self-generation
                    and periodic stack refurbishment                • Costs of any labor associated with
                    • Reformer maintenance                          energy station operation or administration
                    • Purchased electricity, including fixed        • Federal, state, and local taxes on
                    monthly charges, energy charges, and            corporate income, including tax credits for
                    demand charges                                  equipment depreciation, etc.
                    • Revenues from hydrogen sales to FCVs          • Revenues from government incentives
                    • Avoided electricity costs due to self-        for fuel cell installation/operation or
                    generation                                      hydrogen dispensing
                    • Avoided natural gas costs due to co-
                    generation of hot water with fuel cell
                    system waste heat


University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                              H2-E Station Analysis

          • Two Settings:
                 •    Service Station w/25kw and 40 kW fuel cells and
                      5-75 vehicles/day
                 •    Office Building w/50-250 kW fuel cells and 10
                      vehicles/day
          • Various economic assumptions, but future FC
            costs (on the order of $500-1,000/kW)




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
            Sample Results: H2-E Service Station
                     w/40 kW fuel cell

                                                  $30,000


                                                  $20,000

                                                                                                        SS MT40_5
                                                  $10,000
                                                                                                        SS MT40_10
              G ro s s Pro fit/(Lo s s ) ($/Yr)




                                                      $-                                                SS MT40_15
                                                                                                        SS FH40_5
                                                  $(10,000)                                             SS FH40_10
                                                                                                        SS FH40_15
                                                  $(20,000)                                             SS FL40_5
                                                                                                        SS FL40_10
                                                  $(30,000)
                                                                                                        SS FL40_15

                                                  $(40,000)


                                                  $(50,000)
                                                              10               15                 20
                                                                   Se lling Price o f H2 ($/GJ)


University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
          Sample Results: H2-E Service Station
         w/40 kW fuel cell and “future high” cost

                                                           $60,000

                                                           $40,000

                                                           $20,000
               G ro s s P ro fit/(Lo s s ) ($ /y e a r)




                                                               $-
                                                                       0   10           20            30         40          50        60   70   80
                                                           $(20,000)

                                                           $(40,000)

                                                           $(60,000)

                                                           $(80,000)       H2 Sold for $10/GJ
                                                                           H2 Sold for $15/GJ
                                                          $(100,000)       H2 Sold for $20/GJ
                                                                           10% ROI Target (approx.)
                                                          $(120,000)

                                                          $(140,000)
                                                                                                 Numbe r of FCVs Fue le d (5-75/day)

University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
            Sample Results: H2-E Service Station
               vs. H2 Service Station Designs

                                                                                                                                  S S MT25_5
                                                      $90,000
                                                                                                                                  S S MT25_10
                                                      $80,000                                                                     S S MT25_15
                                                                                                                                  S S FL25_5
                                                      $70,000
                                                                                                                                  S S FL25_10
             Gro s s Co s t o r S a v ing s ($ /Yr)




                                                      $60,000                                                                     S S FL25_15
                                                                                                                                  S S FH25_5
                                                      $50,000                                                                     S S FH25_10
                                                                                                                                  S S FH25_15
                                                      $40,000
                                                                                                                                  S S MT40_5
                                                      $30,000                                                                     S S MT40_10
                                                                                                                                  S S MT40_15
                                                      $20,000
                                                                                                                                  S S FL40_5
                                                      $10,000                                                                     S S FL40_10
                                                                                                                                  S S FL40_15
                                                           $0                                                                     S S FH40_5
                                                                  Ene rgy S ta tion   H2 S ta tion   S a vings from E-S ta tion
                                                      ($10,000)                                                                   S S FH40_10
                                                                                                                                  S S FH40_15

University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
            Sample Results: H2-E Office Building

                                                      $120,000
                                                      $100,000
                                                       $80,000
                Gro s s Pro fit/(Lo s s ) ($/ye ar)




                                                       $60,000
                                                       $40,000
                                                       $20,000
                                                             $0
                                                       ($20,000) 5                    10                      15                       20             25

                                                       ($40,000)
                                                       ($60,000)
                                                       ($80,000)
                                                      ($100,000)
                                                                                           Pric e o f Hydro g e n S o ld ($10-20/GJ)
                                                                  OBMT50    OBMT100           OBMT150        OBMT200         OBMT250        OBFL50
                                                                  OBFL100   OBFL150           OBFL200        OBFL250         OBFH50         OBFH100
                                                                  OBFH150   OBFH200           OBFH250

University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                         H2E-Station Findings
       • The economics of supporting small numbers of FCVs, on the order
         of 5-15 per day, are difficult and only under the most favorable
         circumstances can fueling stations break even or turn a small profit.
       • However, the losses associated with supporting early FCVs with
         hydrogen fueling can potentially be reduced by employing H2E-
         Station designs.
       • The economics of “office building” H2E-Stations appear favorable
         relative to “service station” H2E-Stations, once fuel cell and H2
         equipment becomes mass produced and less expensive, and where
         the economics of producing electricity and displacing grid
         purchases are favorable.



University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
          H2E-Station Findings (cont’d)

          • In cases where 50 to 75 FCVs per day are supported
            in service station H2E-Station designs with a 40 kW
            fuel cell and “future high” cost estimates, a 10%
            ROI target can be achieved but only with hydrogen
            sold at or near $20 per GJ.

          • With lower natural gas prices than $6/GJ, the
            prospects for economic sales of hydrogen at closer to
            $15/GJ would brighten.




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                       Vehicle-to-Grid Power




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                       Vehicle-to-Grid Power

 • Huge Potential Resource
        – Total shaft power of motor vehicles is ~14 times the electricity
          generating capacity of U.S.
        – Vehicles are only in use for about 1 hour per day on average
        – 13,140 GWh per year (~1.5 GW on average) per 100,000 FCVs,
          assuming 30 kW per vehicle and 50% vehicle availability




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                       Vehicle-to-Grid Power




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                       Vehicle-to-Grid Power

 • Residential Setting
        – Single hybrid or non-hybrid vehicle with small, off-
          board natural gas SMR or ATR unit
        – 6 PM to 8 AM availability, 300 days/year
        – Local load (avg. 1.2 kW) plus net-metering scenarios
        – Natural gas @ $4, $6, and $10 per MBTU
        – Electricity prices of $0.10-0.15/kWh, plus TOU rates




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                       Vehicle-to-Grid Power

    • Commercial Setting -- Office Building
          – Up to 10 FCVs with a larger industrial grade SMR unit
          – 8 AM to 6 PM availability, 250 days per year
          – Building load from ~30 to ~300 kW
          – $7-12/kW demand charge and $0.05-0.08/kWh
            electricity, plus TOU rates
          – Natural gas @ $3, $4, and $6 per MBTU




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                            Vehicle-to-Grid Power
       Office Building Results
                   0.14


                   0.12


                    0.1


                                                                                                            High
                   0.08
           $/kWh




                                                                                                            Medium
                                                                                                            Low
                   0.06


                   0.04


                   0.02


                     0
                          250 kW s ta tiona ry LF   250 kW s ta tiona ry NM   75 kW FCV LF   75 kW FCV NM




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                             Vehicle-to-Grid Power
        Residential Building Results
                 1.2


                  1


                 0.8

                                                                                                                 High
         $/kWh




                 0.6                                                                                             Me dium
                                                                                                                 Low

                 0.4


                 0.2


                  0
                             5 kW                5 kW      75 kW FCV LF   75 kW FCV   20 kW FCV LF   20 kW FCV
                       s ta tiona ry LF   s ta tiona ry NM                    NM                         NM




University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
                        FCV-to-Grid Findings

       • FCVs are Promising as DG Resources, but Several
         Important Issues Must be Resolved
       • Use in Residential Settings Will Benefits From Net
         Metering or Community-Based System
       • Use in Commercial Settings is Attractive Due to Potential
         for Demand Reduction, Use During Period of Grid Peak
         (3-6pm), and Access to Lower Cost Natural Gas
       • Research is Ongoing to Further Understand Key
         Sensitivities and Optimal Settings/Strategies


University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael
        New UCB DER Center: CIDER

          • CIDER Plan:
                 – Initial Launch in November 2002, Full Operations by June 2003
                 – Five main areas:
                    • 1) the economics of DER/CHP technologies
                    • 2) the air pollutant and GHG emissions impacts of
                      DER/CHP technologies
                    • 3) renewable DG systems based on wind turbines, solar
                      photovoltaics (PV), biomass, small hydro, and tidal
                      power (RAEL, http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael);
                    • 4) electricity demand-response technologies/economics
                    • 5) hydrogen as a fuel/energy carrier for DER
                      technologies
                 – Office at 2105 Bancroft Way, Suite 300

University of California, Berkeley • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory • http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael

								
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