Wind Energy Grid Integration by oaw14128

VIEWS: 27 PAGES: 17

									 Wind Energy
Grid Integration

 Compiled and presented by:
           Riaan Smit
Chief Engineer: Network Planning
           2009-03-19
Content
•   Scope
•   Best Practices for Wind Energy
•   Regional Requirements
•   South African Grid Codes
•   International Grid Codes
•   Embedded Generation
•   Safety & standards
•   International Research & Norms
•   Where is this so called “Grid”?
•   Cost of Grid Integration
•   Recommendations & Conclusions
Scope
• The role and impacts of norms, standards and codes of good
  practice in promoting renewable energy in South Africa.
• Focus on Wind Energy Facilities
• And electrical grid infrastructure integration
Best Practices for Wind Energy
• Best practices not available in South Africa, as yet
• Best Practices Guidelines for Wind Energy Development
   – By British Wind Energy Association - Nov 1994
   – Later adopted by European Wind Energy Association
   – Also adopted and enhanced by Australian Wind Energy
     Association – March 2002
       • Best Practices Guidelines for Implementation of Wind Energy
         Projects in Australia
• Recommendation:
   – SAWEA to cooperate with BWEA, EWEA and AusWEA
   – in adopting similar guideline
   – enhance for South African conditions and legal requirements
                                                                   Development Chart for Wind Energy
                                                           TECHNICAL &
                                     PHASES                                                ENVIRONMENTAL                        DIALOGUE /
                                                          COMMERCIAL
                                                                                           CONSIDERATIONS                      CONSULTATION
                                                         CONSIDERATIONS
                                                                                       Initial enviromental analysis
                                      1             Desk based studies covering:
                                                      wind resource, electrical
                                                        connection, access
                                                                                      covering: planning framework,
                                                                                         landscape classification,
                                                                                                                         Preliminary consultation: local
                                                                                                                          planning authority and major      Technical &
European Best Practice Guidelines
                                     SITE                                                 visual effects, ecology,
                                                     requirements, site capacity                                                  consultees
                                     SELECTION
                                                        and site ownership.
                                                                                      archaeology, recreational and
                                                                                               restricted areas                                             Commercial
  for Wind Energy Development

                                                    On-site surveys covering: wind
                                                                                                                                                            considerations
                                      2              resource, existing land uses,
                                                                                      Agreement with local planning
                                                                                        authority the scope of the
                                                                                                                           Start of public consultation:
                                                                                                                         introduction of project to local
                                                          site access, ground
                                     PROJECT                                          environmental assessmentto            communities and interest
                                                         conditions, electrical
                                                                                        be conducted in Phase 3                       groups
                                     FEASIBILITY     connection and draft design
                                                                                                                                                            Environmental
                                                                                                                                                            Considerations
                                      3               Continuing assessments
                                                      covering: wind resource
                                                                                         Preparation of statutory
                                                                                       environmental assessment (if
                                                                                                                         Continuing consultation: local
                                                                                                                          planning authority, statutory
                                                      monitoring and economic           required by local planning       consultees, local communities
                                     ASSESSMENT
                                                              viability                         authority)                 and other interest groups
                                                                                                                                                            Dialogue /
                                                                                                                                                            Consultation
                                      4                               Submission of planning application and Environmental Statement
                                     PLANNING                                    (if required by Local Planning Authority)
                                     APPLICATION

                                                               IF APPROVED
                                                                                                                                                            And YES
                                      5                                                   Adoption of Environment
                                                                                                                             Continuing information
                                                                                                                             provision by developer.
                                                                                                                                                            It is happening w.r.t.
                                                                                            Management Plan.

                                    CONSTRUCTION
                                                       Site management policy
                                                                                        Implementation of planning
                                                                                         conditions and agreement.
                                                                                                                             Consideration given to
                                                                                                                            formation of Community
                                                                                                                                 Liaison Group.
                                                                                                                                                            electrical
                                                                                                                                                            infrastructure
                                      6                                                  Continuing environmental
                                                                                         monitoring of wind energy
                                                                                                                         Implementation of programme
                                                                                                                                                            already in South
                                                                                                                          for responding to inquiries to
                                     OPERATION                                         project which should provide
                                                                                      information for further projects
                                                                                                                               operation of project         Africa

                                      7
                                                                     Removal of Turbines and associated equipment, Land reinstatement
                                    DECOMMISSION-
                                     ING AND LAND
                                    REINSTATEMENT

                                                    by European Wind Energy Association
Regional requirements
• Environmental Considerations covered by:
• Strategic Initiative to Introduce Commercial Land
  Based Wind Energy Development to the Western
  Cape
   – Towards a Regional Methodology for Wind
      Energy Site Selection
   – Report 5: Proposed Regional Methodology
• Excellent & detailed Methodology
• “7.2.2 The issue of cumulative impact is
  imperative to address and forms an important
  part of the proposed regional method. Minimum
  distances between large windfarms are
  recommended at 30km, with preference being
  greater than 50km”
• Minimising cost, sharing & optimisation of grid
  infrastructure may require negotiations.
South African Grid Codes
• The South African Grid Code: The Network Code
   – Focused on large scale generation
   – No specific conditions for renewable energy
• Distribution Network Code, September 2007
   – 8.1 Responsibilities of Embedded Generators to Distributors
   – 8.2 Responsibilities of Distributors to the Embedded Generators
   – Also to be used by Renewable Energy Facilities
• Specify operating requirements
   – Voltage, frequency, protection, earthing, ……
• Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) capability
   – To be considered for larger Wind Energy Facilities
   – Unlikely for units connected to Medium Voltage networks alone
International Grid Codes
• Ireland
    – Island network size of Eskom Western Region
    – Distribution Code by ESB Networks, CER approved. October
      2007
       •   A1. Generating Plant >10MW and subject to central dispatch.
       •   A2. Generating Plant >2MW and not subject to central dispatch.
       •   A3. Generators <2MW.
       •   A4. Customers with CHP or Customers with Auto-production.
       •   A5. Customers with stand-by generators.
   – Caters for various types and classes of generators
• Germany
   – Grid Code High and Extra High Voltage. E.ON Netz GmbH,
     Germany. April 2006
   – Well referenced Grid Code by various countries
   – Set good examples for voltage and frequency criteria
Embedded Generation
• To fulfil Eskom Distribution’s obligation under Section 8.2 (4) of the
  South African Distribution Code: Network Code:
   – “The Distributor shall develop the protection requirement guide
     for connecting Embedded Generators to the Distribution System
     to ensure safe and reliable operation of the Distribution
     System”.
• DST 34-1765: Distribution Standard for the interconnection of
  Embedded Generation
• Applicable to renewable energy facilities
• Acknowledge further development of standard to cater for:
   – e.g. Wind Energy Facilities
   – Low voltage ride through capability
   – Frequency operating range
Safety & Standards
• OHSAct - various safety requirements
   – Already covers electrical infrastructure
• International standard IEC 61400 series for Wind Turbines, e.g.:
   – IEC 61400-1 Design requirements
   – IEC 61400-2 Design requirements for small wind turbines
   – IEC 61400-12-1 Power performance measurements
   – IEC 61400-21 Measurement and assessment of power quality
   – IEC 61400-24 Lightning protection
• Eskom standards for Transmission & Distribution systems
• Various NRS standards, e.g.:
   – NRS048 for Quality of Supply of electrical supplies
   – NRS076 for earthing requirements
International Research & Norms
• A vast amount of info on internet
• Consider up to date Magazines, e.g.
   – Renewable Energy World,
   – Wind Directions from EWEA, etc.
• Natural Resources Canada
  www.retscreen.net
   – for various renewable energy software
   – training material
   – case studies
• EWEA & AWEA websites & Conferences
• CIGRE Renewable Energy WG
• South African case studies to be developed
  and published – increase participation
• Develop SA requirements for e.g. much
  warmer climate
  Where is this so called “Grid”?



                    Northern Cape
Assumptions:
•Main substation
grid areas
•Develop closer
to main lines?
•66kV – 132kV
•Weaker inland
networks
•Coastal winds?
•Less wind                          Forest
                                             Eastern Cape
resource inland?                    Areas
•How much?         Western Cape
Cost of Grid Integration
• The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of
  Transmission Planning Studies (February 2009):
   – USA review of a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that
     have included wind power 2001 – 2008
      • total transmission cost / total amount of incremental
         generation capacity (wind and non-wind)
   – Majority of studies unit cost of transmission <$500/kW
   – or roughly 25% of the current $2,000/kW cost of building a wind
     project
   – The median cost of transmission from all scenarios in sample is
     $300/kW, roughly 15% of wind project cost
   – Aggregate range of transmission costs is from $0-79/MWh with
     a median of $15/MWh and most studies falling below $25/MWh.
• WTG ave roughly R20 mill/MW ~ Grid ave R3-5 mill/MW
Any actions?
•   While awaiting REFIT (thanks for breather space)
•   Discussions with various developers
•   Eskom MTPPP request for generation
•   DME initiative for Renewable Energy
•   Germany GTZ agreement with Western Cape Province D:EADP
    – Eskom participant in agreement
    – “Grid Integration of Wind Energy” seminar 24-25 March 2009, sponsored
      by GTZ & Western Cape Province D:EADP
    – Invite to Developers, consultants, Research/Academics, City of Cape
      Town, Eskom and other role players, e.g. DME & NERSA
    – Eskom workshop to create wind energy scenarios from 50 – 500 – 5000
      MW, also invited researchers and consultant.
    – Public participation session May 2009
    – Complete grid scenarios and various technical studies July 2009, in
      cooperation with DigSilent (sponsored by GTZ)
Recommendations
• Expect major role from SAWEA for guidelines and influence
   –   Developers
   –   Consultants
   –   Industry (OEM Manufacturers, suppliers, etc.)
   –   Environmental
   –   Utilities (Eskom, Municipalities)
• Grid Integration studies to be completed
• Cooperation between developers to minimise grid infrastructure
   – e.g. Share EIA and cost for line routes
• SA Grid codes to be revised to accommodate wind turbine
  technologies
• Focus on knowledge and skills transfer & Human Capacity
Conclusion
• There are certainly best
  practices, various
  guidelines, standards and
  international cooperation
• Ready to support
  renewable energy

• The sun sets in the west,
• but wind energy dawns
  in Western Cape
References
•   Renewable Energy Policy of South Africa. 2004-09-06. http://www.info.gov.za/whitepaper/.
•   Best Practices Guidelines for Wind Energy Development. British Wind Energy Association. Nov
    1994. www.bwea.com
•   Best Practices Guidelines for Wind Energy Development. European Wind Energy Association
•   Best Practices Guidelines for Implementation of Wind Energy Projects in Australia. Australian
    Wind Energy Association. March 2002. www.auswea.com.au
•   Strategic Initiative to Introduce Commercial Land Based Wind Energy Development to the
    Western Cape. Report 5: Proposed Regional Methodology: Towards a Regional Methodology for
    Wind Energy Site Selection. Provincial Government of the Western Cape. May 2006
•   The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies. Andrew
    Mills, Ryan Wiser, and Kevin Porter. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    February 2009. Download from http://eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP
•   Call for an expression of interest from entities willing to generate electricity from renewable
    energy sources. DME. 2008
•   South African Grid Code (all parts). NERSA. August 2005.
•   South African Distribution Code (all parts). NERSA. October 2007.
•   Grid Code High and Extra High Voltage. E.ON Netz GmbH, Germany. April 2006
•   Distribution Code by ESB Networks, CER approved. October 2007
•   NRS 048 Electricity Supply – Quality of Supply
•   IEC 61400 series standards for wind turbine systems

								
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